Electric Sunspots

Feb 22, 2007

from Thuntherbolts Website


Credit: Mandatory credit: Friedrich Woeger, KIS, and Chris Berst and Mark Komsa, NSO/AURA/NSF



Conventional theorists look to magnetism to solve the problem of solar energy distribution. If they were to open their eyes to the electrical cause of magnetism, the solution would suddenly become visible.

This recent image of a sunspot utilized an advance in adaptive optics that enables ground-based telescopes to detect fine details that previously only space telescopes could detect.


The announcement of this technical feat included this conventional theoretical interpretation:

“The dark cores of penumbral fibrils and bright penumbral grains are seen as well in the sunspot penumbra (the fluted structures radiating outward from the spot). These features hold the key to understanding the magnetic structure of sunspots and can only be seen in ultra high-resolution images such as this one. Magnetism in solar activity is the ‘dark energy problem’ being tackled in solar physics today.”

The problem is dark to conventional solar physicists because they shut their eyes to the fundamental law that magnetism is the result of electric currents. Seeing the difference between gas (which does not contain free charged particles and is electrically inactive) and plasma (which does contain free charged particles and can be electrically very active) admits the first glimmer of illumination on the problem: Sunspots are not the result of convection of gas modified by magnetism. Sunspots are electrical structures.

To understand why penumbral “fibrils” have dark cores, one must see that they also have a twisted structure that maintains a fairly constant diameter over great distances. They resemble glowing tornadoes. This is the structure of a “charge sheath vortex”: Rapidly rotating charged particles generate strong electric and magnetic fields. The charged particles are concentrated in a thin skin, or “double layer”, at the periphery and their motion is stretched out into a spiral. If the vortex has enough energy to glow, as it does on the Sun, the edges will appear brighter.

Of course, a sunspot is only a tiny part of the much larger phenomenon of the Sun. If the spot is electrical, so must be the entire Sun. Hence to see electricity in any part of the cosmos is to see that all current astrophysical theories are “in the dark”. The technical proficiency of space programs and new instruments is discovering a flood of surprising data about the effects of plasma in space.


But progress in understanding this data is vitiated by a theoretical parasitism of obsolete ideas.

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Sunspot Penumbra Shock Astrophysicists

Apr 18, 2006

from Thuntherbolts Website

Textbook theory of sunspot activity faces new difficulties posed by the magnetically confined structures of the penumbra. The old idea that the penumbra filaments are “convection currents” must now give way to new evidence that electric currents dominate these solar structures.

We can thank the “Astronomy Picture of the Day” folks for the two images above. They are from a brief sequence that can be viewed as a movie by clicking here. The movie shows the sunspot in false-color images from different heights above the surface or photosphere.


The first image (upper image in the picture below) shows the Sun's photosphere as it normally appears, covered with granules.





The large dark sunspot sports a clear dark umbra in the center through which we can peer into the cooler region beneath the surface. Surrounding the sunspot is the lighter penumbra, composed of rope-vortices rising explosively from beneath the surface. In the linked movie, the images appearing toward the middle of the sequence show what is occurring a few hundred kilometers above the photosphere, as the twisted filaments of the penumbra begin to spread out horizontally.

The last image of the sequence (lower image above) shows the Sun at a few thousand kilometers into the chromosphere, the layer of the Sun’s atmosphere just above the photosphere. Here we see the “ropes” of the sunspot penumbra extending outward into a surrounding maze of filaments, all constrained by the complex magnetic fields that have so amazed and enchanted solar physicists in recent years.

For decades, the standard model of the Sun treated the penumbra filaments as “convection cells”, columns of hot gases transporting heat from the interior to the surface. Astrophysicists formulated such concepts while under the spell of gravity and familiar gas laws. Seeing the Sun as an isolated island in space, they had no other tools to work with.

But proponents of the Electric Universe assert that there are no isolated islands in the universe. They contend that concepts of simple heat transport are alien to the plasma discharge behavior evident in sunspot activity. As Wallace Thornhill observed, the penumbra filaments “bear no resemblance to any known form of convection in a hot gas, magnetic fields or no”.

So we pose the question: what is controlling the behavior of the penumbra in these pictures—magnetic fields or gas laws? The new profile of the solar atmosphere has left the astrophysicists in a state of ambivalence. The APOD folks do not describe the network of interacting filaments as “convection cells”.


They say simply,

“Here magnetic field lines can be clearly followed outward from the sunspot to distant regions”.

That is not the behavior of convection cells!

The problem is that now the solar physicists appear to have fallen under the spell of another popular fiction—that science can appropriately discuss magnetic fields without concerning itself with the cause. Now the refrain is,

“Just look at all those twisted magnetic fields!”

The solar “experts” have forgotten first principles: only electric currents produce magnetic fields. Yes, the complex magnetic fields are there, and they are the predictable effect of “anode tufting” or secondary discharging above the positively charged sphere in a glow discharge.

While the electric model of the Sun remains to be elaborated in important details, sunspot activity is eminently suited as a critical test. Where should one look for evidence of electron currents flowing into the Sun?


If, as Thornhill claims, the sunspot is the opening through which discharge currents pass from the more negatively charged torus around the Sun, then sunspot activity should be investigated systematically with an entirely new vantage point in mind.

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Sunspots Still Surprise Investigators
Apr 14, 2006

from Thuntherbolts Website

Anomalous sunspot behavior continues to baffle solar physicists. Even the cause of sunspots remains elusive, and the more detailed pictures only seem to push the answers farther down the path.



“Exactly what happens and why these kind of structures are formed, we don't know “
Dan Kiselman, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.


In the extreme close-up photograph of a sunspot above, we see the rope-like filaments of the penumbra, or margins of the sunspot.


For many years solar physicists have claimed that these filaments were convection cells, typical of heated gases. But the higher-resolution details shown here, including the twin bridges across the sunspot, do not support traditional theory. All of the structure shown is consistent with the principle of anode tufting, a plasma discharge effect expected of a positively charged electric Sun.

High-resolution images of the penumbra filaments have revealed the distinctive characteristics of tornado-like charge vortices. By giving us a peek beneath the tops of the rotating discharge columns, sunspots enable us to view directly the columns’ explosive rise from below, as they heat and project plasma upward into the bright photospheric granules.


For conventional theory, sunspot penumbrae remain a mystery: the standard solar model neither requires nor predicts such phenomena. In the electric model they are predictable. Electric discharges in plasma take the form of long, thin and twisting filaments. Because they are tornadic funnels of glowing plasma, they will appear darker in their centers, exactly as seen in the recent pictures. Convection cells would appear darker on their cooler peripheries.

The electric explanation of sunspots, like that of the penumbra, is rooted in the observed behavior of plasma discharge. In laboratory experiments, a torus forms above the equator of a positively charged sphere. Discharges then fly between the torus and the mid- to low-latitudes of the sphere. In the electric model, the Sun is the positively charged focal point of an electric field. And now we know that the Sun is indeed surrounded by an equatorial torus (as shown in the polar UV image here).


Sunspots are the direct evidence that electric discharges punch holes in the photosphere to deliver current directly to lower depths, exposing a view of the cooler interior. Nothing ever observed on the Sun supports the idea of heat transfer from the core, where standard theory places the nuclear fusion “furnace”. In the electric model, what nuclear fusion that does occur is located where the most energetic events occur, in the fierce electric tornadoes.

In the laboratory experiments that produce the equatorial torus, the observed discharging to the positively charged sphere migrates latitudinally as the power input varies. The higher power produces maximum activity near the equator. The same thing occurs on the Sun in the latitudinal migration of sunspots in relation to the total energetic output of the Sun.

Standard theory will not allow that the cooler lower region revealed by sunspots means a cooler interior of the Sun. So astrophysicists have surmised that the sunspots are the result of focused magnetic fields interfering with heat transport, or convection. But they have confused electrical and magnetic effects. Investigation has shown that sunspots having the same magnetic polarity attract each other. But the poles of magnets repel.


Electric currents, however (the source of magnetic fields), do attract each other, while maintaining their integrity through repulsion at extremely close distances. In fact, we see this effect when sunspots “merge”. Though conjoined, they retain their independent structure, just as currents do in plasma.

Standard models offer no coherent explanation for the approximate eleven-year sunspot cycle. There is no annual "clock" in an isolated thermonuclear explosion. Though a connection to the period of Jupiter is possible, perhaps even likely in terms of solar system circuitry, the remote gravitational effects of Jupiter on the Sun cannot compare to the energetic events associated with the sunspot cycle.


In the electrical model the sunspot cycle is most likely a result a fluctuations in the electrical power supply from the local arm of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as the varying current density and magnetic fields of huge Birkeland current filaments slowly rotate past our solar system. (See: Sunspot Mysteries)


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Sunspots and Earthquakes
Apr 04, 2006

from Thuntherbolts Website

Civilization's interest in predicting the location and time of damaging earthquakes is obvious. The potential for devastation of property that otherwise could be secured, and the loss of life that otherwise could be prevented, are powerful reasons to find predictive factors.

Some scientists have become aware of a correlation between sunspots and Earthquakes and want to use the sunspot data to help predict earthquakes. The theory is that an intensification of the magnetic field can cause changes in the geo-sphere. The NASA and the European Geosciences Union have already put their stamp of approval on the sunspot hypothesis, which suggests that changes in the sun-earth environment affects the magnetic field of the earth that can trigger earthquakes in areas prone to it.


It is not clear how such a trigger might work.





In the Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 37–71, 2003, there is an excellent report that addresses the more down-to-earth problems facing geophysicists trying to understand earthquakes. The paper is titled, Rocks That Crackle and Sparkle and Glow: Strange Pre-Earthquake Phenomena, by Dr. Friedemann T. Freund, a professor in the Department of Physics, San Jose State University, and a senior researcher at NASA Ames Research Center.


Dr. Freund writes,

"Many strange phenomena precede large earthquakes. Some of them have been reported for centuries, even millennia. The list is long and diverse: bulging of the Earth’s surface, changing well water levels, ground-hugging fog, low frequency electromagnetic emission, earthquake lights from ridges and mountain tops, magnetic field anomalies up to 0.5% of the Earth’s dipole field, temperature anomalies by several degrees over wide areas as seen in satellite images, changes in the plasma density of the ionosphere, and strange animal behavior.


Because it seems nearly impossible to imagine that such diverse phenomena could have a common physical cause, there is great confusion and even greater controversy."

Freund outlines the basic problem,

"Based on the reported laboratory results of electrical measurements, no mechanism seemed to exist that could account for the generation of those large currents in the Earth’s crust, which are needed to explain the strong EM signals and magnetic anomalies that have been documented before some earthquakes.


Unfortunately, when a set of observations cannot be explained within the framework of existing knowledge, the tendency is not to believe the observation. Therefore, a general malaise has taken root in the geophysical community when it comes to the many reported non-seismic and non-geodesic pre-earthquake phenomena… There seems to be no bona fide physical process by which electric currents of sufficient magnitude could be generated in crustal rocks."

Freund makes an excellent attempt to explain all of the phenomena in terms of rock acting like a p-type semi-conducting material when placed under stress. For example, the emission of positive ions from the Earth’s surface may act as nuclei for the ground-hugging fog that sometimes occur prior to earthquake activity. And although the surface potential may only be in the 1–2-Volt range, the associated electric field can reach hundreds of thousands of Volts per centimeter, enough to cause corona discharges, or "earthquake lights."


Thermal anomalies seen from space before an earthquake may be due to the emission of infra-red light where the semi-conductor charge recombines at the surface. Disturbed animal behavior may be due to the presence of positive ions in the air.

As Freund says, this theory places an explanation in the realm of semiconductor physics, which means that geoscientists are not the best people to judge it. That explains why the paper appears in a speculative journal.


Freund laments,

"the peer review system often creates near-insurmountable hurdles against the publication of data that seem contrary to long-held beliefs."

Freund has identified a source of charge in stressed rocks that was not believed possible.


He says,

"…once fully told and understood, the "story" [of p-holes] is basically so simple that many mainstream geoscientists are left to wonder why it has taken so long for them to be discovered. If they are so ubiquitous as they appear to be, why did p-holes go unnoticed for over a hundred years? Confronted with this question, by a twist of logic, many 'mainstreamers' succumb to the impulse to reject the p-hole concept out of hand.

The difficulties encountered in the connection with p-holes are similar to others that have punctuated the history of science. The discovery of the p-holes as dormant yet powerful charge carriers in the Earth’s crust calls for a new paradigm in earthquake research and beyond. More often than not, any call for a new paradigm elicits opposition. Therefore, I close with a quote from the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, who ventured to say: 'all truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident'."

If Freund has a problem getting such a simple idea accepted, how much more difficult is it going to be to get both astronomers and geoscientists to accept that the Earth is a charged body in an Electric Universe?

The missing link between the sunspots and earthquakes is the fact that the electric discharges on the Sun that cause sunspots also affect the Earth's ionosphere. The ionosphere forms one "plate" of a capacitor, while the Earth forms the other. Changes of voltage on one plate will induce movement of charge on the other. But unlike a capacitor, the Earth has charge distributed beneath the surface.


And if the subsurface rock has become semi-conducting because of stress, there is an opportunity for sudden electrical breakdown to occur through that rock. The mystery of how the current is generated is solved and the link with sunspots exposed. Subsurface lightning causes earthquakes! Seismic waves are the equivalent of the rumble of thunder. The energy released may be equivalent to the detonation of many atomic bombs but only a small proportion needs to come from the release of strain in the rocks. Most of it comes from the Earth's stored internal electrical energy.

The latest issue of the IEEE journal, SPECTRUM, features an article based on Freund's work that looks at ways of predicting earthquakes. Once again, it seems that scientific advances fare better today in the hands of electrical engineers. (See Earthquake Alarm)


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