from NewDawnMagazine Website
Atlantis... Everyone knows the name and almost everyone knows that the name refers to a mythical, sunken island continent in the Atlantic Ocean, according to a story told by the Greek philosopher Plato sometime during the 4th century BCE.
Whether or not Atlantis existed has been a matter of conjecture for nearly four hundred years, ever since Francis Bacon published his novel The New Atlantis in 1626.
Atlantis is a controversy
that continues to this day.
But for the skeptic, a
prehistoric civilization with technical sophistication is pure
fiction. Unfortunately, for those who believe there is no proof,
Atlantis has been 'discovered' by researchers in almost every part
of the world, from South America to the Eastern Mediterranean to the
Discovering evidence - even the smallest artifact - that the lost continent of Atlantis really existed would be the greatest find in the annals of all historical disciplines. History would not only be made, but have to be rewritten.
However, until that
evidence is discovered and confirmed, the controversy will rage on
between believers and skeptics, with the skeptics having a distinct
advantage. It's all about evidence.
This being the case, why
do some people insist that the story of Atlantis is fact?
It's obvious that the
builders of ancient Egypt's temples and pyramids used granite, as
well as limestone and basalt, as primary materials in their
architectural designs. The importance of this fact cannot be
Today, such large and numerous projects on a big scale require specialized tools and equipment.
Case in point:
The traditional explanation is that they did it with copper chisels, stone hammers, dolerite pounding rocks, and brute strength...
However, for me, since no culture or civilization was able to duplicate in complexity, scale, and quantity, the Old Kingdom construction efforts during the next 4,000 years, then the traditional understanding must be an incorrect interpretation of the evidence - the most erroneous being the Great Pyramid.
Skepticism is a two-way
At a cost of thirty-five billion in adjusted (US) dollars, according to engineer Markus Schulte, there had to be a very good reason to build the Great Pyramid; a reason or a cause that united a nation in mind and in spirit.
To be sure, the currently accepted idea that the Great Pyramid's construction was a national project is an accurate interpretation of what likely happened. However, any large scale operation that consumes billions of dollars in resources must return some type of social benefit.
In the case of the Great Pyramid, the benefit somehow involved water.
to the valley below at Abu Sir.
Image courtesy of the author.
(1 mile north of Abu Sir).
On the Giza Plateau just south of the middle pyramid, a granite trough emerges from the sand (see illustration).
At Abu Sir, south of Sakkara, a limestone trough runs the course of the hill on which a pyramid was built, and at both Abu Sir and its neighbor pyramid, Abu Gorab, there are numerous stone basins.
Although denied by most Egyptologists, there is also evidence that a system of tunnels exists under the Giza Plateau.
The so-called 'Tomb of Osiris' runs deep into the ground as does 'the pit' in the Great Pyramid's subterranean chamber. Near the granite trough there is also two square tunnels drilled into the bedrock, although now filled with sand.
Furthermore, the Great Pyramid's original design included a perimeter wall, which might have functioned as a retaining wall for a reservoir for fresh water that flowed through a canal from the ancient Lake Moeris.
According to Kunkel, the Great Pyramid served as a 'ram' style water pump in order to facilitate moving large quantities of stone. Through a series of locks, stone blocks arriving from Upper Egypt were moved onto the Giza Plateau by barge, through a system of canals that linked the Nile River to the Great Pyramid.
In Kunkel's theory, the Great Pyramid housed two pumps. One was built underground and a second pump was built above ground.
The underground pump
consisted of the subterranean chamber and its associated
passageways, and the above ground pump, the middle and upper
The odd niche in the
middle chamber, according to Kunkel, was a safety value, and the
upper (King's) chamber, a secondary compression chamber.
For the upper pump to
function, water would have to enter the Grand Gallery from the lower
pump and then flow into the middle and upper chambers. Once in the
upper chamber, the continuous flow of water from below would create
two streams exiting the pyramid through the shafts built into the
north and south sides.
Cadman realized that only
the subterranean chamber and associated passageways would have
functioned as a pump. So, Cadman set out to solve it the engineering
This one worked the first
time. He then built two more models, one which was made with a glass
top and ink injectors in order to study the flow of the water inside
the chamber. After studying this model he concluded that the chamber
was designed to efficiently circulate and move water through the
output and waste line.
Inside the compression chamber an opened valve allows water to flow out until the velocity forces the valve shut; when the valve closes high pressure forces water past the check valve and through the output line. When the valve reopens, water once again flows down the input pipe into the compression chamber.
A vertical pipe connected to the input line facilitates the pressure wave exiting the system and thereby allows greater cycling, i.e. water is moved through the pump at a faster rate.
He also discovered that
the stand pipe increases the intensity of the compression wave
inside the chamber.
This leads to another question:
Although the answer to that question still lies in the future, the significance of Cadman's modeling of the Great Pyramid's subterranean area is obvious.
The builders of the Great
Pyramid understood engineering physics, at least in the area of
hydraulics which requires scientific inquiry and the application of
science; in other words, technology.
Exposed to weathering, only rock can withstand the corrosiveness of the environment for extremely long periods of time, although the possibility exists that beneath the Saharan sands lies the machining treasure of Civilization X.
Even so, there is another
way to demonstrate that powered machines were used in the process of
building the Old Kingdom's magnificent structures.
Although difficult to see, close up the marks from the blade are visible and make a regular pattern across the surface of the cut material. These marks are called 'feed lines' and are left by the machine as the operator feeds the material into the cutting blade.
Finding evidence of feed
marks on stone at one of Egypt's ancient sites would be the
equivalent of finding the machine that made those marks.
THE STONE AT ABU
Without question there is
no other place with such magnificence. However, there's little-known
ancient ruins five miles to the north, just off the road to
Abu Rawash. It's not on the tourist
map, but is as spectacular as Giza, although in a very different
What's fascinating about this pyramid is that it was never finished. Only fifteen or so courses of the pyramid were laid and the descending passage is exposed to the sky.
It's a fantastic site to
visit and provides insight into pyramid construction and design.
Machined granite slab at
There is a pink granite slab approximately four feet in length, three feet wide, and a foot in thickness. It's propped up on a dozen or so stones the size of a softball. The granite stone is pristine, as if it was hidden away for thousands of years and only recently uncovered.
The surface of the stone is smooth to the touch and at its top is an arc, precise in its edge, which separates the stone's smooth surface from its rough.
On the smooth surface
there are two slice marks, one near the top and another toward the
bottom. And as you look close at the stone's surface, minute
horizontal striations are clearly visible in the same pattern of the
Abu Rawash isn't the only
But sometime over the course of the last four thousand years or more scavengers removed a number of blocks from the patio's periphery, particularly the north end, exposing what the pyramid builders did not want anyone to see. Mistakes made by the men who operated the saws.
At Giza, the evidence is just as compelling as what exists as Abu Rawash.
The evidence speaks for itself.
Although everyone knows that the story of Atlantis is attributed to the Greek philosopher Plato, most people don't realize the story of Atlantis is Egyptian in origin.
According to Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, he heard the story second hand from his uncle Solon who originally heard it from the temple priests at Sais where the Atlantis tale was said to be inscribed upon the temple's pillars.
Unfortunately, such an
inscription has never been found. So no one knows whether or not
Plato's story of Atlantis is fact or fiction.
There are a number of ancient cataclysm myths such as,
...just to name a few.
There are also two tales of catastrophe in the biblical Genesis,
In modern times these ancient stories of death and destruction have been attributed to fantasy or a way of explaining life's mysteries.
I think such an
interpretation is not only superficial but an insult to our
ancestors. Who are we to say they were primitive and
ignorant in their understanding of the world around them?
With that in mind, a fresh look at the biblical Tower of Babel story allows unique insight into our remote past.
On its surface, the Tower of Babel story is just another fable where God's wrath befalls an unsuspecting world:
Taken literally the story makes little sense.
However, as metaphor the imagery is easy to understand. First, the word Babel in Hebrew sounds like the Hebrew word for confused. In my opinion what they were building was not a literal tower. In fact, the tower they were building was not a tower at all.
The tower represents the technical state humanity had achieved at that time and that they were building a great civilization.
The text is clear on this point:
It's ludicrous to think
that some magic event occurred that picked people up and
moved them across the world while at the same time mysteriously
altering their language. This, too, is metaphor.
Today, although we know
that the disaster is a result of nature, we still perceive these
events as acts of God. And a number of people, particularly those
who hold spiritual views, assign their responsibility to God.
Why would it be any different five thousand years ago?
Over many generations, isolated pockets of survivors struggled back onto the road of civilization, and because of their isolation unique languages developed in diverse regions.
Scholars interpret the sudden rise in societal organization as an evolutionary phenomenon, a natural progression of humankind.
But how do we know that
as a fact?
Thus, according to the
ancient Egyptians their civilization's history dates back 36,000
We know for a fact that during that time many large mammalian species became extinct.
If civilization existed at that time, and the evidence is convincing that it did, the women and men living at that time would also have suffered the consequences of global calamity.
For the survivors it
would have been a long and difficult journey on the road to