at Jupiter's South pole.
Since Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun, astronomers think that some kind of internal dynamo, acting like a generator, "must be" creating the excess.
However, there are processes occurring on Jupiter that are now coming to light.
Based on what was surmised about Jupiter, a 5 gauss magnetic field was assumed to exist.
When Juno entered orbit and began its scientific measurements, levels as high as 9 gauss were found.
Compare those readings to
Earth's 0.5 gauss field and the enormity of Jupiter's
electromagnetic energy can be deduced. Its field is also irregular,
leading some astrophysicists to suggest that there is an
anomalous structure in Jupiter's core.
Why the atmospheric bands
are so deep is a mystery, since they have always been associated
with superficial weather patterns.
Under some simulated conditions, and on Saturn,
cyclonic storms merge with one another
instead of repelling each other
Multiple vortices encircle a central whirlpool of gas and dust.
The structures are warmer
than the surrounding cloud bands, but are still near absolute zero
The consensus opinion is that it is a cyclonic storm driven by rising heat from below, because it is warmer than its surroundings.
However, exactly how it
was formed and why it has persisted for so long are mysteries. Wind
speeds around its perimeter have been measured at 635 kilometers per
hour, twice as fast as a terrestrial tornado.
Since Jupiter is obviously an electrical environment, it is there that some answers can be found.
However, the basic
physics of charged objects in motion generating electromagnetism
is not debated.
Any material can become a plasma if electrons are stripped from atomic nuclei, causing charge separation to occur.
Whenever there are regions of opposite charge - and Juno team members detected a gravitational asymmetry inside Jupiter that most likely contributes to charge separation - double layers will form and an electric field will develop.
An electric field, no matter how weak, accelerates charged particles.
Depending on the
characteristic of any given plasma, it will be affected differently
by electricity. This could explain why the polar vortices are so
distinct, Jupiter's electric field accelerates plasmas at different
Charge separation in
plasma could explain those anomalies...