1. The cell is
like a human body and it functions without DNA
The cell is like a human body.
It is capable of
respiration, digestion, reproduction, and other life
The nucleus, which
contains the genes, has traditionally been viewed as the
control center - the brain of the cell.
Yet, when the nucleus is removed, the cell continues with its
life functions for a month or more and it can still recognize
toxins and nutrients.
It appears the
nucleus - and the DNA it contains - does not control the cell.
some 50 years ago that genes control biology.
"It just seemed
so correct, we bought the story," Lipton said.
"We don't have
the right assumptions."
2. DNA is
controlled by the environment
Proteins carry out the functions in cells and they are building
blocks of life.
It has long been
DNA controls or determines the actions of proteins.
Lipton proposes a different model.
Environmental stimuli that
come into contact with the cell membrane are perceived by
receptor proteins in the membrane.
This sets off a chain
reaction of proteins passing on what could be described as
messages to other proteins, motivating action in the cell.
DNA is coated in a protective sleeve of protein.
signals act on that protein, causing it to open up and to select
certain genes for use - genes specifically needed to react to
the current environment.
Basically, DNA is not the beginning of the chain reaction.
Instead, the cell membrane's perception of the environment is
the first step.
If there are no perceptions, the DNA is inactive.
"Genes can't turn
themselves on or off... they can't control themselves,"
If a cell is cut off from any environmental
stimuli, it doesn't do anything.
"Life is due to
how the cell responds to the environment."
Perception of the environment is not necessarily the reality of
Lipton cited a 1988 study by John Cairns published in the
journal Nature titled "The
Origin of Mutants."
Cairns showed that
mutations in DNA were not random, but happened in a
predetermined way in response to environmental stresses.
"In every one of
your cells, you have genes whose function it is to rewrite
and adapt genes as necessary," Lipton explained.
In a chart
findings in the journal, environmental
signals were shown to be separate from the organism's perception
of environmental signals.
A being's perception of the environment acts as a filter between
the reality of the environment and the biological reaction to
rewrites genes," Lipton said.
beliefs, choosing to perceive a positive or negative environment
Just as a cell has receptor proteins to perceive the environment
outside the cell membrane, humans have the five senses.
These are what help a person determine which genes need to be
activated for a given situation.
The genes are like programs on a computer disk, Lipton said.
These programs can be
divided into two classes:
When a cell
encounters nutrients, the growth genes are activated and
When a cell
encounters toxins, the protection genes are activated and
When a human being encounters love, the growth genes are
When a human
being encounters fear, the protection genes are activated.
A person may perceive
a negative environment where there is actually a supportive or
When this negative
perception activates the protection genes, the body's response
is to go into fight-or-flight mode.
5. Fight or
Blood flow is directed away from the vital organs to the limbs,
which are used for fighting and running.
The immune system
becomes of lesser importance.
If you picture the
responses we once needed for running from a lion, for example,
the legs would have been infinitely more important in that
immediate situation than the immune system.
Thus, the body favors
the legs and neglects the immune system.
So, when a person perceives a negative environment, the body
tends to neglect the immune system and vital organs.
Stress also makes us
less intelligent, less clear-minded.
The part of the brain
related to reflexes is given more prominence in fight-or-flight
mode than the part related to memory and other mental functions.
When a person perceives a loving environment, the body activates
growth genes and nurtures the body.
Lipton gave the example of Eastern European orphanages, where
children are given lots of nutrients, but little love. Children
in such institutions have been found to have stunted development
in terms of height, learning, and other areas.
There is also a high
incidence of autism.
Lipton said autism in
this case is a symptom of protection genes being activated, like
walls being put up.
"Beliefs act as a
filter between the real environment and your biology," he said.