Membership: George J. Haas, William R. Saunders, Lee Bogart, & George Dutton

Launched: 10/16/ 2000 Updated: 1/17/2006

from CydoniaInstitute Website










On May 24, 2001, without any fan fair or public notice, NASA released a long awaited high resolution, "full faced" view of the Face on Mars (figure 1). It appeared to the world that NASA had finally hit it’s mark and "scotched this thing for good". Once again the "Face" was declared "a pile of rocks" and maintained no resemblance to a human face! The New York Times was reported to say:

"NASA released a new image [of the "Face on Mars"] that shows the area in far sharper detail, but reduces any resemblance to a human face."

Figure 1
The 2001 Face
A second "full faced" image of the "Face" NASA/JPL MOC E03-00824.
Note: the distinct "Feline" features on the right side.

The truth was, the new image wasn’t new! It was almost two months old. The actual image, which was taken earlier in the year on April 8th, was held back form the public for almost two months (sitting "in the can" as they say, somewhere at NASA/JPL).


This down time, conveniently provided NASA with a sufficient time frame to prepare a carefully orchestrated strategy of ground zero "damage control". So, subsequently, a highly negative propaganda campaign was simultaneously released, on the coat tails of the new image, and posted on several official NASA web sites.


This media blitz was designed to stop the "Face" dead in it’s tracks. Although NASA was actually forced into taking the picture in the first place, by the attorneys for FACETS and finally forced to release the photo by the current administration, there was no way NASA was going to let this Lion lay! NASA and company were "hell bent" on discrediting any scientific analysis of this image and God forbid that someone in the media had noticed the "cat-like" appearance of the eastern side of this "pile of rocks" before they could divert their attention elsewhere.


Oh yes, an all out "War" was on and the real debate was just getting started...again.

Figure 2
The Line of Demarcation
Note the line (in red) that separates the two halves of the "Face" appears irregular, and arched,

this is caused by the curvature of this bifurcated structure along the "facial split" and the camera angle (from the east) "

As soon the new image hit the web many attempts to mirror the two sides of the new 2001 "Face" image were being presented, either too wide or too narrow. Many advocates of the "Face", who had mirrored of the "feline" side, totally disregard any sense of a central axis by including portions of the "W" shaped emblem from the "humanoid" side.


It has been our experience that all of these bifurcated "geoglyphs" (and there are more) have demarcation lines which are signaled by precisely placed "markers" (figure 2). Two "markers" for this demarcation line runs along the edge of the "half" emblem of the triad leaf symbol ("W") that we identified at the center of the forehead on the "humanoid" side.


A second "marker" is at the edge of the central "tooth" feature on the "humanoid" side and the protruding "tongue" and "fang" on the "feline side (see figure 4). There is also a small vertical bar located at the edge of the mane area, placed between the "feline" and "humanoid" faces. You will notice this "marker", in many of the incorrectly mirrored splits of the feline side of the "Face", which appears as two vertical parallel lines. This "vertical bar" is the central axis (or marker) between the two faces.


It should be noted that because of the 3 dimensional aspect of this bifurcated "facial" structure and the curvature of it’s features, the demarcation line would appear irregular, and arched across such an anthropomorphiclly designed topography.

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It’s Narrowly Human

When the new image is mirrored, along this central axis, two distinct and separate "mask" are revealed. The left side, although narrow and highly reflective, still maintains a similar "humanoid" appearance, as seen in the 1998 image (figure.2)


Notice in the 2001 image how narrow the base or platform is, on the west side, that forms a feature what has been referred to as the "fanned headdress" on the left side of the "Face". When the last two images of the "Humanoid" side of the Face are compared, the loss of detail in the new image becomes obvious. In the new image (E03-00824) it becomes quite apparent that, because of some type of highly reflective "metallic" surface, a lot of the detail, on this side of the "Face", is washed out.


The new image, because of it’s foreshortening, has prompted many researchers to say it has a very "simian" appearance while the 1998 image has a more human. Although similar, the previous portrait leans more towards expressing the features of a Neandertal. Note the deep set eyes, heavy forehead, the jutting facial structure, the protruding nasal cavity and prominent jaw line. Again we are reminded of the task of estimating the age of these structures and how it relates to our existence.

Figure 0.2

Comparison of both "Humanoid" sides of the Face on Mars 1998 & 2001 (the left side: west).

Left: 2001 Humanoid side. (EO3-00824)
Note; the overall highly reflective "metallic" surface and the distortion of the facial features.
Also notice the narrow sides of the"fanned" lateral element of the headdress and the triad "W" emblem.

Right: 1998 Humanoid side (SPI-22003)
Note: the detail of facial features. Such as the eyes, nose, and chin ornaments.
Also notice the wide "fanned" lateral element of the headdress, which includes a triad "W" emblem.

Besides the over exposure of light to the west side of the "Face" we are pleased to announce the continuous presence of the, now famous, triad "W" emblem placed at the center of the forehead. This Mesoamerican "cultural marker" (illustration A&B) has been identified as a consistent feature in all of the last 4 images of the "Face on Mars".


This triad "W" emblem is actually presented as a "v" shaped sign, which is only half of the whole emblem . It can even be seen etched across the forehead area of the "Humanoid" headdress in the original "Cat-Box" image and is still present in the later release of the (same) rectified (cat-box) image (SPI-22003).


It is also seen in the partial "M16 Face" which featured the "eye" and is seen again in the current 2001 (EO3-00824) image.

Illustration A
The Cultural Marker Olmec/Maya Tri-leaf "W" glyph.
Symbolic of Royalty (corn).

Illustration B
Atlantean Figure (detail) Maya; Temple of the Jaguar.
Note the "W" headdress and the "teardrop" nose ornament.


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The "Cat-Box"

In 1996 NASA launched the long awaited Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft with Dr. Malin once again at the camera’s helm. We were told that the MGS would thoroughly map the whole planet, including Cydonia, with the most detailed images ever taken of the Martian surface. The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) began imaging the Red Planet in September of 1997. On April 5, 1998 the Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) aboard the Surveyor was slated to re-image the "Face" and put an end to the controversy.


On April 6, 1998 Dr. Malin immediately released a distorted, low contrast image of the face to the international media (figure 1) and proclaimed that the "face was just a pile of rocks".


This raw image of the "Face" was distorted and so stretched out that it was immediately said to look more like a "sandal print or a stuffed chili pepper" than a face, by the New York Times.

Figure 1
NASA’s press release image of the MGS ’Face’; termed the ’Cat Box’
Note; the elongated oval shape of the crater. This "crater" was deleted from most press releases.

Figure 2
The original Viking "Face".
Note; the round the crater on the left.


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The "Face on Mars"

A few hours after releasing the distorted, low contrast image known as the "cat box" to the international media, NASA posted a very different image of the MGS "Face" (SP1-22003) on their web site. (figure 1) This image had the distortion corrected and the contrast enhanced.


In the newly rectified image of the "Face" the most startling feature besides the distinguishable eyes, nose, and mouth was the presence of an elaborately styled headdress. When the new "Face" is split into two halves and mirrored, Hoagland’s anticipated sphinx-like attributes of the Martian "Face" become startlingly evident (figure 2).

Figure 1
NASA’s enhanced version of the MGS (cat-box) Face.
Left - NASA’s JPL enhanced image (SP1-22003).
Right - contrast reversal image

Figure 2a
Humanoid Face
Left side mirrored (contrast reversal).
Note; the eyes, nose, mouth (including two front teeth) and headdress featuring a "W" shaped emblem.

Figure 2b
Feline Face
Right side mirrored (contrast reversal).
Note; the squinting eyes, the muzzle, fangs, mane, and crest on the forehead.


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The "M16 Face"

And the saga continues. We are now being spoon-fed "bits and pieces" of the "Face on Mars", by Malin and company. On January 31, 2001 Malin/NASA/JPL released 7 additional Cydonia images that were subsequently obtained after the last release of images back in April 2000. In this latest "dump" of Cydonia images a fine detail of the left (Humanoid) side of the "Face" was included for our feverish consumption; M16-00184 (figure 1).


The new "M16 Face" is the highest resolution picture ever taken of this controversial structure so far. It is 1.7 meters, or 5.6 feet per pixel. Unfortunately, Malin/NASA has presented this new "high-res" detailed image of the "Face" in a washed out "negative" presentation.


This practice is a common public relations tactic employed by both NASA and Malin in an effort to downplay any artificial features that the "Face" (or any other structure) may exhibit. By releasing gleaming images in extreme brightness they can obscure the detail. Once a "negative reversal" (to limit the brightness) is performed on the new "M16 Face", it’s fine facial features are easily observer (figure 2).

The new image, when carefully examined, is actually very revealing (figure 3). It not only captures a small portion of the "headdress ", the controversial "teardrop", and a tiny corner of the "mouth" area but, it nails the "brow" area complete with an "eye" and "pupil". Every feature that has been previously contemplated has been reinforced in this new image.


Although disappointing in it’s lack of totality, this new image confirms the existence of all of these aforementioned anatomical features including the "eye". Note; the projecting edge of the "brow", the almond shaped eye socket and a pronounced circular "eye" feature including an "iris". Interestingly, the famous "Teardrop" feature, directly below the "eye", appears to be more steep and rectangular in this new image.

The big surprise here is not the presents of an "iris" but, the discovery an ornamental "trophy head", mounted along the edge of the "eye" and "brow". I noticed an odd muzzle feature including a head formation sprouting out of the "brow" area, right next to the "eye". This odd "animal" was independently identified as a "deer effigy" by K.Ksamurai , note; the antlers.


An analytical drawing of these amazing facial features is provided in figure 4.

Figure 1
M16 Face (M16 00184)
Note; the high albedo features and lack of detail.

Figure 2
M16 Face (negative reversal)
Note; the projecting edge of the "brow", and the pronounced "eye" feature.

Figure 3
Detail (enlargement) of facial features in the new "M16 Face".
Note; the "deer" ornament in the brow, the almond shaped eye socket and the "iris" in the eye.

Figure 4
Analytical Drawing of "facial features" in the new "M16 Face".
Note; the "Deer" ornament above the almond shaped "eye" socket.


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The "Face on Mars" wears an Olmec Headdress

The most prominent feature on the left side of the "Face" is the elaborate headdress, which has attracted a lot of attention among concerned researchers. The evidence of a Mars version of a sphinx and the apparent pyramidal structures in the surrounding area has some researchers, suggesting that this headdress feature may be another Egyptian link.


This interpretation is fostered by the "lateral stripes" or "furrows" that run perpendicular to the gradual slope of the base, off the left side of the "Face". The combined effect of the headdress and these faint "stripes" that run to the ground in an orderly fashion, have been interpreted by researcher Mike Bara, as resembling an Egyptian death mask, much like the one worn by King Tutankhamun (figure 3).

The appearance of a second Egyptian motif was also alluded to on the forehead of the "Face" by Mike Bara on his web site. An outlined object was detected at the center of the headdress that he and other researchers thought looked "faintly" like a protruding cobra. When this object or marking is viewed in the mirrored version of the "Face", a very geometric "W" shaped mark appears right in the center of the forehead. In the half image of the humanoid side of the face this "W" appears in the shape of a "V".


If this "V" shaped object was intended to portray a profiled cobra, then it would have been represented as only one half of the Egyptian serpent and not a full cobra head. So perhaps this headdress did not have a direct Egyptian connection after all. After conducting a little research into this "W" shaped emblem with various styles of cultural headdress, a match was soon discovered. Unexpectedly this Martian insignia was found to be reminiscent of the three-point leaf configuration that the ancient Maya displayed on their headdress.


As evident in this Greenstone mask of the first century B.C., the Maya exhibited a three-pointed leaf emblem on their headbands to signify the "Crown" of early kings (figure 1).

Figure 1
Maya greenstone mask of a king, found at Tikal.
Note; the three point crown emblem

Figure 2
Olmec three pointed glyph.
Note; the three point corn emblem.

This basic triad crown emblem was adopted by the Maya from an earlier "Mother Culture" of Mesoamerica called the Olmec.


The origins of the glyph was to denote the transformational properties of corn (figure 2). It was also discovered that the Olmec incorporated the use of the same lateral striped or grooved feature on their headdresses, similar to the Egyptians. In a set of Olmec sculptures, that were recently found in Mexico, a pair of kneeling twins wearing an Egyptian styled headdress were revealed in Veracruz (figure 4).


Surprisingly, this lateral striped effect is commonly known amongst archaeologists as a typical imprint of Olmec royalty.


What ever kind of rudimentary contact the ancient Olmec may have had with Egypt, it is clear that any attempt to establish an ancient inter-cultural alliance between these two civilizations is strongly denied by most scholars, despite the growing evidence (seen here and on Mars).

Figure 4
Olmec twin sculptures from Veracruz.
Olmec "Arqueologiz Mexicana"
Olmec art by Beatriz De La Fuente.
Note; the lateral
striped headdress.

Figure 3
Death Mask of Egyptian King Tutankhamun

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The "Face on Mars" Has Teeth

Another interesting attribute of Mesoamerican royalty that is incorporated in the "Martian Sphinx", is the use of elaborate facial ornaments. Many factions of the ancient Mesoamerican people produced elaborate facial adornments out of gold, which were sometimes called the "tears" of the gods. Nose ornaments were shaped in such exotic designs as that of geometric "Hummingbirds" and "Butterflies" (figure 1a).


These ceremonial facial ornaments are so large that they sometimes covered the entire nose. Richard Hoagland and other researchers have been concerned about the absence of a distinct nose formation in the new MOC image. They have speculated that the nose was blown off sometime in the past by a meteorite (or by the acts of some ancient Martian war). The debris or fallout of this "major hit" distorted the nose and left an odd feature, that Hoagland called the "Tear" resting on the cheek of the "Face". Interestingly this remnant of the nose, later called the "Teardrop" fell within such a precise placement on the cheek that it is aligned with the center of the "City Square" in the Cydonia complex.


The precise alignment and measurement of the "Teardrop" feature would lead one to conclude that it was actually part of an intentional design. The nose is obscured because, what we are actually seeing is a large ceremonial nose ornament. The "Teardrop" is just one part of a larger facial ornament that covers the entire nose area. This type of ornamentation over the nose is typical of the ones used throughout Mesoamerica.


The segmented nose ornament on the small 4" Tairona pendant in figure 1b resembles the bar-like design feature across the bridge of the nose on the humanoid side of the "Face". (See figure 2a on "The Face on Mars" page).

Figure 1
Mesoamerican Nose Ornaments

Left - Aztec gold nose ornament: Butterfly.
Note; the rod which went through the septum of the nose to support the adornment.

Right - Tairona, gold Pendant : Warrior. Note; the segmented nose ornament
of the nose and the oval chin adornment.
(Drawing after an image in "Lost Empires, Living Tribes" by the National Geographic Society)

Next, if we look at the mouth area of the Humanoid side of the "Face" we may see another example of a Mesoamerican ceremonial feature (figure 2). Two objects, that appear to be teeth, can be seen directly below the nose ornament in the mouth area. In the center of each these front "teeth" is a dot, possibly representing a dental gemstone. This "dot" feature is similar in design to the Mesoamerican practice of decorating the front teeth with gemstones and elaborate gold dental caps.


The Maya produced elaborate beads of jade, obsidian, or iron pyrite that were fashioned into decorative fillings which were imbedded into the front teeth. Take note of the deliberate mutilation and decoration of the upper incisors in this drawing of "Mesoamerican dentistry" from Uaxactun Mexico (figure 3). The teeth on either side of the central incisors have been filed down enabling the two front teeth to appear more prominent.


Amazingly, this is the same effect that is displayed on the Humanoid side of the "Face".

Figure 2
Analytical sketch of humanoid side of the MGS "Face"

Figure 3
Mesoamerican dentistry; Uaxactum, Mexico, Late Classic Maya.
Note; the "dot" shaped gemstone on the two front teeth.
(From; "The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya" an
illustrated dictionary of Mesoamerican religion, Mill & Taube, 1993, p.77).

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The Feline side of the "Face on Mars"

Since Hoagland first did the split of the "Face on Mars", the feline side has always been considered to be a male African lion. With the new image of the "Face" the feline characteristics are even more apparent. The features of the feline "Face" when mirrored are composed of a square shaped head with a crown, a mane, squinting eyes, an ornamented nose, an almost circular muzzle, and a mouth with fangs (figure 1). The Feline’s forehead is large and features a squared off geometric crown that extends across the top of the head.


The crown also has a lot of faint decorative qualities in and around it’s crest that are difficult to substantiate at this point. The half portion of this "Crown" feature was also spotted by Dr. Tom Van Flandern and referred to as the "Crest" in his in-depth analysis of the unmirrored "Face". The "mane" feature is located in the wave-like ridges that are found around the lower portion of the neck forming a "beard-like" effect. From the times of the Olmec, and the cultures that followed, many of their kings and gods had small growths around the neck area that are classified as remnants of "beards" by archaeologists.


Notice the small beard on this Maya glyph of the Bearded Jaguar God (figure 2a.) and also on this second glyph of a bearded jaguar (figure 2.b). Since facial hair is not an attribute of either the indigenous Mesoamericans nor the Negroid Africans or Asians, where did this idea originate? Many researchers attribute these beards to be of a Semitic influence and surmise an ancient link between the "Old" and "New Worlds". They believe the beards on the glyphs and various faces of gods, were meant to mimic the beards of these Semitic people.

Figure 1
Analytical Drawing; The Feline side of the Face. Note; the bearded Jaguar appearance.

Figure 2
Left - Bearded Jaguar God; Maya glyph
Right - Bearded Jaguar Glyph; Maya glyph.
Note; the beard under the chin in both glyphs.

Like the Olmec and many other Mesoamerican cultures, the Egyptians also wore false beards, as can be seen in the death mask of Tutankhamun. It is thought that the Egyptians used the false beards to mimic these same Semitic kings (such as the Sumerians).


Mesoamerica had it’s own lion in the form of the jaguar. It would be reasonable to assume that the Olmec would have regarded the jaguar as the New World’s equivalent of the lion. Since the jaguar does not have a mane it would also be reasonable to assume that the ancient Olmec would have regarded the lion, with it’s full mane, as a "bearded jaguar".


In the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City there is a large Aztec reliquary that is carved in the shape of a full "jaguar" (figure 3). This amazing sculpture which weighs over six tons was unearthed at Templo Mayor in Mexico City way back in 1790. The most intriguing characteristics of this so-called jaguar sculpture is that it has no spots, which a jaguar does, and it has a mane, which a jaguar does no. Note; that the partial mane on this reliquary is similar in size and shape to the "mane" feature found on the Feline side of the "Face".


The mythology of the Jaguar God is associated with the Maya god archeologists call GIII, who is human in aspect and has jaguar features including a "beard".


Figure 3
Aztec Reliquary (side view) from "Myths of the World; Gods of the Inca, Aztec and Maya", by Timothy R. Roberts, p. 67.

Front view from "The Mighty Aztecs", Gene s. Stuart, Mark Godfrey
(c) The National Geographic Society, 1981

Aztec reliquary (front view)
A Bearded Jaguar

Aztec Reliquary (side view)
A Beaded Jaguar

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The "Face on Mars" found at Cerros

On the face of an ancient Olmec/Maya two-tiered pyramid at Cerros Mexico (50 B.C.), two fascinating sculptural masks are present. The top two human faced masks represent the planet Venus as the morning star on the east and the evening star on the west. The lower masks are the Jaguar Sun God representing the rising sun on the east and the setting sun on the west.


These two celestial masks have a striking resemblance to a bifurcated mask on Mars known as "The Face" (figure 3&4).

Figure 3
Comparison of the Humanoid side of the "Face on Mars" with Cerros Temple "Venus Mask".
Left; Mirrored Humanoid side of Face on Mars.
Right; Morningstar (Venus) mask on temple panel at Cerros Mexico.

Note; the facial ornaments and "W" shaped triad crown emblem on each headdress.

Figure 4
Comparison of Mirrored Feline side of the "Face on Mars" with Jaguar Sun god mask at Cerros.
Left; mirrored Feline side of the "Face on Mars".
Right; Jaguar Sun mask on temple panel at Cerros Mexico.

Note; drawings of both Cerros masks are from "A Forest of Kings", by Linda Schele & David Freidel 1990, p.113.

We find it VERY interesting that Linda Schele was invited to speak at NASA in 1995 at a seminar entitled; "The Universe: Now and Beyond". Considering her knowledge of these "Face-like" masks at Cerros, what did NASA discover, and how long have they known it?

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Two Faced

To anyone familiar with the pictorial characteristics of Mayan hieroglyphs it soon becomes quite apparent that a significant amount of their glyphs are based on the use of half and profiled faces. The Maya developed a pictographic system that incorporates an almost endless array of eloquently characterized faces that are fashioned in the genre of a "severed" man’s head.


The isolated image of a severed head was seen as a central symbol of royal power and sacrifice among the kings of the Maya. This ritual of decapitation not only played a major role in Mesoamerican religion it also provided a rich lexicon of faces that were assembled into a complex pictographic language (figure1). The first example, on the left, is a frontal view of a Pumpkin head with a Human profile. The second, on the right, is a frontal view of a Parrot with a Human profile.

Figure 1
Maya "split faced" glyphs.
Left: Pumpkin & Human
Right: Parrot & Human
(Additional examples
available in our book)


The Maya also produced a variety of bifurcated sculptures and two-faced masks (figure 2).

Figure 2
Maya Two Faced Mask
Left: Human/Jaguar Skull (ceramic)
Right: Jaguar/Human (ceramic)

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The Book

THE BOOK: In what can only be described as the most important archeological and sociological discovery in human history, "The Cydonia Codex " offers persuasive evidence of aesthetic and symbolic design on the surface of the planet Mars. The authors’ research encompasses over ten years of study and analysis of NASA photographs of the "Face on Mars" and its surrounding complex.


Beginning with the famous 1976 photograph of a mile-long formation found on the surface of Mars that strongly resembles a human face, Haas and Saunders offer side-by-side comparisons of the art and sculpture of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica with a set of corresponding geoglyphic structures found in the Cydonia region of Mars.


The implication is staggering — Earth’s history and humankind’s origins could be very different than commonly believed.

The new cover (above)
The book edition that is now available through North Atlantic Books (Frog, Ltd.); features forewords by both Richard C. Hoagland & Dr. Mark Carlotto. Includes black-and-white photos throughout, as well as illustrations (330 pages).


About the authors

George J. Haas:

is founder and premier investigator of The Cydonia Institute which was established in 1991. He is a member of the Pre-Columbian Society of the University of Pennsylvania. Mr. Haas is also an Artist, art instructor, writer, and curator. He is a member and former director of the Sculptors Association of New Jersey. He has also authored numerous monographs for various art exhibitions and had a one person show at the OK Harris Gallery of Art in New York City’s SoHo. He became interested in the "Face on Mars" after reading a book on the subject by Randolfo Rafael Pozos in 1991. Mr. Haas lives in New Jersey with his wife Dr. Joy Cole and has three daughters.

William R. Saunders:

is a graduate of the University of Alberta in Edmonton in 1977 with a bachelor of science degree in geomorphology. He began work in the petroleum industry in Calgary, Alberta in 1978 and currently works as an independent petroleum geoscience consultant in Calgary. Mr. Saunders began looking at the Mars Global Surveyor images with their first release in April 1998. He met Mr. Haas on a web site conference room shortly afterwards.



Haas/Saunders’ research provides clear evidence that the Maya (among others) created the same “symbolic duality” in their sculpture and mythology as we have now discovered in a northern Martian region called “Cydonia.”
- Richard C. Hoagland, author of The Monuments of Mars

I applaud the authors’ cross-cultural approach to investigating possible Martian archaeological sites. By suggesting that a prior technological civilization might have been driven by an aesthetic agenda, ’The Cydonia Codex’ offers a new arena for speculation -- which is precisely what’s needed to further the investigative process.
- Mac Tonnies, authors of After the Martian Apocalypse: Extraterrestrial Artifacts the Case for Mars Exploration

The authors have obviously done a great deal of research not only into the Martian structures but also into ancient Mesoamerican and other cultures and have shown how the images from Mars are repeated in the religious and cultural artifacts from those ancient civilizations. The information is well laid out and overall an excellent informative work.
- Shane Bowden, geologist Alberta Canada

This book gives unique insight into the many questions surrounding man’s origins and in my mind establishes stunning evidence for a direct connection between us and a forgotten culture found on the planet Mars.
- Jim Miller, founder of Anomaly Hunters

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Eccentric Faces at Mensae Cydonia
by George J. Haas

In the center of a recently released narrow angle image from Cydonia Mensae (R-14 02211), four totemic profiles of Maya-like faces have been found within the ridge line of the exposed sloping terrain (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Totemic Faces
(Cydonia Mensae R-14 02211)

When the four left facing profiled faces are highlighted (in green) their features and ornamentations become quite discernable (Figure 2). Starting from the upper right side a serpent headed crest crowns a small Olmecide head that acts as a headdress to the Jester-like head below it.


Note the small serpent-like ornament hanging down in front of the Jester’s face. Notice the Jester’s squinting eye, mouth line and pointed nose.

Figure 2
Totemic Faces (colorized)
(Cydonia Mensae R-14 02211)

Following the serpentine shape of the totem, the third face is located at the center of the exposed ridge. Because this face appears to be lightly incised, which may be the result of erosion, its features are difficult to ascertain. With that said, the face resembles the profile of the Indian Chief that is etched on the now famous 1929 five dollar gold piece. Notice the stern face and feathered headdress that follows the incline of the ridge.

Below the Indian Chief is the fourth and largest of the profiled faces that is highlighted in lime green. Notice the eye, prominent nose, protruding tongue, and the dark thick lips that provide a snarling aspect to the mouth.

The overall totemic design of this composite of profiled faces carved along this Martian ridgeline is reminiscent of the many eccentric flints discovered throughout Mexico (Figure 3).

Figure 3
Maya Eccentric Flints

Left: Staff with three profiled heads
Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.

Right: Celestial Monster with affixed heads
Dallas Museum of Art

Many of these flints were extremely complex and of delicate design, featuring jagged profiles that were chipped along the edge of precious stones such as jade and obsidian. When the profiled head at the top of the eccentric flint in Figure 3a is compared to the crowned Jester head found at the top of the Martian formation, a common iconography is profoundly obvious (Figure 4).


Notice the profiled heads with arching crest and protruding ornaments attached to both headdresses.

Figure 4
Eccentric Flint Comparison

Left: Maya Head (Detail of Figure 3a)
Right: Martian Jester Head (Detail of Figure 2 above)

Note the headdress extends past the available data.

A similar set of profiled faces was discovered near the Barnard Crater, in the Hellas region, by JP Levasseur in MOC strip M0200180. His analysis can be found here: (Right-Facing Profiles).


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The Cydonia "Viking" - A Beared Quetzalcoatl

by George J. Haas and William Saunders

Located with in the Cydonia Complex is a structure that has become known as the “City Center Pyramid” or the “Main Pyramid” (FIGURE 1). Although the entire structure was not captured by the 1998 MGS camera, we approximate its length and width to each be about 3 kilometers (2 miles).

Figure 1
Context image: Main Pyramid of the Cydonia Complex (1998)
Inverted and contrast adjusted with notations (SP1-25803).
Note pictograph marked number 1.

As a result of the many early interpretations of Viking data, the “Main Pyramid” was once thought to be an enormous four-sided pyramid based on an Egyptian model. However, the 1998 MOC image (SP1-25803) shows that this is not the case. It now appears to be five-sided, segmented by five major “spines” radiating from the top to an almost circular base. The most prominent anomalies on this structure are an almond shaped “crater” accompanied by two adjoining rectangular impressions on the northern end of the “pyramid.”1

The new image reveals that “Main Pyramid” has a complex series of radiating “spines” and a set of geometrically shaped features within its surrounding apron. After a considerable amount of time was invested in evaluating these formations, we noted that they were parts of a complex set of half-images along the segmented base line (FIGURE 1). Although we uncovered three pictographic portraits that appear as either the right or left side of a whole image we will only focus on the pictograph marked number 1 in this study.2

The pictograph from the “Main Pyramid” marked number 1 in Figure 1 consists of a half faced portrait (FIGURE 2). When the pictograph is cropped and rotated to a vertical presentation, the heads demarcation line can be detected running along the adjoining terrain. When mirrored the head appears to be composed of a full-bearded face with twisting braids, deep set eyes, a nose, and mouth. The head is completed with a Viking-like helmet.


The “Viking” head is roughly 700–800 meters (half a mile) in length from the top of the helmet to the neck.

Figure 2
The Viking Pictograph
Detail: Main Pyramid (marked number1 in figure 1)
LEFT, Half Faced Pictograph
CENTER, Demarcation Line
RIGHT, Mirrored Pictograph (Viking)

When the “Viking” head is compared to a typical Viking age helmet the common features become quite apparent (Figure 3). Notice the central helmet crest, the brow and nose guard, the false mustache and lower-helmet extensions.

Figure 3
Saxon and Martian Helmet Comparison
Detail of Main Pyramid (marked number1 in figure 1)
with inset of a Saxon Helmet on left side.
(Image source, History Unearthed, Leonard Woolley,
(Ernest Benn Limited: London), 1963, fig. 173, p.167.)

Although our initial judgment of this structure led us to believe that it represented a Viking-like portrait, we acknowledge that this image also bears many similar features to the Aztec depiction of Quetzalcoatl (the “Feathered Serpent”) as seen in Figure 4.

Figure 4
Winged Quetzalcoatl (Aztec Codex)
Drawing by George J. Haas
(Image source: Mysteries of the Mexican Pyramids, by Tompkins, page 385.)

This image of Quetzalcoatl is bearded and wears a helmet strikingly similar to the Mars figure. The portrait includes a lower-helmet extension and long braids made of serpents. If one looks closely at the braids of the Martian image in Figure 5 it also appears as though they are formed by a coiled serpent.

Figure 5
Comparison of the Viking and Quetzalcoatl
LEFT, detail of Martian Viking
RIGHT, Detail of Aztec Quetzalcoatal
Note the lower extention of Quetzalcoatl’s helmet
and the serpent braids match the mars image.

Because the Viking pictograph shares such strong iconographic similarities with Mesoamerican motifs, we assert that the pictograph identified as number 1 in Figure 1 is a Martian representation of the Maya god Quetzalcoatl in his personification of the morning star, Venus.

Similar half-faced geoglyphs have been recorded in Peru. Far to the north, beyond the city of Lima, are the ruins of Caral, located in the Supe Valley. From recent excavations of this site, some archaeologists are hailing this almost forgotten complex as the home of the earliest known settlement in the New World. Results of new radiocarbon tests have dated a range of site mounds and structures to well before 2600 B.C.3

Just beyond this ancient complex of mounds and half-buried pyramids is an immense half-faced stone geoglyph set into the surface of this once sacred ground (Figure 6).

Figure 6
Caral Half Faced Geoglyph (Caral, Peru, 2500 B.C.)
LEFT, Aerial View of Half-Faced Geoglyph
RIGHT, Drawing with demarcation line
(Image source: Smithsonian, August 2002, Vol. 33, no.5, page 64.)
Drawing by George J. Haas

Notice the “D”-shaped head with its large gaping mouth and raked hair. It should be noted that this partial face is not carved in profile - it is designed in a “cut in half” manner. In the illustration on the right side of Figure 6, notice the demarcation line runs right down through the forehead - cutting the nose and chin in half. Like the half-faced Viking pictograph found at Cydonia, the Caral face was also constructed to be seen from high above the ground.


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These anomalous features were not only noticed by us and many other researchers, but became the main focus of an investigation set forth by Stanley V. McDaniel of the Society for Planetary SETI Research (SPSR). See Stanley V. McDaniel, “Peculiarities At ‘Main Pyramid.’” The McDaniel Report Newsletter, May, 7, 1998: http //

The full analysis of the Main Pyramid, including pictographs number 2 and 3, is available in the book by George J. Haas and William R. Saunders “The Cydonia Codex Reflections from Mars, (North Atlantic Books, Frog, Ltd.,2005), pp.121-139.
Ruth Shady Solis, Jonathan Haas, and Winifred Creamer, “Dating Caral, a Pre-ceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Peru,” Science 292, no. 5517 (April 27, 2001), pp. 723–726.


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