AIDS and Ebola - Where Did They Really Come From?
by Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz


About the author: Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.RH. is a Harvard graduate and internationally known public health education authority. One of healthcare's most captivating motivational speakers, Dr. Horowitz is a prolific author with ten books and more than eighty published articles to his credit.


This article is based on Dr. Horowitz's new and most controversial book Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola—Nature, Accident or Genocide?

During the 1960s and early 1970s the World Health Organization (WHO) functioned as the omnipotent supplier and standardizing authority of the world's experimental pharmaceuticals. In the field of virology, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) directed the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to become, along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the WHO's chief distributor of viruses and antiviral vaccines.


The WHO Chronicle noted by 1968—ten years into the WHO's viral research program—"WHO virus reference centers" had served as authorized technical advisors and suppliers of "prototype virus strains, diagnostic and reference reagents (e.g., antibodies), antigens, and cell cultures" for more than "120 laboratories in 35 different countries." Within a year of this announcement, this number increased to "592 virus laboratories.. [and] only 137 were outside Europe and North America."


Over these 12 months, the NCI and CDC helped the WHO distribute 2,514 strains of viruses, 1,888 ampoules of antisera mainly for reference purposes, 1,274 ampoules of antigens, and about 100 samples of cell cultures. More than 70,000 individual reports of virus isolations or related serological tests had been transmitted through the WHO-NCI network.12

At the NCI in Bethesda, Maryland, from the late 1960s to the present, the chief retrovirus research laboratory was associated with the Department of Cell Tumor Biology, and chaired by Dr. Robert Gallo—an esteemed member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) who was hailed by the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Margaret Heckler in 1984 as the discoverer of the AIDS virus, HTLV-III.


LAV, identical to HTLV-III had been isolated by Montagnier's French team and allegedly forwarded to Gallo in 1983.3


As early as 1970, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) appropriated at least $10 million to "initiate an adequate program through the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC)" to make a new infective microorganism which could differ in certain important aspects from any known disease-causing organisms.


Most important of these [aspects] is that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease. Members of the NAS-NRC had instructed scientific leaders in the DOD this work might be accomplished "within 5 years."4 This research was then carried out by American defense contractors despite the authorization and signing of the Geneva accord by Dr. Henry Kissinger and President Nixon outlawing the production and testing of such biological weapons.5

Also in 1970 Gallo and his co-workers presented research describing the experimental entry of bacterial ribonucleic acid (RNA) into human white blood cells (WBCs) before a special symposium sponsored by NATO.6 The paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences discussed several possible mechanisms prompting the "entry of foreign nucleic acids" into lymphocytes—the cells principally attacked by HIV.


Prior to this, Gallo et al. had published studies identifying:

  • mechanisms responsible for reduced amino acid and protein synthesis by T-lymphocytes required for immunosuppression;7

  • specific enzymes required to produce such effects along with a "base pair switch mutation" in the genes of WBCs to create immune system dysfunction;8

  • methods by which WBC "DNA degradation" and immune system decay may be prompted by the "pooling" of purine bases and/or the addition of specific reagents.9

Subsequent studies published in 1970 by Gallo and co-workers identified "RNA dependent DNA polymerase" (i.e., the unique AIDS-linked enzyme, reverse transcriptase) responsible for "gene amplification... biochemical cyto-differentiation," (i.e., the development of unique WBC characteristics including cancer cell production) and "leukaemogenesis";10 and identified L-Asparaginase synthetase—a key enzyme that, if repressed, will induce treatment resistant leukemias and other cancers.11

The year following the $10 million appropriation by the DOD for AIDS-like biological weapons research, the NCI acquired the lion's share of the facilities at America's premier biological weapons testing center, Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland.12


Perhaps not coincidentally, the Cell Tumor Biology Laboratory's output increased in 1971 as measured by the publication of eight scientific articles by Gallo and co-workers compared to at most four in previous years.


These reports included Gallo's discovery that by adding a synthetic RNA and feline (i.e., cat) leukemia virus (FELV) "template" to "human type C" viruses (associated with cancers of the lymph nodes), the rate of DNA production (and subsequent provirus synthesis) increased as much as thirty times. The NCI researchers reported that such a virus may cause many cancers besides leukemias and lymphomas including sarcomas.13

In this 1971 report Gallo et al. also reported modifying simian (i.e., monkey) viruses by infusing them with cat leukemia RNA to make them cause cancers as seen in AIDS patients.13

Furthermore, Fujioka and Gallo concluded from studies conducted in late 1969 or early 1970 that they would need to further "evaluate the functional significance of tRNA changes in tumor cells," by designing an experiment in which "specific tumor cell tRNAs" would be "added directly to normal cells." They explained that one way of doing this was to use viruses to deliver the foreign cancer producing tRNA to normal cells. The viruses which were then employed to do this, the researchers noted, were the simian virus (SV40) and the mouse parotid tumor (polyoma) virus.14

Such experiments clearly advanced immunodeficiency virus technology and even provided a model for the development of HIV, the AIDS virus—allegedly of simian virus descent—which similarly delivered unique enzymes and a foreign RNA to normal cells necessary to cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in animals and humans.


In 1972, Gallo, his superiors and inferiors studied portions of simian viruses to determine differences in RNA activity between infected versus uninfected cancer cells, and whether the differences could be ascribed to the infection and related DNA alterations.15


They stated that "by studying viral or cellular mutants or cell segregants... which have conditional variations in virus-specific cellular alterations, it should be possible to more precisely determine the biological significance of the RNA variation reported here." Clearly, the group was working to determine the relevance of various viral genes on the development of human cancers and immune system collapse. They reported their desire to use this information to find a cure for cancer, but at this time their activity was more focused on creating various cancers as well as new carcinogenic viruses which could infect humans.

For example, Smith and Gallo published another National Academy of Sciences paper examining DNA polymerase (i.e., reverse transcriptase) activity in immature normal versus acute leukemic lymph cells. To do so, they evaluated the single stranded 70S RNA retrovirus found in chickens which causes prominent features of AIDS including WBC dysfunction, sarcomas, progressive wasting and death.16


Borrow, Smith and Gallo injected this chicken virus RNA into human WBCs to determine if the cells were prompted to produce proteins (including new viruses) encoded by the viral RNA.17 Robert, Smith and Gallo also evaluated the neoplastic effects of single stranded 70S RNA reverse transcriptase delivered by the cat leukemia virus (FELV) and the mason-Pfizer monkey virus on nor-mal human lymphocytes (NHL).18

This work foreshadowed the observation made ten years later by the CDC's chief AIDS researcher, Dr. Donald Francis who noted the "laundry list" of feline leukemia-like diseases associated with AIDS.3

Other examples are detailed by Gallo and co-workers while discussing their adapting monkey, rat, and bird leukemia and tumor viruses for experimental use in a human (NC-37) cell line.19 Wu, Ting and Gallo20 discussed the synthesis of new RNA tumor viruses "induced by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, IdU (a constituent of RNA) in rodent cell cultures, and noted that chemotherapy might be used to halt the reverse transcriptase-linked viral reproduction.

However, had HIV been synthesized for military purposes from various species components, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to prove. As Gillespie, Gillespie and Gallo et al. noted in 1973 concerning the origin of the RD114—another cat/human bioengineered virus—"it can always be argued that" a virus which naturally jumped species (as HIV is alleged to have done from the monkey) would be expected to have antigens that differ "from the antigen found on the viruses of known" origin.21


Four years later, during a U.S. Senate investigation of illegal "biological testing involving human subjects by the Department of Defense," Senators learned that Bionetics, Bionetics Research Laboratories, and Litton Bionetics—an organization which, along with the NCI, administered and provided Dr. Gallo's research funding10,13,15,17-19,22,26 were not only acknowledged DOD biological weapons contractors, but their affiliated Litton Systems, Inc., was among the most frequently contracted institutions involved in biological weapons research and development between 1960 and 1970 (the end of the reported period).23


Additional bio-logical weapons contractors with whom Dr. Gallo and/or his co-workers associated during the late 1960s and early 1970s included the University of Chicago,24 Texas,13 Virginia,25 and Yale,17 Merck and Co. Inc.,20 and Hazelton Laboratory, site of the famous 1989 Marburg-Ebola-like (Reston) virus outbreak.22

NCI staff reports revealed that Litton Bionetics had been granted the service contract to supply all NCI researchers, worldwide, with virtually every primate cancer research material requested, including seed viruses, viral hybrids, cell lines, experimental reagents, and African colony born monkeys including M. mulatta and C. aethiops which were associated with the major monkey AIDS virus outbreaks in California's Davis Lab, and the 1967 Marburg virus outbreaks in three European vaccine production facilities.15-17

Litton Bionetics chief John Landon reported an experiment begun in 1965 when he inoculated 18 monkeys with rhaabdovirus simian—a rabies virus known to cause Ebola-like hemorrhagic fever in monkeys. "Nine [monkeys] died or were transferred," to allied laboratories or vaccine production facilities. This shipment was likely to have started the first hemorrhagic fever "Marburg virus" outbreak among European vaccine laboratory workers in 1967. As noted by the world's leading simian virus expert at the time, Dr. Seymour Kalter, the Marburg virus was apparently manmade.23-25

In fact, Litton Bionetics, the chief military and industrial supplier of primates for cancer virus experimentation during the 1960s and early 1970s, also maintained the colony of the specific genus of monkeys associated with all of the major monkey AIDS virus outbreaks in the United States.23

Through telephone interviews with Litton Bionetics and MedPath administrators, I learned that Bionetics Research Laboratories had been sold to MedPath Corporation—one of America's largest medical and blood testing laboratories—a division of Dow Corning. Dow Coming's parent, Dow Chemical Company, was also listed among the Army's chief biological weapons contractors during the 1960s and early 1970s.26,27


Litton Bionetics, a subsidiary of Litton Industries, Inc. remains in business as a proprietor of the Frederick Cancer Research Center, a "privately owned, government contracted" facility. Bionetics, it was noted, currently acts as an agency under,

"contract to manage and operate the Frederick (Md.) [Fort Detrick affiliated] Cancer Research Center for the National Cancer Institute."27

Besides administering research grants and government funds earmarked for the NCI, Litton Bionetics also developed a division which produced and marketed test kits for blood-borne, infectious diseases including mononucleosis, hepatitis B, and AIDS.28 This division was sold to Organon Teknica in 1985.26

Apparently, the military-medical-industrial complex was well aware of Litton Industries' service as a DOD and NATO contractor. In 1978, the company was indicted for filing false claims for $37 million in cost-over-runs during the building of three nuclear submarines under one of several multi-billion dollar defense contracts.29'34


Between 1970 and 1975, the period the NAS-NCR scientific advisors informed DOD decision-makers that AIDS-like viruses could be readied,4 American cold war efforts focused on Zaire and Angola.33-35 Following the withdrawal of American forces in Vietnam, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger ordered the CIA to begin a major covert military operation against MPLA (communist bloc backed) "rebels" in Angola.36-37


Zaire, indebted by over $4.5 billion to the International Monetary Fund, and headed by President Mobutu—paradoxically regarded as one of the world's wealthiest men with "a personal fortune put at $2,939,200,000 [1984 estimate] banked in Switzerland—was wooed by NATO allies during the 1970s (principally the U.S.) to be a staging area for CIA backed, Portuguese, French, and mainly South African mercenaries.38,39

"American corporate investment, notably in copper and aluminum, doubled to about $50 million following a 1970 visit by Mobutu to the United States. Major investors included Chase-Manhattan, Ford, General Motors, Gulf, Shell, Union Carbide, and several other large concerns."43

However, in 1975 Mobutu apparently turned against NATO allies and increased negotiations with China and Russia40-41 He proclaimed his intention to nationalize foreign owned enterprises.4243 In June 1975, following the CIA's thwarted efforts to convince the U.S. Congress to appropriate more funds for Mobutu and the Angola program (A total of $31.7 million had already been "drawn from the CIA's FY 75 contingency fund" which was "exhausted on 27 November 1975").39 Mobutu expelled the American ambassador and arrested many of the CIA's Zairian agents, placing some under death sentences.40,41

The following year, in October 1976, the "Ebola Zaire virus" broke-out in "fifty five villages surrounding the [Yambuku] hospital" first killing "people who had received injections." Mobutu then ordered his army to "seal off the Bumba zone with roadblocks" and "shoot anyone trying to come out" so "no one knew what was happening, who was dying, [or] what the virus was doing."44

Shortly thereafter, Ebola victim specimens were sent to the CDC, Special (meaning "secret" within the American intelligence community) Pathogens Branch; to Porton, England's controversial chemical and bio-logical weapons (CBW) laboratories;45 and teams of WHO and CDC researchers were dispatched to the Ebola region in Mobutu's private, American supplied C-130 Buffalo troop transport plant.44

By the end of 1976, the Zairian leader had reconciled his differences with the American intelligence and corporate communities believing that Zaire would continue to reap his non-communist allies' social and economic aid. On April 4, 1977, Mobutu suspended diplomatic relations with Cuba; on April 21, reduced ties with the Soviet Union; and on May 2, he cut ties with East Germany.46


Meanwhile, according to John Stockwell, Former Chief of the CIA's Angola Task Force, "the United States was exposed, dishonored and discredited in the eyes of the world," as "15,000 Cubans were installed in Angola"40 despite the CIA's best efforts and a continuing policy of lying "to State Department officials, Congressmen, American press, and world public opinion in varying degrees, depending on the need" about the CIA's covert military campaign in Angola and Zaire.39

Throughout 1976 and 1977, Mobutu, NATO, and the CIA, constrained by the Tunney, Cranston and Clark amendment which prevented the expenditure of American funds in Zaire/Angola, except to gather intelli-gence,39 remained embroiled in the "Shaba rebellion" against allegedly Russian-backed "Katangan rebels."46

At the same time, perhaps not coincidentally, NATO ally West Germany was pouring financial aid into Zaire and white ruled South Africa.47-49 The Northeast region of Zaire, believed to be the epicenter of the AIDS epidemic, was specifically targeted for West German economic aid and industrialization.50

The "long tradition of friendship between Germans and South Africans" London's African Development noted, "dates back from the first waves of white immigrants to South Africa and the feeling of solidarity between Germans and Afrikaners during the Boer War, continuing throughout the First World War and then the Second World War.


Many of today's Nationalist leaders in Pretoria," the paper reported, "were Nazi sympathizers: many ex-Nazis settled in South Africa after 1945 . . ."48


Not surprising then, on March 26, 1976 Mobutu signed what the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) reported was a "secret agreement" with the West German company OTRAG (Orbital Transport-und Raketen-Aktiengesellschaft) to lease 260,000 square kilometers—essentially the complete Kivu province—for military/industrial purposes for the sum of DM 800,000,000 (approximately $250 million at that time).51-54


The contract "made OTRAG sovereign over territories once inhabited by 760,000 people"54 in the Eastern and South-central portion of Zaire. The leased property positioned North of the Shaba militarized region, expanded Southeast along the Congo River—the countries main waterway, and south of the Kinshasa highway—better known as the "AIDS Highway" which runs through Zaire's Northeast corridor and across central Africa bypassing the "Isle of Plaques," Mount Elgon and Kitum Cave allegedly by the author of The Hot Zone to be the breeding ground for the Ebola, Marburg, and AIDS viruses.44

OTRAG was apparently authorized to conduct any "excavation and construction; including air fields, energy plants, communication systems, and manufacturing plants. All movement of people into and within the OTRAG territory was only with permission of OTRAG, [which was] absolved from any responsibility for damage caused by construction. Its people enjoy complete immunity from the laws of Zaire in the granted territory, until the year 2000."56

Believed to be of military intelligence gathering significance to NATO46-48,55,56


OTRAG and its principals were traced back to the West German government and,

"to those Nazi scientists who worked on VI and V2 rockets during World War II. For example, Dr. Kurt H. Debus, Chairman of the Board of OTRAG, once worked at the Peenemude V2 program and later, until 1975, worked as director of the Cape Canaveral (now Cape Kennedy) space program.


Richard Gompertz, OTRAG's technical director and a U.S. citizen, once was a specialist on V2 engines and later presided over NASA's Chrysler space division. Lutz Thilo Kayer, OTRAG's founder and manager, when young was quite close to the Nazi rocket industry, often called 'Dadieu's young man,' a reference to Armin Dadieu, his mentor, who served as prominent SS officer and as Gorling's special representative for a research program on storing uranium.


While working for OTRAG Kayser also acted as a contact for the West German government, a special advisor to the Minister of Research and Technology on matters concerning OTRAG. He was also on the ad hoc committee on... [America's] Apollo program."56

In 1979, under pressure from the Soviet Union and Zaire's neighboring countries, Mobutu announced OTRAG would "halt its rocket testing" program. It was clear, however, strong diplomatic, military, and economic ties between West Germany, the U.S. and Zaire continued.49-57


According to the latest United States Army (USA) report, the "outlandish claim" that the AIDS virus was developed as a biological weapon for the Pentagon was communist propaganda

"disavowed in 1987 by then Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, who apologized to President Ronald Reagan for the accusation."58

However, more recently, the high ranking Soviet press official Boris Belitskiy, offered an alternative account regarding the origin of such "propaganda".59

"Several U.S. Administration officials such as USIA [CIA] Director Charles Wick, have accused the Soviet Union of having invented this theory for propaganda purposes. But actually it is not Soviet scientists at all who first came up with this theory," Belitskiy reported.


"It was first reported in Western journals by Western scientists, such as Dr. John Seale, a specialist on venereal diseases at two big London hospitals.

"Just recently a Soviet journalist in Algeria, Aleksandr Zhukov, man-aged to interview a European physician at the Moustapha Hospital there, who made some relevant disclosures on the subject. In the early seventies, this physician, an immunologist, was working for the West German OTRAG Corporation in Zaire. His laboratory had been given the assignment to cultivate viruses ordinarily affecting animals but constituting a potential danger to man.


They were particularly interested in certain un-known viruses isolated from the African green monkey, and capable of such rapid replication that they could completely destabilize the immune system. These viruses, however, were quite harmless for human beings and the lab's assignment was to develop a mutant virus that would be a human killer."7-11,13-22

"Did they succeed?" the announcer asked.


"To a large extent, yes," Belitskiy replied. "The lab was ordered to wind up the project and turn the results over to certain U.S. researchers, who had been following this work with keen interest, to such an extent that some of the researchers believed they were in reality working not for the West German OTRAG Corp-oration but for the Pentagon."59

Two years after Belitskiy's announcement, in 1991, Dr. Jacobo Segal, professor emeritus of Berlin's Humboldt University told the international press that the Pentagon theory of AIDS made sense. He alleged the virus was likely developed "through gene technology" as a result of Pentagon sponsored animal research, "to permit the attack on human immune cells." Furthermore, he reported this theory is "supported by many European scientists and has not been refuted."60

In 1977, at the height of OTRAG's Zairian missile testing phase, Litton Industries units received contracts worth: $5 million for medical electron-ic equipment from its Hellige division, in Freiburg, West Germany;61 $19.8 million worth of missile fire-control equipment from the Army;62 $32.9 million for electronic reconnaissance sensor equipment from the Air Force;63 and in 1978 $11.3 million worth of computerized communications systems for NATO.64 Some of these military supplies may have been earmarked for OTRAG.65

Moreover, given the "cooperation between NATO and the World Health Organization with regard to the control and regulation of the international exchange of pharmaceutical products, [and] the possible necessity of facing the dangers created by the use of chemical or bacteriological weapons"66 it appears noteworthy that the outbreaks of the world's most feared and deadly viruses Marburg, Ebola, Reston, and AIDS—share the dubious distinction of breaking out in or around zones of U.S. and West German, NATO-allied, military experimentation at the height of the cold war.


Increased political/military interest in Central Africa, and a burgeoning of WHO and NCI contracts for the supply of simians for "defensive" research.44


It is also noteworthy that in 1975, five years following the signing of the Geneva accord by Nixon, congressional records revealed that the USPHS through the Special (i.e., covert) Operations Division of the Army continued to supply biological weapons including deadly neurotoxins and viruses to the CIA which illegally stored them in their Fort Detrick facility for future unsanctioned uses.67


Though records of who initiated and directed this covert activity were destroyed by the CIA, along with the famous Watergate tapes,68 Mr. Nathan Gordon, Former Chief of the CIA's Chemistry Branch, Technical Services Division confessed knowledge that some of the stored substances were to be used to,

"study immunization methods for diseases vis-a-vis—who knows, cancer."69

Furthermore, following Nixon's resignation, President Ford and Henry Kissinger were made aware that the CIA maintained a residual supply of biological weapons, but neither ordered their destruction according to testimony pro-vided by Former CIA Director Richard Helms.70

In subsequent congressional hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research, it was revealed that George W Merck, "of the prominent Merck pharmaceutical firm," directed America's bio-logical weapons manufacturing industry for decades following World War II.71 Merck & Company, Inc. was also listed among the DOD biological weapons contractors.72 Merck, Sharp and Dohme provided major financial support for the earliest hepatitis B vaccination studies conducted simultaneously in Central Africa and New York City during the early 1970s.


Several authorities have argued these vaccine trials might best explain the unique and varying epidemiological patterns of HIV/AIDS transmission between the U.S. and Africa.

"The vaccine was prepared in the laboratories of the Department of Virus and Cell Biology Research, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, Pennsylvania. The placebo, [was] also prepared in the Merck Laboratories."72

During the holocaust, Nazi scientists assayed non-Arian blood to deter-mine race specific disease susceptibilities. Blacks and homosexuals, along with Jews, were persecuted by the Nazis. Over 10,000 gay men were murdered.3

Similarly, U.S. intelligence agencies have been targeting blacks and gays for assassinations, harassment, illegal wire taps, and counterintelligence campaigns from the McCarthy era in the 1950s through the Reagan era in the 1980s. American black and gay civil rights groups and their leaders were considered communist threats during the cold war years— particularly during the late 1960s and early 1970s when Nixon, Kissinger, and Hoover supported COINTELPRO funding for covert FBI and CIA activities aimed at neutralizing all such domestic and foreign black and homosexual threats.74-78

The use of Third World people and American blacks and prisoners for unconscionable pharmaceutical experimentation and covert economic, social, and environmental exploitation by the U.S. and other western countries has been repeatedly alleged by reputable sources.79


  1. World Health Organization Report. Five years of research on virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;12:564-572; Communicable diseases in 1970: Some aspects of the WHO program. WHO Chronicle 1971;25;6:249-255; see also: Mathews AG. Who's influence on the control of biologicals. WHO Chronicle 1968;23;1:3-15.

  2. World Health Organization Report. Recent work on virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1974 28:410-413.

  3. Shilts R. And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin Books, 1987, pp. 450-453.

  4. Department of Defense Appropriations for 1970. Hearings Before a Subcommittee on the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-First Congress, Part 5 Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. Tuesday, July 1, 1969, p. 79. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969, p. 79 of the public record and page 129 of the classified supplemental record obtained through the Freedom of Information Act.

  5. Washington Correspondent. Gas and germ warfare renounced but lingers on. Nature 1970; 228;273:707-8.

  6. Herrera F, Adamson RH and Gallo RC. Uptake of transfer ribonucleic acid by normal and leukemic cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1970;67;4:1943-1950.

  7. Gallo RC, Perry S and Breitman RT The enzymatic mechanisms for deoxythymidine synthesis in human leukocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1967;242;21:5059-5068.

  8. Gallo RC and Perry S. Enzymatic abnormality in human leukemia. Nature 1968;218:465-466.

  9. Gallo RC and Breitman TR. The enzymatic mechanisms for deoxythymidine synthesis in human leukocytes: Inhibition of deoxy-thymidine phosphorylase by purines. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1968;243;19:4943-4951.

  10. Gallo RC, Yang SS and Ting RC. RNA dependent DNA Polymerase of human acute leukaemic cells. Nature 1970;227:1134-1136.

  11. Gallo RC and Longmore JL. Asparaginyl-tRNA and resistance of murine leukaemias to L-asparaginase. Nature 1970;227:1134-1136.

  12. Washington Correspondent. Biological warfare: Relief of Fort Detrick. Nature Nov. 28, 1970;228:803.

  13. Gallo RC, Sarin PS, Allen PT, Newton WA, Priori ES, Bowen JM and Dmochoowski L. Reverse transcriptase in type C virus particles of human origin. Nature New Biology 1971;232:140-142.

  14. Fujioka S and Gallo RC. Aminoacyl transfer RNA profiles in human myeloma cells. Blood 1971;38;2:246-252.

  15. Gallaher RE, Ting RC and Gallo RC. A common change aspartyl-tRNA in polyoma and SV transformed cells. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1972;272:568-582.

  16. Smith RG and Gallo RC. DNA dependent DNA polymerases I and II from normal human-blood lymphocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1972;69; 10:2879-2884.

  17. Bobrow SN, Smith RG, Reitz MS and Gallo RC. Stimulated normal human lymphocytes contain a ribonuclease-sensitive DNA polymerase distinct from viral RNA directed DNA polymerase. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 1972;69; 11:3228-3232.

  18. Robert MS, Smith RG, Gallo RC, Sarin PS and Abrell JW. Viral and cellular DNA polymerase: Comparison of activities with synthetic and natural RNA templates. Science 1972;69; 12:3820-3824.

  19. Gallo RC, Abrell JW, Robert MS, Yang SS and Smith RG. Reverse transcriptase from Mason-Pfizer monkey tumor virus, avian myeloblastosis virus, and Rauscher leukemia virus and its response to rifamycin derivatives. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1972;48;4:1185-1189.

  20. Wu AM, Ting RC, Paran M and Gallo RC. Cordycepin inhibits induction of murine leukovirus production by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1972;69;12: 3820-3824.

  21. Gillespie D, Gillespie S, Gallo RC, East J and Dmochowski L. Genetic origin of RD114 and other RNA tumor viruses assayed by molecular hybridization. Nature New Biology 1973;224:52-54.

  22. Wu AM, Ting RC, and Gallo RC. RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase and virus-induced leukemia in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1973 ;70;5:1298-1302.

  23. NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8 [and #9]. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J.B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971 [and 1972]. (The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Government Documents Department Depository, Reference # HE20.3152: v81.) pp. 15-19,20-26,187-188; 273-289; [and in 1972 Progress Report #9, pp. 195-196, 326].

  24. Fine DL and Arthur LO. Prevalence of natural immunity to Type-D and Type-C Retroviruses in primates. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book B. Myron Essex, George Todaro and Harold zun Hausen, eds., Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, Vol. 7, pp. 793-813; see also Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F, Marhkam PD, Ruscetti R, Kalyanamaraman VS, Ceccherini-Nelli L, Favera RD, Josephs S, Miller NR and Reitz, Jr. MS. Recent studies with infectious primate retroviruses: Hybridization to primate DNA and some biological effects on fresh human blood leukocytes by simian sarcoma virus and Gibbon ape leukemia virus. Ibid., 793-813.

  25. Simmons ML. Biohazards and Zoonotic Problems of Primate Procurement, Quarantine and Research: Proceedings of a Cancer Research Safety Symposium. March 19, 1975, Conducted at the Frederick Cancer Research Center, Frederick, Maryland. DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 76-890, pp. 27;50-52.

  26. Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research, Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977: Examination of Serious Deficiencies in the Defense Departments Effort to Protect the Human Subjects of Drug Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 8 and May 23, 1977, pp. 80-100; for the Army's list of biological weapons con-tractors for 1959, see: Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation of Biological Weapons, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969, p. 689.

  27. Personal conversation with administrator at Frederick Cancer Research Center/NCI who wished to remain anonymous. 301-846-1000.

  28. Litton Industries, Inc., 360 North Crescent Drive, Beverly Hills, CA. 90210, 25th Annual Report Fiscal 1978. pg. 2; see also: Staff reporter. Litton, Saudis Agree on a system valued above $1.5 billion. Wall Street Journal, Monday Oct. 9, 1978, p. 16.

  29. Staff reporter. Litton and Navy Settle dispute. Wall Street Journal, Wednesday, June 21, 1978, p. 4.

  30. Staff reporter. Suit against Litton Industries involving Navy job dismissed. Wall Street Journal, Thursday, May 26, 1977, p. 15.

  31. Staff reporter. Suit against Litton may be renewed says U.S. appeals court. Wall Street Journal, April 7, 1978, p. 12.

  32. Staff reporter. Court lets stand an indictment of Litton unit Wall Street Journal, Tuesday, Oct. 3, 1978, p. 4.

  33. Agee P and Wolf L. Dirty Work: The CIA in Western Europe. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart, Inc. 1977.

  34. Kumar S. CIA and the Third World: A Study in Crypto-Diplomacy. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House PVT LTD., 1981.

  35. Agee P. Dirty Work-2: The CIA in Africa. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stewart, Inc., 1979.

  36. Molteno R. Hidden sources of subversion. In: Dirty Work-2: The CIA in Africa. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stewart, Inc., 1979. pp. 100-101.

  37. Woodward, B. VEIL: The Secret Wars of the CIA 1981-1987. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987, pg. 268. According to Woodward, "CIA ties with [Zaire's president] Mobutu dated back to 1960, the year the CIA had planned the assassination of the Congolese nationalist leader Patrice Lumumba."

  38. Freemantle B. CIA. Briarcliff Manor, NY: Scarborough House/Stein and Day Publishers. 1983, pp. 184-185.

  39. Kumar S. Op cit., p. 72;74-76;91-92.

  40. Stockwell J. In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1978, pp. 43-44;248.

  41. Colby W. Honorable Men: My Life in the CIA. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978, pp. 439-40.

  42. Daily News, Dar es Salaam. Zaire: Mobutu assails government functionaries. In: Africa Diary, January 22-28, 1975, pg. 7287.

  43. West Africa, London. Zaire: Mobutu and the Americans. In: Africa Diary, February 19-25, 1975, pg. 7322.

  44. Preston R. The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story. New York: Random House, 1994, pp. 10;25-26;71;78;79;84.

  45. Staff writer. Porton opened to the public. Nature 1968;220:426.

  46. Times, London; West Africa, London; Le Monde, Paris; New York Times; Daily News, Dar es Salaam, Times of India, New Delhi. Zaire: Shaba rebellion Virtually Crushed. In: Africa Diary, June 18-24, 1977, pp. 8536-8538.

  47. South African Digest, Pretoria. South Africa: Documents on NATO, S. African Co-operation. In: Africa Diary, June 25-July 1, 1975, pp. 7488-7489.

  48. African Development, London. South Africa: W. Germany may become number one trading partner. In: Africa Diary, April 30-May 6, 1975, pp. 7418-7419.

  49. Zaire Radio. Zaire: W. German financial aid. In: Africa Diary, July 23-29, 1978, pp. 9103-7419.

  50. West Africa, London. Zaire: Accord on Bonn Aid. In: Africa Diary, July 9-15, 1974, pp. 7033-7034.

  51. British Broadcasting Company, London. Zaire: Secret agreement with German rocket firm. In: Africa Diary, October 8-10, 1977, p. 8700.

  52. West Africa, London. Zaire: New light on missile testing report. In: Africa Diary, June 4-10, 1978, p. 9033.

  53. West Africa, London. Zaire: W. German rocket project to be halted. In: Africa Diary, July 9-15, 1979, p. 9592.

  54. Staff writer. Germans go rocketing on the cheap. New Scientist 1977; 74:535.

  55. Hussain F. Volksraketen for the Third World. New Scientist 1978; 77:802-803.

  56. Informationsdienst Sudliches Africa. OTRAG: Missiles against liberation in Africa. In: Dirty Work-2: The CIA in Africa. Ray E, Schaap W, Van Meter K and Wolf L, eds. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stewart, Inc., 1979, pp. 215-219; Additional references cited: Gesellschaft fur Unternehmendberatung, Hamburg, 1976, Diagnosebericht OTRAG, p. 12; Der Speigel, August 4, 1978; The Evening Standard, February 13, 1978; Deutcher Bundestag, 8th Session, 98th Sitting, June 15, 19778; Aviation Week and Space Technology, September 12, 1975.

  57. African Development, London. Africa General: U.S. sends more intelligence personnel to Africa. In: Africa Diary, February 5-11, 1977, p. 8335. Reference notes Mr. William H. Crosson, chief of two branches of counter-intelligence in Vietnam according to the Pentagon was appointed in 1977 to be the Director of US Peace Corps activity in Zaire.

  58. Covert NM. Cutting Edge: A history of Fort Detrick, Maryland, 1943-1993. Fort Detrick, MD: Headquarters, U.S. Army Garrison, 1993, p. 54.

  59. Moscow World Service in English. Belitskiy on How, Where AIDS Virus Originated. March 11, 1988. Published in International Affairs. Soviet FBIS-SOV-88-049, March 14, 1988, p. 24.

  60. Havana International Service in Spanish. German claims AIDS virus created by Pentagon. January 25, 1991. Published in International Affairs: Caribbean FBIS-LAT-91-017, March 14, 1988.

  61. Staff reporter. Litton Industries Unit Gets Job. Wall Street Journal. September 15, 1977, p. 4, Column 1.

  62. Staff reporter. Litton Systems Inc. awarded $19.8 million Army con-tract for missile fire-control equipment. Wall Street Journal, Decem-ber 19, 1977, p. 21, Column 1.

  63. Staff reporter. Litton Systems Inc. was given a $32.9 million Air Force contract for electronic reconnaissance sensor equipment. Wall Street Journal, Friday, December 30, 1977, p. 6, Column 1.

  64. Staff reporter. Litton Industries Gets Order. Wall Street Journal, Tuesday, February 14, 1978, p. 33, Column 2.

  65. Brumter C. The North Atlantic Assembly. Cordrecht/Boston/ Lancaster: Marinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986, p. 183.

  66. Ibid., p. 139-140;195.

  67. United States Senate. Intelligence Activities, Senate Resolution 21: Hearings before the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities of the U.S. Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session. Volume 1, Unauthorized Storage of Toxic gents, September 16, 17, and 18,1975. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975, pp. 2;5;6;20;35;40-41; 7_;81;119-120;254-255 (inventory list).

  68. Ibid., pp. 22-23.

  69. Ibid., p. 61

  70. Ibid., p. 82;98.

  71. Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ob. cit., pp. 5;91.

  72. Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA, 01eszk__ WR, William DC, Sadovsky R, Morrison JM and Kellnes___ . Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a Suppressed Inventions and Other Discoveries high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303;15:833-841.

  73. Figure on display at The U.S. Holocaust Museum, Washington, D.C.

  74. Powers RG. Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. New York: The Free Press, 1987.

  75. Goldstein RJ. Political Repression in Modern America. Cambridge, MA: Schenckmann/Two Continents, 1978.

  76. Von Hoffman N. Citizen Cohn: The Life and Times of _____ Cohn. New York: Doubleday, 1988.

  77. D'Emilio J. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940-1970. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1983.

  78. West African Pilot, Lagos and West Africa, London. U.S. leader's death abruptly ends African-American relations meeting. In Africa Diary, April 16-22, 1971, pp. 5428-5429.

  79. Falk R, Kim SS and Mendlovitz SH. The perversion of science and technology: An Indictment. In: Studies on a Just World Order, Volume 1, Toward a just world order. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 359-363.

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