A detailed discussion of these observations is beyond the scope of this inquiry. However, the authors feel they would be remiss if they did not conclude by at least mentioning two additional areas where future observations could greatly increase our confidence in the reality of this phenomenon -- if not our understanding of its nature.

In view of apparent solar conformance with "circumscribed tetrahedral geometry," one area for further research seems immediately apparent: "exotic stars."

In addition to "flare stars" and other highly-variable stellar objects with surface phenomenon thought to be similar to solar processes, we feel that, if the Cydonia mathematics are attempting to describe not only energy "flow" but somehow "energy generation" -- then the ability to test these ideas via radio astronomy should be the highest in terms of one class of exotic objects in particular: pulsars.

The common link connecting all the objects for which the Cydonia "embedded tetrahedral model" seems to work -- from the planets to the Sun -- seems at this stage to be based on one significant association: angular momentum and magnetic fields. Before the adoption of the present, complex "self-excited dynamo theory" (with internal, circulating, conducting "fluids" as the mechanism for general planetary and stellar magnetism), another -- strictly empirical -- hypothesis was proposed: a strikingly simple relationship between the observed total angular momentum of the object, and a resulting dipole.

Termed "Schuster's Hypothesis" (Schuster, 1912), it has been successful in predicting magnetic field strengths (Blackett, 1947; Warwick, 1971) ranging from the earth's, to the sun's, to Jupiter's vast field (20,000 times the terrestrial dipole moment) -- a prediction made over sixty years prior to the 1973-74 Pioneers' 10 and 11 close-up confirmations (Warwick, 1976).

(It should be pointed out, ground-based radio astronomy had successfully deduced Jupiter's magnetic field strength -- thus its conformance with "Schuster's Hypothesis" -- some twenty years before the Pioneer magnetometer observations confirmed the radio data and Schuster -- who's very name and empirical discovery is, inexplicably, completely missing from all NASA literature on planetary magnetism.)

Commented Warwick on the remarkably predictive power of "Schuster's Hypothesis," even in 1971:

"Dynamo theory has not yet successfully predicted any cosmical fields. It's use today rests on the ASSUMPTION that no alternative theory corresponds more closely to observations [original emphasis]."

Taking Schuster's 1912 proposal, the authors have plotted contemporary parameters for angular momentum versus observed the magnetic dipole moment (for all planetary objects now visited by spacecraft with magnetometers), and find Schuster's Hypothesis amazingly confirmed (see Fig. 8) -- with the exception of Mars (for which we have extremely poor data -- no American spacecraft since Mariner 4, including Viking, has carried a magnetometer to Mars!), and Uranus (discussed below).

It is tempting to propose that what we have observed in terms of the "Cydonia equations" -- a remarkable correlation between external, localized energy emission and a planetary spin-axis, somehow modulated by the orientation (if not the intrinsic value) of the magnetic field -- may be trying to tell us about the physical process underlying "Schuster's Hypothesis": how magnetic fields in spinning bodies form . . . if not how their formation may be associated with internal energy generation.

In terms of an observable, visible connection between these two parameters -- planetary magnetism and planetary surface features -- it is interesting that Warwick in 1976 already had observed:

"It seems likely that, corresponding to atmospheric belts and zones as seen in Jupiter's cloud top level, there is a belt-like structure in the magnetic field not strong enough to alter the dipole structure radically [thus not mappable by spacecraft' instruments -- unless in very close-in orbits] but still sufficient to play a role in magnetospheric diffusion as Neil Brice suggested some years ago. This magnetic fine structure also must play a role in decametric [radio emission] phenomenonology . . .[which], especially [as exhibited in] longitude patterns throughout the Jupiter year, is strictly reproducible over the two decades of radio observations.


The conclusion I draw from this fact is that the magnetic fine structure near the [cloud top] surface of Jupiter has remained constant over the same time interval. In support of this conclusion is the more or less constant belt and zone structure of Jupiter since 1950 . . . Such a correlation, which is ultimately [in this theory, associated] with magnetic fine structure, would tend to confirm the existence of magnetohydro-dynamic turbulence near the surface of Jupiter."

Warwick's inferences regarding the role of magnetism and fluid physics, in possibly generating the patterns long-observed in radio astronomy's "decametric observations," would seem to lend support to our own tentative proposals:

-  That the Cydonia "embedded tetrahedral model" (merely, if we're correct, an equivalent geometrical expression of the far more complex mathematics associated with a "vorticular fluid-flow") is in fact predicting the latitudes and sizes of the Great Red Spots on Jupiter (and now on Neptune!), and the largest volcanic centers of emission on "terrestrial planets," through deep-seated, vorticular magnetohydrodynamic processes -- operating in the highly conducting mantles of these bodies. A similar mechanism probably underlies the Sun's conformance to "tetrahedral geometry" as well.

-  That each "upwelling" (at least in the atmospheres of these two giant planets), seems scaled strictly in terms of the respective size of each respective body, provides further elegant support for an internally-determined "fluid" model.

-  The fascinating, observed correlation between angular momentum and magnetic dipole moment -- if not field polarity, evidenced by the selective hemispheric appearance of energy emission at 19.5 N. or S. -- has made us wonder, however, about more fundamental correlations (more info about
Number 19).....  We suspect that the puzzling and periodic "field-reversals" of the terrestrial geomagnetic field are another indication of the "Cydonia embedded tetrahedral model" -- modulated by the constant gravitational "tidal kneading" of the Moon.


If this process is involved in periodically "flipping" the entire magnetic field (and the resulting "hot spots"), then the precise physical mechanism should raise provocative questions involving electromagnetism, mass, inertia . . . and possibly gravity itself. Sirag, in observing this same remarkable correlation between angular momentum and electromagnetism (1979), raised similar considerations.

-  If the Cydonia mathematics are attempting to direct us to energy generation and subsequent energy transfer inside astronomical objects, involving a hitherto unknown relationship between two of the four basic forces of the Universe -- gravity and electromagnetism: i.e. a "UnifiedField" -- this process in our opinion cannot help but manifest itself more clearly in astrophysical environments where both parameters have reached extraordinary values--

Which brings us once again to pulsars.

Even the "average" spinning neutron star (the favored "pulsar model") possesses surface gravitational accelerations, angular momentum, and magnetic field strengths billions of times more intense than similar quantities in any solar system object. Moreover, since Schuster's Hypothesis strikingly succeeds in its prediction of even these extraordinary magnetic dipole moments (
see Fig. 8), we cannot help but wonder at what rich new confirmations of the "Cydonia mathematics" may lie hidden in existing -- and currently mystifying -- pulsar observations . . .

If in the "Cydonia tetrahedral mathematics" we are truly seeing the deliberate communication of demonstrable astrophysical effects of a long-sought "Unified Field Theory," this in itself would be remarkable confirmation of current efforts to discover such fundamental mathematical connections between Nature's elemental forces. For, most provocative: one leading mathematical approach to successfully modeling such connections is essentially based on a tetrahedral model, and a resulting mathematical expansion into "higher-dimensional, n-space relationships" (recently discovered) between the five Platonic solids (Sirag, 1989).


In particular, these studies relate tetrahedral geometry as being topologically equivalent to three-toruses -- tori extending into "one more dimension than our familiar three." [Many current efforts in pursuit of "unified field models," such as the much-acclaimed "super-string theory," routinely involve up to ten mathematical dimensions. Some more recent theories are exploring twenty-six (Sirag, ibid).]

Phrased in simple terms:

The routine mathematical representation of vorticular flow in more than three dimensions -- a three-torus -- by means of three-dimensional tetrahedral models, opens up the possibility that the demonstrable geophysical effects of the "Cydonia tetrahedral message" are attempting to communicate the reality of additional dimensions (as opposed to mere mathematical abstractions) -- and the observable reality of vorticular energy flow between adjoining "n-spaces."

Such totally unexpected (to non-specialists) and remarkable mathematical correlations -- between as yet unpublished theoretical work into Unified Field Models, and the specific tetrahedral geometry apparently intended at Cydonia -- gives added confidence that such a linkage was in fact intended.


If so, there may be an additional confirmation of a such a radical "Cydonia Unified Field Model".






Careful observation of the outer planets over the last two centuries has revealed that "the motions of Uranus and Neptune cannot be adequately represented within the present gravitational model of the solar system" (Harrington, 1988). While gravitational perturbations originally ascribed to Pluto (Tombaugh and Moore, 1980) have now definitely been eliminated as of adequate magnitude to explain these astrometric deviations (Harrington, op cit), "the suspicion of the existence of a tenth planet" has resulted in renewed efforts (Seidelmann and Harrington, 1988) to search for another unseen object which could gravitationally account for the persistent residuals of Uranus and Neptune.

However, other experts in celestial mechanics are open to the possibility that (as opposed to a new planet) a fundamental modification to gravitational theory itself may in fact be necessary, in order to adequately model the puzzling outer planet motions (Anderson, 1989) -- which, curiously, are most "anomalous" for Uranus.

As a direct consequence of the apparently successful application of the "Cydonia predictions" to Uranus and Neptune, and because of a probable fundamental link this has revealed between angular momentum (rotating mass) and electromagnetism, we suggest a third alternative should be considered:

A derivative "anomalous gravitational effect," somehow created by these interactions.

Such an admittedly radical proposal must of course be subject to some stringent observational tests; we believe that Voyager's own 1986 Encounter has fortuitously supplied us with just such an opportunity, in the form of "anomalous" Voyager 2 X-band range-rate residuals, acquired during the fly-by of Uranus itself.

For over a month prior and subsequent to the January, 1986 Encounter, calibrated ranging signals were transmitted to and from the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Examination of five days of ranging data, centered on the timeof Closest Approach, reveals a series of curious, systematic "range errors" -- seen only around the time of periapsis of Voyager to Uranus (
see Fig. 9); at this time, the spacecraft exhibited a range error of up to 100 meters (an order of magnitude larger than instrumentation-limited range uncertainties of approx. 9 meters, introduced by the Voyager/DSN radio ranging system itself.) These systematic errors were also inexplicably centered symmetrically on periapsis (Anderson, et al., 1988).

Explanations which would attribute this effect to "group delay of the ranging modulation by free electrons between Earth and Voyager 2" remain unconvincing, when the data are compared to similar residuals (
Fig. 9) recorded during Voyager 2's Encounter of Saturn (Campbell, et al, 1989). The latter, by comparison, are "flat" (as opposed to the systematic increase and decrease observed at Uranus): reflecting no similar "symmetrically-centered curve," mirrored around the moment of Closest Approach to Saturn.

We believe therefore that these demonstrably unique, and highly suggestive ranging observations are interpretable as potentially direct evidence of the modification of the Uranian gravitational metric, by some additional "space-time effect" associated with the Cydonia "embedded tetrahedral model".  We further suspect that the highly anomalous Uranian magnetic field-geometry Voyager observed with respect to the planetary spin axis (>60 degrees) -- if not the significant departure of the planet's overall magnetic dipole moment from "Schuster's Hypothesis" (
see Fig. 8) -- may somehow be involved.

One important reason for raising this possibility now is the imminent Voyager 2 Encounter with Neptune.

Uranus and Neptune -- essentially "twins" in terms of mass, angular momentum and (probably) composition -- provide important constraints on several fundamental predictions of the Cydonia mathematics. The great difference in internal energy balance between the two planets (1.14 for Uranus; 2.7 for Neptune), coupled with the unique configuration of the Uranian magnetic field, leads us to propose that the field orientation with respect to the planetary spin axis is an important element in determining in what form the internally-generated energy appears: in Uranus, with an almost 90-degree field orientation, little energy appears as heat. In consonance with conservation of energy, we suggest it may be "appearing" in some other form -- possibly as a change in the local "space-time metric."

The authors, based on this energy discrepancy, and the conformance of Neptune's "Great Red Spot" with the "embedded tetrahedral mathematics," feel a prediction of the Neptune field polarity (opposite the earth's), an estimate of its specific orientation with respect to the planetary spin axis (within 20 degrees), and its overall intensity (approximately one-tenth Saturn's) is now possible -- before the Voyager August 25, 1989 Encounter.

The relevance of these predictions to the question of "anomalous solar system motions" of these respective planets is fundamental: in Uranus, the energy not dissipated as internal heat (in comparison with Neptune) may be appearing as an associated distortion of the "overall metric" connecting the planet with the Sun, resulting in its anomalous motions with respect to current gravitational model for the solar system.

If similar metric distortions are underlying Neptune's (smaller though equally-puzzling) astrometric residuals, we predict that Voyager should experience a smaller (when corrected for the difference in periapsis radii) though significant set of "range residuals" -- when compared to its Encounter at Uranus; in addition, its instruments should verify our predictions of the magnetic field parameters.

In terms of those, one complicating factor is the orbit of Neptune's largest natural satellite: Triton. The essentially circular (though retrograde) orbit, indicates significant internal tidal dissipation of Triton's kinetic energy within Neptune -- and thus a significant source of internal heating, in addition to possible radiogenic and other ("embedded tetrahedral?") sources; Triton's retrograde "drag" on Neptune's interior must also have some (currently unknown) effect on any process that couples overall planetary angular momentum with the creation of a magnetic dipole moment.

Thus, predictions of internal heating, or "exotic gravitational/electromagnetic interactions," indicated by the success of the "Cydonia equations" on the other planets, are at this point somewhat ambiguous when applied to Neptune; the only positive indication so far that this unknown process is somehow effectively operating in the Neptune interior, is the discovery of Neptune's "Great Red Spot" -- precisely where "embedded tetrahedral mathematics" would predict.

Thus, whatever is discovered during Voyager's Encounter of Neptune, in our opinion, cannot help but provide important additional constraints on the nature and applicability of the "Cydonia equations."

[We also suggest that all the giant outer planets, by virtue of their vastly larger angular momentum and magnetic dipole moments -- compared to the "terrestrial planets" -- exhibit to a greater or lesser degree these effects exhibited by Uranus and Neptune -- including internal energy release and small (but perhaps measurable) distortions of the "local" gravitational metric; however, other mechanisms dominate at Jupiter and Saturn, relegating these potential "tetrahedral model contributions" to a minor role, if any, in comparison to other sources (primordial energy release, and helium/hydrogen gravitational separation).

[Beyond the Voyager Neptune Encounter, the imminent (mid-1990's) insertion into Jovian orbit of the Galileo Orbiter may provide the only solar system opportunity for some time to come for long-term tests of certain subtle aspects of these suggestions.]

The true astronomical tests of these extraordinary possibilities -- apart from a manned landing at Cydonia, and discovery of additional records specifically supporting these suggestions -- will come, in our opinion, only with redundant astrophysical observations of objects far beyond the solar system, and over a far longer span of time. In particular, we suggest that radio astronomy observations of peculiar binary pulsar systems (such as newly-discovered PSR 1957 + 20 -- Fruchter, et al., 1988) -- where, once again, conditions should be uniquely maximized for key observational effects created by "non-relativistic, gravitational distortions" -- could provide enlightening confirmation.

If these observations do lead to substantiation of this (admittedly, most speculative) aspect of the "Cydonia equations" -- an inextricable link between gravity and electromagnetism -- in our opinion this would certainly represent the ultimate manifestation of a Unified Field Model, if not verification of the true intent of the "Cydonia Message" itself.

In terms of the overall reality of such a "Message at Cydonia," the authors feel the observable geophysical phenomena photographed all across the solar system, and cited in this paper, now substantially demonstrate the likelihood of such a "deliberate, technical communication." The full extent of its predictions, beyond these initial observations however, is currently unknown -- as must be the answer to the Ultimate Question:


"What was their intent?"

Common sense dictates that, whatever the origin and culture of the "senders," their purpose clearly would have been to communicate something "of fundamental significance." This has been a common theme in discussions involving "radio messages" that someday might be successfully intercepted and decoded, as part of "Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence" [CETI - (Sagan, op cit)]. The existence of a "Unified Field" message -- potentially capable of demonstrating an intrinsic connection between gravity and electromagnetism, and already yielding a range of other, observable astrophysical effects -- would certainly in our opinion qualify as "fundamental."

Particularly . . . if it leads to near-term technological control and application (Holt, 1980).

It will be left to future studies to decide if this is indeed "the Message of Cydonia."







A set of remarkable "anomalous objects" on Mars, when examined by two investigators using a "geometric relationship model," has yielded specific, mathematical predictions which have been subsequently verified across the solar system. The discovery of a redundant "tetrahedral geometry," encoded at the Martian site known as "Cydonia," has led the authors to the discovery that every major energy center -- on the sun, and on most of the planets and their active satellites -- emerges at the surface in conformance with predictions of an "embedded tetrahedral model": primarily at either 19.5 degrees north or south latitude. (more info about Number 19)

The implications are significant: from identification of a potential new source of energy and laws governing its transfer within stars and planets, to possible discovery of a long-sought fundamental link between gravity and electromagnetism itself. At the least -- besides confirmation that there is a "message at Cydonia" -- these discoveries could hold out the prospect for eventual human utilization of a new energy resource (Smith, W. B., 1950). Learning to control the associated electromagnetic/gravitational forces (if any), could however result in a near-term, dramatic breakthrough in fundamental space propulsion technology (Holt, ibid) -- with obvious implications for space exploration and eventual settlement.

In the opinion of the authors, these possible "breakthrough applications," of a currently unexplained but demonstrable physical phenomenon in operation throughout the solar system, are an urgent reason for immediate verification of the "Message of Cydonia" -- not least, through additional high-resolution imaging by Mars Observer in 1993, and ultimately,

with a manned landing at Cydonia itself.

[Because of the inherent limitations of pictorial data viewed via computer, the GRAPHICS and computer-enhanced Viking photographic half-tone figures for this paper are not included in this file -- but are available through THE MARS MISSION (P.O. Box 981, Wytheville, VA. 24382), or by downloading "RESOURCES" in THE MARS MISSION BBS (703) 228-7822]








The authors would like to acknowledge the following people for their support of our continuing research into the reality and meaning of Cydonia, as well others for their specific help in the preparation of this paper:

Dr. Mark Carlotto (The Analytic Science Corporation; Mars Mission Imaging Consultant), for continued Cydonia imaging enhancements and three-dimensional modeling of Viking data;

Mr. Merton Davies (the RAND Corporation), for up-dating his "1982 Mars Control Network" as applied specifically to the problem of accurate Cydonia control points;

Dr. John Anderson (JPL; Voyager Celestial Mechanics), for providing detailed Voyager Saturn and Uranus tracking data, and historical Uranus and Neptune astrometric information;

Dr. J. C. Pearl (Goddard Space Flight Center; member, Voyager IR Experiment), for furnishing the latest Voyager IR Team Uranus conclusions;

Dr. James Warwick (University of Colorado, Boulder; Principal Investigator, Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiment), for introducing us to "Schuster's Hypothesis," and its potentially unique application to this problem;

Mr. Saul-Paul Sirag, for furnishing important references linking tetrahedral mathematics with "two and three-torus topologies," and for providing examples from his own research of not only Schuster's Hypothesis as potentially applicable to a Unified Field Model --but for specifically referencing tetrahedral mathematical topology and the Platonic Solids as directly applicable; and finally,

Mr. Stan Tenen (The Meru Foundation), for introducing us to Saul-Paul Sirag, for furnishing examples of his own research into the historical importance of the Platonic Solids (tetrahedra, in particular), and for valued general discussion of some of the more controversial aspects of our work. -  -  All opinions and conclusions presented in this paper, however, are strictly the responsibility of the authors.



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Table I
Planetary Latitudes of Emergent Energy Phenomena






 Hawaiian Caldera

19.6 N.

Largest shield volcano



19.6 S.

Unique Farside "mare-like" lava extrusion


Alta Regio

19.5 N.

Current volcanic region


Beta Regio

25.0 S

Current volcanic region






Olympus Mons

19.3 N.

Largest shield volcano


Great Red Spot

22.0 S.

Vast atmospheric "vorticular upwelling"


Loki (2)

19.0 N.

(Voyager 1 & 2 volcanic plumes) Presumably driven by intense Jovian tidal forces and/or Jovian magnetic field


Maui (6)

19.0 N.


Pele (1)

19.0 S.


Volund (4)

22.0 N.


North Equatorial Belt

20.0 N.

Region of "storms" observed from Earth


South Equatorial Belt

20.0 S.

Same as above


(Voyager 2 IR Observations)

Northern IR 1-2 K "dip"


Presumably, deep "upwellings" creating high-altitude clouds


Southern IR 1-2 K "dip"

 20.0 S.

Same as above


(Voyager 2 Imagery)

"Neptune Great Red Spot"

20.0 S.

Presumably same as Jovian counterpart





Source: NASA and U.S. Geological Survey