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p. 168

IV. Chapter 10

Here are the names of the sixth generation of kings. There were two great kings, the first was called Gag-Quicab, and the other, Cavizimah, and they performed heroic deeds and aggrandized the Quiché; for surely they were of marvelous nature.

Here is the destruction and division of the fields and the towns of the neighboring nations, small and large. Among them was that, which in olden times, was the country of the Cakchiquel, the present Chuvilá, 1 and the country of the people of Rabinal, 2 Pamacá, 3 the country of the people of Caoqué, 4Zaccabahá 5and the towns of the peoples of Zaculeu, 6 of Chuvi-Miquiná, 7 Xelahuh, 8 Chuva-Tzac, 9 and Tzolohche. 10

These [peoples] hated Quicab. He made war on them and certainly conquered and destroyed the fields and towns of the people of Rabinal, the Cakchiquel, and the people of Zaculeu; he came and conquered all the towns, and the soldiers of Quicab carried his arms to distant parts. One or two tribes did not bring tribute, and then he fell upon all the towns and they were forced to bring tribute to Quicab and Cavizimah.

They were made slaves, they were wounded, and they were killed with arrows against the trees [to which they had been tied] and for them there was no longer any glory,

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they no longer had power. In this way came about the destruction of the towns, which were instantly razed to the ground. 11 Like a flash of lightning which strikes and shatters the rock, so, in an instant were the conquered people filled with terror.

Before Colché, as a symbol of a town destroyed by him, there is now a pile of stones, which look almost as if they had been cut With the edge of an ax. it is there on the coast, called Petatayub, 12 and it may be clearly seen today by people who pass, as proof of the valor of Quicab.

They could neither kill him nor overcome him, for, in truth, he was a brave man, and all the people rendered tribute unto him.

And all the lords, having gathered in council, went to fortify the ravines and the towns, having conquered the towns of all the tribes. Then spies went out to observe the enemy and they founded something like towns in the occupied places. "Just in case by chance the tribes might return to occupy the town," they said, when they reassembled in council.

Then they went out to [take up] their positions. "These shall be like our forts and our town, our walls and defenses, here shall our valor and our manhood be proved," said all the lords, when they went to take up the position assigned to each clan in order to fight the enemy.

And having received their orders they went to the places that had been founded in the land of the tribes. "Go there, for now it is our land. Do not be afraid, if there are still enemies who come to kill you, come quickly and let me know, and I will go to kill them!" said Quicab, when he took leave of all of them in the presence of the Galel and the Ahtzic-Vinac. 13

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Then the bowmen and the slingers, as they were called, set out. Then the grandfathers and the fathers of all the Quiché nation took their [battle] positions. They were on each one of the mountains, and they were like guards--of the mountains; they were guarding [with] their bows and slings; they were the sentinels of the war. They were not of different origin, nor did they have a different god, when they went. They went only to fortify their towns.

Then all the people of Uvilá went out, 14 those of Chulimal, Zaquiyá, Xahbaquieh, Chi-Temah, Vahxalahuh, and the people of Cabracán, 15 Chabicac-Chi-Hunahpú, and those of Macá, 16 those of Xoyabah 17 and those of Zaccabahá, 18 those of Ziyahá, 19 those of Miquiná, 20 those of Xelahuh, 21 and those of the coast. They went to observe the war and to guard the land, when they went by order of Quicab and Cavizimah, [who were] the Ahpop and the Ahpop-Camhá, and the Galel and the Ahtzic-Vinac, who were the four lords.

They were sent in order to watch the enemies of Quicab and Cavizimah, names of the kings, both of the House of Cavec, of Queemá, name of the lord of the people of Nihaib, and of Achac-Iboy, the name of the lord of the people of Ahau-Quiché. These were the names of the lords who sent them, When their sons and vassals went to the mountains, to each one of the mountains.

They went at once 22 and they took captives; they brought their prisoners into the presence of Quicab, Cavizimah, the Galel, and the Ahtzic-Vinac. The bowmen and slingers made war, taking captives and prisoners. Some of the defenders of he positions were heroes, and the lords gave [them gifts] and lavished rewards upon them, when they came to deliver up all their captives and prisoners.

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Later they gathered in council by order of the lords, the Ahpop, the Ahpop-Camhá, the Galel, and the Ahtzic-Vinac, and they decided and said, that those who were there first should have the rank of representing their families. "I am the Ahpop! I am the Ahpop-Camhá! Mine shall be the rank of the Ahpop; meanwhile thou, the Ahau-Galel, shall have the rank of Galel," said all the lords when they held council. 23

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Those of Tamub and of Ilocab did likewise; equal in position were the three clans of the Quiché when for the first time they named their sons and vassals captains, and ennobled them. This was the result of the council. But they were not made captains here in Quiché. The mountain where the sons and vassals were made captains for the first time has its name, when all were sent, each one to his mountain, and all were reunited. Xebalax and Xecamax are the names of the mountains where they were made captains and they received their commands. This happened in Chulimal.

In this manner was the naming, the promotion, and distinction of the twenty Galel, of the twenty Ahpop, who were named by the Ahpop and the Ahpop-Camhá and by the Galel and the Ahtzic-Vinac. All of the Galel-Ahpops received their rank: eleven Nim-Chocoh, Galel-Ahau, Galel-Zaquic, Galel-Achih, Rahpop-Achih, Rahtzalam-Achih, Utzam-Achih were the names which the warriors received when their titles and distinctions were conferred upon them, as they were on their thrones and on their seats, being the first sons and vassals of the Quiché nation, their spies, their scouts, the bowmen, the slingers, the walls, doors, forts, and bastions of the Quiché.

Those of Tamub and Ilocab also did thus; they named and ennobled the first sons and vassals who were in each place.

This, then, was the origin of the Galel-Ahpops, and of the titles which are now preserved in each one of these places. This is the way their titles were created, by the Ahpop and the Ahpop-Camhá, by the Galel and the Ahtzic-Vinac they were created.


172:1 p. 246 "In the nettles," a name which the Mexicans translated as Chichicastenango, with identical meaning, which is the name it still bears today.

172:2 The town of Rabinal.

172:3 Today it is Zacualpa, near the mountains of Joyabaj.

172:4 The Caoqué nation, probably represented by the present towns of Santa Maria and Santiago Cauqué.

172:5 The present San. Andrés Saccabajá.

172:6 "White earth," a fort of the Main near the ancient town of Chinabjul, today Huehuetenango.

172:7 p. 247 "Over the hot water," today Totonicapán, a Mexican name with the same meaning, as Atotonilco in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.

172:8 Xelahuh-Quieh, "under the ten deer or chiefs," the ancient Culahá of the Main, today Quezaltenango.

172:9 "In front of the fort," the present Momostenango.

172:10 "The willow," the present Chiquimula, a short distance from Santa Cruz Quiché.

172:11 Chi hixtahic u chi uleu, literally, "destroyed level with the ground."

172:12 The coast of Petatayub is evidently the litoral of the Pacific where the Guatemalan town of Ayutla stands today, on the border of Mexico. The Títulos de la Casa de Ixcuín-Nihaib mention among the conquests of the Quiché in that region, the lands washed by the Samalá, Uquz (Ocós), Nil, and Xab rivers, which are still known by these same names. Ayutl in Náhuatl is the turtle. The pre-Columbian name of this coast was Ayotlán, and thus it appears in the Anales de Cuauhtitlán. Anáhuac Ayotlán was the name of all the region of Tehuantepec, washed by the Pacific Ocean, which Sahagún calls the coast of the turtles, and which later was called Soconusco. It is curious to observe that the Aztec word ayotl has the double meaning of "turtle" and "gourd," the same as the word coc in the native languages of Guatemala.

172:13 The Ahau-Galel was the chief of the House of Nihaib and the Ahtzic-Vinac, the chief of the House of Ahau-Quiché.

172:14 Chuvilá, or Chichicastenango. In the manuscript of these Historias del origen de los Indios, as well as in the Títulos de la Casa Ixcuin-Nihaib, the inhabitants of this town are called Ah-Uvilá.

172:15 Now Cabricán, a town in the department of Quezaltenango.

172:16 Pamacá Zacualpa, a town in the department of the Quiché.

172:17 The present Joyabaj.

172:18 Today it is called San Andrés Saccabajá.

172:19 Ziyahá, or Zihá, the ancient name of the town known today as Santa Catarina Ixtlahuacán.

172:20 Totonicapán.

172:21 Quezaltenango.

172:22 X-be na cu nabe, in the original.

172:23 Brasseur de Bourbourg confesses that the translation of this passage is very difficult, and observes that Ximénez omitted it altogether. The passage becomes easier to understand by re-establishing the punctuation to agree with the original, which Brasseur de Bourbourg has altered in his transcription. The original should be read as follows: In Ahpop, in Ahpop-Camhá; p. 248 Ahpop chire caleh vech, oc; chicu ave, at Ahau-Galel, Galel ri calem x-ch'uxic x-e cha cut ronohel ahauab, etc.

Next: IV. Chapter 11