Selected Modern Profiles

Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls

Quick Index

The included profiles are indebted to the numerous sources which I have consulted. Among these I must mention the following three works;

1) Norman Golb, Who Wrote the Dead Scrolls? The Search for the Secret of Qumran (Touchstone, New York 1995),

2) F. García Martínez, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated - The Qumran Texts in English, 2nd ed., trans. W. G. E. Watson, (E. J. Brill, Leiden 1995), and

3) Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh, The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception (Summit Books, New York 1991).

These were among my earliest sources and it is because of their influence that all the rest follows.

Anyone whose name appears in this list is invited to submit biographical and bibliographical information for expanding the profiles started here. Students, friends and associates of those listed here are likewise encouraged to submit whatever useful information they can provide.

Quick Index

Abegg, Martin

Adams, Robert

Director of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago. He invited Pére de Vaux to lecture on his findings in 1968.

Albina, Najib

Photographer of the Dead Sea Scrolls over a period of years, Hershel Shanks, editor of Biblical Archaeology Review, calls him one of the unsung heroes of the Dead Sea Scroll saga. By all accounts he is a superb photographer. Many of his plates were taken with infrared film, which enhances the readability of many of the scrolls. Both in Jerusalem and in Amman, where they were stored in the damp cellar of the Ottoman Bank during the 1956 Arab-Israeli war, the scrolls have been stored without the benefit of controlled temperature and humitity conditions.

Early editors smoked in the same room with the scrolls, exposed them to direct sunlight streaming in through open windows, and even used scotch tape to assemble some of the fragments. Many fragments were damaged by mildew during storage in the bank, and had to be cleaned. All of this mistreatement has left many fragments so darkened and/or damaged as to be nearly or completely illegible. Today, few of the scrolls are nearly as readable as they were immediately after their recovery and assembly in the late 1950's and early 1960's.

As a result, Mr. Albina's photograpic records are today the best remaining primary archive for anyone studying the scrolls. The negatives in the various depositories, including those in the hands of the offical editors charged with publishing them, are largely copies or prints made from his negatives. Since the scrolls came into Israeli possession, they have not been photographed as a whole. Even the most sophisticated high-tech methods available today have not been able to reproduce the clarity of some of Mr Albina's early photographs.

The primary archives of negatives in the United States are available at The Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center in Claremont, CA, originally founded by Elizabeth Hay Bechtel, and the Huntington Library in San Marino, CA. These two sets of negatives were acquired at Mrs. Bechtel's expense when she sent photographers to Jerusalem to photograph photographs of the scrolls. Her access to the scrolls, albiet indirect, arose as a result of her philanthropy in support of the scroll scholars working on them in Jerusalem.

Her effort was merely to cover her investment in the event any of the scrolls got damaged later. Two sets of negatives were prepared for her and originally destined for the Ancient Manuscript Center until she had a falling out with the director, Professor James A. Sanders. There can be little doubt that the photographs she received were taken of prints made from Mr. Albina's original negatives.

The other American archive is at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnatti, Ohio, which has only a partial set of negatives. The source of this set is obscure.

The final archive outside of Israel is at the Oxford Center for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies in England, which obtained its set as a result of the donation by a British foundation toward the work of the official editing team. This set of negatives is probably a first generation copy of Mr. Albina's original negatives.

Albright, W. F.

Alexander, Philip S.

Allegro, John Marco

The British nominee to the international team, at the time a doctoral student at Oxford under Professor Godfrey R. Driver. He was the only philologist on the international team, and already had five publications to his credit when he joined the team. The only member of the original team who was not a complete unknown, therefore. After Hunzinger left he was also the only member of the international team, other than Cross, who was not a Catholic cleric. The material assigned to him consisted of "wisdom literature'; hymns, psalms sermons and exhortations. He left the team after breaking with the consensus interpretation endorsed by de Vaux.

Alter, Robert

A literary critic from the University of California.

Anderson, A. A.

Ashtor, E.

Avi-Yonah, Michael

Avigad, N.

Baillet, Father Maurice

Baneth, D. H.

Bar-Adon, Pesah

Excavator of many Second Iron Age settlements between Khirbet Qumran and En Gedi, including En Ghuweir, where clay pots like those used at Qumran to store scrolls were also found and where a cemetery similar to the one at Qumran was partially excavated.

Bar-Zohar, Michael

Bardtke, H.

Barkey, Gabriel

A senior lecturer at Tel Aviv University; member of the BAR Editorial Advisory Board.

Bartélemy, Dominique

Baumgarten, Joseph M.

Bechtel, Elizabeth

She somehow managed to obtain two nearly complete sets of photographic negatives from the Jerusalem Department of Antiquities. One of these went to the Biblical Manuscript Institute, founded by her in Claremont, California, and one for her personal use. The latter ended up in the vaults of the Huntington Museum some years before her death in 1987.

One of these two sets of negatives is undoubtedly the source of the prints received by Robert Eisenman and published, again with the support of the Biblical Archaeology Society, as A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea AcrollsR. H. Eisenman and J. M. Robinson (eds.), 2 Volumes (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1991).

The Huntington Museum opened its archive shortly before the publication of Eisenman and Robinson's Facsimile Edition. These two events coming right after the publication of the startling publication by Wacholder and Abegg based on their misplaced copy of the Preliminary Concordance finally broke the stranglehold of the official editors and forced a speedier publicaton schedule on the the tardy editors and their successors.

Beek, M.

Benoit, Father Pierre (d.1987)

Another Dominican priest, "appointed" head of the international team and of the Ecole Biblique in 1972 following the death of Father Roland de Vaux.

Berger, Klaus

Betz, Otto

Formerly professor of New Testament at Chicago Theological Seminary. Taught New Testament and Ancient Judaism at the University of Tübingen. Now retired.

Beyer, K.

Billington, James H.

Librarian of Congress. Wrote the forward to the official catalogue of the scrolls exhibition that came to the United States in 1993.

Birnbaum, Solomon A.

Black, Matthew

Bonani, G.

Bouard, Michel de

Brooke, George

Broshi, Magen

Curator of Jerusalem's Shrine of the Book, where most of the intact Dead Sea Scrolls are kept. Directed archaeological excavations on Mt. Zion and elsewhere in Jerusalem. Member of the Dead Sea Scrolls advisory committee of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Brownlee, William H.

He and John Trever were the first experts to view the scrolls held by Mar Samuel and the first to confirm that the scrolls were genuine and older than the Nash Papyrus. Albright later confirmed this tentative conclusion and he estimated their copy date as 100 BCE.

Burnham, Irene

Burrows, Millar

Professor, Department of Near Eastern Languages, Yale university, and Director, Albright Institute until 1952? Director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem at the time Mar Samuel first presented his scrolls to Trever and Bronwlee. Burrows was away at the time of the first visit and Trever was acting-director in Burrows absence, which is why the first contacts were with Trever rather than Burrows. Burrows of course approved all that had been accomplished in his absence and became an active participant in work on the scrolls following his return. Burrows, following the suggestion first made by Sukenik and elaborated by Burrows, Frank Moore Cross and Andre Dupont-Sommer, is one of the founders of the Qumran-Essene hypothesis.

Cansdale, L.

Carmignac, Jean

Charles, R. H.

Copeland, Miles

Cross, Frank M.

Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages, Harvard University. Director of Harvard Semitic Museum. Former president of the American Schools of Oriental Research and of the Society of Biblical Literature. Formerly, professor on the faculty of the McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago and associated with the Albright Institute in Jerusalem. The first scholar appointed by de Vaux to the international editorial team. He was assigned biblical texts, scroll commentaries, found in Cave 4 at Qumran.

Dajani, Awni

Dalman, Gustav

Danielou, Cardinal Jean

Davies, Philip

Davila, J. R.

Dayan, Moshe

de Vaux, Father Roland

see Vaux, Pére (Father) Roland de

Delcor, M.

Del Medico, Henri

Dexinger, F.

Dimant, Devorah

Donceel, Robert

Donceel-Voûte, Dr. Pauline

Doresse, Jean

Dorner, G. R.

Driver, Sir Godfrey R.

Drori, Amir

Duncan, J.

Dupont-Sommer, André

Eisenmman, Robert H.

Chairman of the Department of Religious Studies and Professor of Middle East Religions at California State University in Long Beach. BA Physics and Philosophy, Cornell University, 1958. MA Hebrew and Near Eastern Studies, New York University, 1966. PhD Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, 1971. External Fellow, University of Calabria. Lecturer Islamic Law, Islamic religion and culture, the Dead Sea Scrolls, Christian origins, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Fellow in Residence, William F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, Jerusalem, 1986-87. Visiting Senior Member, Linacre College, Oxford. Visiting Scholar, Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies.

Eissfeldt, Otto

Elson, John

Eshel, Esther

Eshel, Hanan

Fitzmyer, Joseph A.

Emeritus Professor of Biblical Studies at the Catholic University; President of the Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas (SNTS) for the term 1993-93.

Flusser, David

Frank, Harry Thomas

Formerly professor of Religion at Oberlin College. Staff archaeologist at Tell el-Hesi excavations in Israel.

Freedman, David Noel

Fritsch, C. T.

Fuller, R. G.

García Martínez, Florentino

Gardner, James

Gaster, T. H.

Gaventa, Beverly

Georgi, Dieter

Gilbert, Father Pierre

Glickler-Chazon, E.

Goitein, S. D.

Golb, Norman

Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilization, University of Chicago and a voting member of its Oriental Institute. Contact Professor Norman Golb by e-mail or by writing to him at the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL or by telephone at (312) 702-9526. You can also check out the Oriental Institute at its award winning Web Site.

Gold, Leonard S.

Goodman, Martin

Goranson, S.

Gottesman, D. Samuel

Greenfield, Jonas C.

Greenhut, Z.

Grossman, Ron

Haas, Nicu

Harding, Gerald Lankester

Director, Department of Antiquities for Transjordan and Arab Palestine at the time of the division of Palestine. He took steps to acquire as many scrolls and scroll fragments as possible before they were lost or smuggled out of Jordan. This stimulated a scroll hunting frenzy, which produced a large cache of material whose full extent is still largely unknown.

Harel, Menashe

Harrington, Daniel J.

Harris, Roberta L.

Hausner, Amos

Hausner, Gideon

Healy, Rev. Timothy S.

Heinemann, J.

Hempel, C.

Hendel, Ronald S.

Assistant Professor of Religious Studies at Southern Methodist University.

Hengel, Martin

Hill, George

Hoenig, Sidney

Hopkins, David C.

In 1993, appointed editor of BA; professor of Hebrew scripture at Wesley Theological Seminary, Wahington, DC.

Hunzinger, Dr. Claus-Hunno

Nominated to the international team by the "Germans" and assigned by de Vaux to one particular text known as the 'War Scroll', as well as to a body of material transcribed on papyrus rather than on parchment.

Isaac, Ephraim

Institue of Semitic Studies in Princeton

Isaiah, George

Janzen, J. G.

Jastram, N.

Jauss, Hans-Robert

Jonge, M. de

Jongeling, B.

Kando (Shahin, Khalil Iskander)

A Christian "shopkeeper" and "dealer in curios and antiques" living in Bethlehem; a member of the Syrian Jacobite Church. He sold a cache of scrolls to Athanasius Yeshua Samuel in 1947. When questioned by staff members of Hebrew University and three officers in 1967, he produced another scroll, the "Temple Scroll", which he says he had kept hidden for six years (since 1961). This can be cited as a suggestion that an underground trade in scrolls was flourishing in Israel and Palestine as late as the early 1960's and a hint that it might be going on to this day.

Kando was eventually paid a reported $105,000 for the Temple Scroll. He had handled the vast majority of transactions for scroll fragments between the bedouin and the Jordanian authorities ever since the earliest scrolls were discovered.

Kapera, Zdzislaw J.

Katzman, Avi

Journalist with Ha'aretz, a leading Tel Aviv newspaper. He conducted the interview with John Strugnell in which Strugnell uttered blatantly anti-semitic sentiments. This lead to discussions of his long time alcholism which had not been widely reported until this interview. It also exposed some of the deep roots of anti-semitism that had prevaded the international team of editors since its earliest inception. Strugnell was quickly removed as chief editor by the other members of the international team for "health reasons."

Kaufman, Steven A.

Kiraz, Anton

As a parishioner at St. Marks and a good friend of Mar Samuel, he was the one who contacted Sukenik about selling the scrolls held at St. Marks. Sukenik had excavated on some of Kiraz's property and they personally knew each other, so Kiraz was well situated to act as go between for both Samuel and Sukenik. Sukenik and Kiraz met at the YMCA in order to view the scrolls. Kiraz allowed Sukenik to take on scroll to Hebrew University for further study. It (the Isaiah Scroll) stayed at the University for about a week while the other scrolls were stored in a drawer at the YMCA. When the one scroll was returned, and Sukenik knew they were genuine, he offered a reported 500 pounds for all four scrolls. This was raised at some point to 1,000 pounds. Samuel balked at this point and decided to seek additional verification and possibly higher bids. After this Samuel, through the services of his friend Butros Sowmy, apparently contacted the American School of Oriental Research and John Trever, who managed to photograph much of the material. These photraphs still constitute the best record available of the scrolls that he photographed. This is especially so as the orginal scrolls have faded from exposure despite the best possible care under controlled temperature and humidity conditions.

(comments: Thank you for the Qumran modern time-table. I was glad to see that my father's name, Anton Kiraz, is on it. My father was very much involved in the original discovery of the scrolls(in fact had the initial 4 scrolls in his own house in Jerusalem for some time).
George Kiraz, Ph.D., son of Anton Kiraz)

Kister, M.

Klinghardt, M.

Knibb, M. A.

Koenen, Ludwig

Koester, Helmut

Koldeway, Robert

Kraemer, J. L.

Kuhn, K. G.

A German scholar visiting Jerusalem shortly after the discovery of the 3Q15-The Copper Scroll. He was apparently the first one to notice that the reverse writing embossed on the outide of the scroll could be partially read. He thought they described the hiding places of treasures. This apparently added some urgency to the need to find a way to open this scroll without destroying it.

Küng, Hans

Laperrousaz, Ernest Marie

Lash, Major-General

Lazar, Rabbi

Lehmann, Manfred R.

His theory about the Copper Scroll is that it records actual treasures accumulated after the destruction of the Second Temple. Jews throughout the region still made their ususal contributions, but with no Temple in which to deposit them, temporary storage locations had to be found. He envisioned the accumulated wealth the these contributions made between the two Jewish revolts. That would require that the Copper Scroll was deposited much later than all the other scrolls.

Levine, Baruch

Levy, Raphael

Writer, newspaperman, film maker, public relations director, and Dead Sea Scrolls buff.

Lieberman, S.

Lim, Timothy H.

Linder, Elisha

BAR calls him a founding father of marine archaeology in Israel. Founder of the Undersea Exploration Society of Israel; helped to establish the Center for Maritime Studies at the Univesity of Haifa. Since 1985, directed the Sardinian Coastal Study Project.

Lippens, Captain Philippe

Belgian Air Force, member of the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization following the partition of Palestine in 1949. Graduate of the Oriental Institute at the University of Louvain. He approached de Vaux to act as technical director of an excavation he was planning to look for more scroll material. This expedition was endorsed and supported by Gerald Lankester Harding.

Lovering, E. H., Jr.

Loza, José

Lurie, B. Z.

Magen, Yitzhak

Magness, Jodi

Mann, Jacob

Matthews, K. A.

Mayer, B.

McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr.

William Foxwell Albright Professor of Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies at Johns Hopkins University. Author of commentaries on I Samuel and II Samuel for the Anchor Bible series. Preparing a new edition and translation of the Copper Scroll from Qumran for Princeton University Press. Formerly president of the American Schools of Oriental Research.

Metso, S.

Meyers, Eric

Editor of BA for 10 years (1982-1992)

Milik, Josef

A Polish priest, resettled in France, he was another nominee to the international team from the Ecole Biblique. He was assigned a corpus of scroll material that included Old Testament apocrypha and 'pseudepigraphical' writings; that is texts in which a later commentator tried to impart authority to his words by ascribing them to earlier prophets and patriarchs. It also included material classified by de Vaux as 'sectarian material' covering the community at Qumran, their teachings, rituals, and disciplines.

Millar, F.

Moffat, William A.

Muchowski, Peter

Muhammad edh-Dhib (Muhammad the Wolf)

Muilenburg, James

Muraoka, T.

Murphy-O'Connor, Father Jerome, O.P.

Professor of New Testament, Ecole Biblique et Archéologique Française de Jérusalem
Education: Th.D., University of Fribourg, Switzerland
Publications: Paul: A Critical Life

Nathan, H.

Naveh, J.

Ne'eman, Yuval

Neuser, Jacob

Netzer, Ehud

Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; The excavator of Herodium; trained as an architect as well as an archaeologist; began his career working at Masada under the direction of Yegaek Yadin.

Newsom, Carol A.

North, Robert

Norton, G.

O'Callaghan, J.

Orlinsky, Harry

Parker, Harry S., III

Patrich, Joseph

Peled, Ruth

Pfann, Claire Ruth

University of the Holy Land: Assistant Dean, Academic Affairs; Chair, Division of New Testament and Early Christianity

Education: M.A., Graduate Theological Union; Postgraduate Studies, Hebrew University, Department of Comparative Religions Publications: Production Editor, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek Documentary Texts from Nahal Hever and other Sites (DJD XXVII); Contributor, The Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible

Pfann, Stephen J.

University of the Holy Land: President; Chair, Department of Qumran Studies; Co-Director, Nazareth Village Farm Excavation

Education: M.A., Graduate Theological Union; Ph.D. candidate, Department of Ancient Semitic Languages, Hebrew University Publications: The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition; "The Essene Yearly Renewal Ceremony and the Baptism of Repentance," Proceedings of the Provo Conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls; "Khirbet Kerak Ware," Anchor Bible Dictionary

Statement of Stephen J. Pfann on the
The "Angel Scroll" or the Book of the Visions of Yeshua ben Padiah

Background Four months ago I was approached by a senior writer from the Jerusalem Report, Netty Gross, and was asked if I would help verify the existence of a Dead Sea Scroll manuscript which had not been published previously. I was aware of a story, known by other scholars, that there was at least one rather well-preserved scroll which had made its way to Europe and which was similar to the Book of Enoch or Jubilees. This may be identified as the source of a scroll fragment examined by Prof. John Strugnell sometime in 1967-1968 which he described elsewhere as something "resembling the Book of Enoch".

The scroll discovery at hand was already known at least as early as 1974 and may have actually been discovered in the mid-to-late 1960’s. If its authenticity could be verified, its similarity in content to writings of the Enochic tradition would posit this as being either similar to or identical to the elusive scroll of Europe.

Basis for Assessment

Since neither the original manuscript nor photographs of the ‘Angel Scroll’ have been made available to me, I am not able to confirm or reject the authenticity of the report. Transcriptions of approximately one-fourth of the posited text of the scroll were given to me for examination. These allowed me to ascertain somewhat the feasibility that the text might have been derived from a Dead Sea Scroll.

However, these partial transcriptions derived from a computer file based on a handwritten copy of the original text. Thus, I cannot even ascertain their accuracy since the actual, handwritten copy of the text has not been provided to me.

The Title

The title "Angel Scroll" has been applied recently to the scroll by its current editors. In antiquity, however, a book was normally known by the name of its author who was specified in its first line as in the case of Biblical books (for example "The Vision of Isaiah ...." or sometimes more specifically "The Book of the Parables of ....").


From the limited sampling given to me for examination, the following tentative description can be offered at this time: At least two sources are evident in the scroll (or scrolls)—which have likely been produced by separate authors—tentatively called here "Source I" and "Source II".

Source I

Attributed to a certain "Yeshua ben Padiah": Since I have seen two versions of the first line of the scroll, each attributing the scroll to a different name, the attribution of this scroll to Yeshua ben Padiah should be considered tentative until the original or a photograph is produced.

The vision of Yeshua ben Padiah is stated to have taken place at Ein Eglatain (located near the Eastern shore of the Dead Sea on the Lisan).

Age of Scroll: It is said to be dated palaeographically to the 1st cent CE.

Language: Post Biblical Hebrew with certain terms borrowed from Greek and Aramaic.

Phrases in this source that are generally accepted as being associated with the Essene writings at Qumran include: Children of Light/Children of Darkness, "Passing into the Covenant", midrash ha-torah, the use of the word ‘el for "God", "the Congregation of God", "the Holy Council", "the priests who are the keepers of the covenant", "Belial" and "Mastemah", "the Children of Belial", "his covenant will be renewed forever", "the Law/Torah of Moses."

The text of this source also contains the characteristic "Qumran spellings" noted by scholars since the first Dead Sea Scrolls appeared.

Structure: Since only part of this source has been made available to me, a structure of Source I can only be provisionally suggested as containing at least four sections:

1. The Introduction, providing the recipient of the vision, the occasion of the vision, and the place of the vision.

2. A prophetic or apocalyptic section which foresees the siege of Jerusalem, its temple and the suffering of the pious.

3. An account of Yeshua ben Padiah’s ascent to and description of the heavenly realm, aided by a certain angel named Panameia. This is similar to the ascent to the heavenlies found in 1 Enoch in that the visionary visits the heavenly realm and is provided with a guided tour by a heavenly being. In the case of Yeshua ben Padiah, he enters through the gates of a heavenly palace (hekhal) in order to view the various parts of heaven. However, in the sections to which I have been given access, it is not yet clear if the gates are understood to be of a single palace or access gates to each of the seven (or ten) heavens spoken of in the other sources (e.g., 2 and 3 Enoch and Paul in 2 Corinthians 12).

4. There are additional paragraphs which describe the nature and moral character of the Children of Light who have been endowed with the Spirit of God (contrasted with that of the Children of Darkness). It is here that we find certain philosophical or theological conceptions that are reminiscent of both the Dead Sea Scrolls and, in several cases, the New Testament. In every case, however, these conceptions are clearly derived from a certain line of interpretation of the Bible. In at least two cases, the text of the Bible is quoted and elaborated upon with a metaphorical or midrashic interpretation following.

Source II

Unknown authorship.

Age of Scroll: Likewise is said to be dated palaeographically to the 1st cent CE.

Language: Post Biblical Hebrew with certain terms borrowed from Greek and Aramaic.

Some Qumran terminology including the term "Children of Light". This portion also contains what are likely quotes from certain Dead Sea Scrolls including, in particular, the Rule of the Community.

Several grammatical similarities to Mishnaic Hebrew:

1. nunation (-în) instead of mimation (-îm) for masculine plural endings.

2. sh- for the relative particle (instead of ’asher)

3. shel for the genitive particle (instead of ‘asher l-)

The grammatical features of this source are found at Qumran in 4QMMT and in the Copper Scroll from Cave 3. Unique grammatical characteristics: Aleph is used to divide a vowel cluster, especially before the furtive patach lû’ach, rû’ach, mô’ach

The second source seems to be providing additional material which is intended to illuminate or elaborate on elements or themes provided by the account of Yeshua ben Padiah. It concerns itself with the mechanics of Religion and Creation in a more scientific or detailed form. At times the conceptions seem quite primitive providing detailed recipes containing ingredients for the resurrection of the dead (through a prescribed embalming process) and the use of herbs and certain specially marked stones with special powers for healing. (This practice was already attributed to the Essenes by the first century historian Josephus).

At other times the conceptions of this source seem quite advanced for his time. As is quoted in The Jerusalem Report article, the human being is birthed within the womb as a union between two seeds, each contributing its own information to the "knowledge" of the combined seed which produces the child. This seems to be a common sense expression of what we would call today genetics based upon sober observation and deduction. The concept of two seeds: the seed of the woman and the seed of a man can be drawn from the book of Genesis 3. This, however, runs contrary to the contemporary teaching which sees the man as being the sole source of the seed with the womb merely acting as fertile ground, or perhaps, an incubator in which the seed can grow.

The second source often provides prescriptions/recipes detailing the ingredients and methods used for God’s creation and the means which He has provided for His people to use them to obtain guidance and to participate in His healing and creative activity in this world.


Until the authenticity and the palaeographic dating of the scroll (or scrolls as the case may be) can be confirmed by photographs or the actual manuscript(s), we must be cautious not to make too much from the content of the text. However, if this would be confirmed unambiguously, then this new discovery may well prove to be an important witness or "missing link" to the connection between Qumran, early Christianity, and early Judaism during the first century of the Common Era.

S. Pfann 27.9.99

Philonenko, M.

Pisano, S.

Ploeg, J. P. M. van der

Price, J. J.

Puech, Father Emile

Ecole Biblique, was assigned the rights and custody of certain scrolls from Father Jean Starcky upon his death.

Pummer. R.

Qimron, Elisha

Rabin, Chaim

Rabinovitch, Abraham

Rappaport, U.

Ratzinger, Cardinal Joseph

Reed, William L.

New Director of the Albright Institute in the Spring of 1952 when he joined de Vaux in a systematic, if hardly comprehensive, survey of all the caves in and near Qumran.

Rengstorf, K. H.

Rivkin, Ellis

Rix, Stephen

Roberts, C. H.

Robinson, James

Romer, John

Roth, Cecil

Rothstein, David

Rueger, H. Peter

Rufus, Willian

Saad, Joseph

Director of the Rockefeller Museum. He ordered the kidnapping of the Bedouin who discovered the second set of caves in the Judaean wilderness, possibly driving the trade in scrolls underground to avoid future such incidents. His expedition led to the discovery of four caves at Wâdi Murabbacat. Scrolls in these caves were from the 2nd century CE - around the time of the revolt in Judaea led by Simeon bar Kochba between 132 and 135 CE.

Samuel, Athanasius Yeshua

Archimandrite of the Syrian-Orthodox Monastery of St Mark in Jerusalem.

Sanders, James A.

Sanderson, Judith E.

Säve-Söderberg, T.

Schechter, Solomon

Schiffman, Lawrence H.

Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies at New York University. Fellow of the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem dealing with the Dead Sea Scrolls. Recent recipient of editorial assignment of Cave 4 texts from Qumran.

Schillebeeckx, Father Edward

Schliemann, Heinrich

Schlosser, Robert

Schopenhauer, A>

Schubert, K.

Schuller, E. M.

Schuré, Edouard

Schürer, E.

Shahin, Khalil Iskander

See "Kando."

Shamoun, George Ishaya

Kando's partner in handling the sale of the scrolls for the Bedouin. George was closest of the two to the Bedouin and Kando was more comfortable dealing with the buyers, apparantly. George and Kando originally agreed to split between themselves one-third of the sale price of any scrolls they managed to sell. The Bedouin would get two-thirds.

Shanks, Hershel

Founder and editor of Biblical Archaeology Review and Bible Review. President of the Biblical Archaeology Society, publisher of A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls--Hebrew and Aramaic Texts from Cave Four--Fascicle I (1991) and A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls--Volumes I and II (1991).

Shapira, Moses William

Sharon, Ariel

Shatzman, Israel

Shelton, J. C.

Singer, Itamar

Associate Professor at Tel Aviv University; specialist in Canaanite history.

Skehan, Monsignor Patrick (d.1980)

Director of the Albright Institute at the time he was appointed by de Vaux to the international team. He as assigned scroll material similar to that of Cross from Cave 4. He was succeeded by Eugene Ulrich.

Smith, G. A.

Smith, Morton

Sokoloff, M.

Sowmy, Ibrahim

Swomy, Butros

A monk at St. Marks Cathedral. When he returned to the monastary after an absence, Samuel was nearly ready to accept Sukenik's latest offer of 1000 pounds for the scrolls. Sowmy thought that Sukenik was too anxious and advised seeking further information and bids. Subsequently, through the services of his friend Butros Sowmy, Samuel contacted the American School of Oriental Research and John Trever, who managed to photograph much of the material. These photraphs still constitute the best record available of the scrolls that he photographed. This is especially so as the orginal scrolls have faded from exposure despite the best possible care under controlled temperature and humidity conditions.

Spencer, Herbert

Starky, Father Jean (d.1986)

Nominated by the Ecole Biblique to the international team, he was attached to the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique. An expert in Aramaic, he was assigned the corpus of the scroll material in that language. He was succeeded by Emile Puech.

Steckoll, S. H.

Stegemann, Hartmut

Professor of New Testament Science at the University of Göttingen. Author of numerous articles on Qumran and problems of the historical Jesus. Preparing a dictionary of the nonbiblical Qumran texts.

Stern, Menachem

Strange, James

Strugnell, John (b1930)

A doctoral student at Oxford at the time he joined the international team to replace John Allegro. BA 1952 and MA 1955, Jesus College, Oxford. Admitted to the PhD program at Oxford's Faculty of Oriental Studies, he never completed his doctorate and his candidature lapsed in 1958. Worked for de Vaux for two years in Jerusalem starting in 1954. Briefly, at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, he returned to Jerusalem and worked at the Rockefeller Museum as epigraphist until 1960. In 1960 appointed Assistant Professor of Old Testament Studies at Duke University. In 1968 appointed Professor of Christian Origins at Harvard Divinity School.

Appointed head of the international team to succeed Father Benoit as head of the international team upon his resignation in 1986. Strugnell took half retirement from Harvard at that time in order to spend half of each year in Jerusalem at the Ecole Biblique.

He privately issued a twenty-five copy printing (in theory only for use by the official editors) of A Preliminary Concordance to the Hebrew and Aramaic Fragments from Qumran Caves II to X (Gottingen: Distributed by H. Stegmann, 1988). This opened up one of the first magor chinks in the armour of the official editors when Ben Zion Wacholder and Martin Abegg got hold of a copy, managed to reconstruct seventeen manuscripts from Cave 4 on their computer, and published them with the aid of the Biblical Archaeology Society in September 1991.

He resigned in 1990 after an embarrassing interview in which he is reported as saying unkind things about Israelis and the Jewish religion.

Stuckenbruck, L.

Sukenik, Eliezer L.

Department of Archaeology, Hebrew University. Through his efforts that part of the original cache of scrolls that was not sold to Mar Athanasius, was purchased by Israel from a source in Bethlehem in 1947. Father of Yigael Yadin.

Sussman, Ayalah

Sussman, Jacob

Tabor, James D.

Associate Professor of religious studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte; co-authored Noble Death with Arthur Droge (HarperCollins, 1992), participates in Judaean Wilderness exoeditions.

Talmon, Shemaryahu

Tatro, Nicholas B.

Teicher, Jacob

Thiede, C. P.

Thiering, Barbara

Tov, Emanuel

He succeeded John Strugnell as head of the international team after anit-Semitic statements made by Strugnell during an interview were published in 1990. He is the first Israeli and the first Jew to head the internation team of editors. The pace of publication has significantly accelerated under his leadership, and even John Strugnell, after over forty years, is now scheduled to bring at least part of his original cache into official print.

Professor of Bible, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Education: Ph.D., Hebrew University
Publications: Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible;
Editor-in-Chief, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert; The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition

Trebolle Barrera, J.

Trever, John C.

When, through the services of his friend Butros Sowmy, Samuel contacted the American School of Oriental Research, he talked with John Trever, who managed to photograph much of the material. These photraphs still constitute the best record available of the scrolls that he photographed. This is especially so as the orginal scrolls have faded from exposure despite the best possible care under controlled temperature and humidity conditions.

Trever's photographs were sent to William Foxwell Albright who confirmed to everyone's satisfaction that the scrolls were genuine and the oldest known biblical manuscripts in existence.

Ulrich, Eugene

Professor at Notre Dame University, was assigned the rights and custody of certain scrolls from Father Skehan upon his death in 1980.

VanderKam, James C.

Professor of Old Testament Studies at the University of Notre Dame. Editor of Jubilees texts from Qumran Cave 4. Chair of the Ancient Manuscripts Committee of the American Schools of Oriental Research.

Vaux, Pére (Father) Roland de (1903-71)

Reputed to have been a member of Action Francaise in his youth. He learned Aramaic and Arabic while studying for the priesthood (1925-28), joined the Dominican Order in 1929 under whose auspices he was sent to the Ecole Biblique in Jerusalem. Began regular teaching duties there in 1934 and became director in 1953. Editor of Revue Biblique published by the Ecole Biblique.

President of the Board of Trustees of the Rockefeller Museum in 1954 when the Dead Sea Scrolls at the Rockefeller Museum were entrusted to his personal and exclusive care. He invited all of the nearby foreign, i.e. non-Israeli, schools and institutes of archaeology to nominate members for an "international team" to take responsibility for preserving, analyzing, and publishing the contents of the scrolls. He also asked those schools and institutes making nominations to provide financial support for the undertaking.

Reported to be anti-semitic and anti-Israeli. Never allowed anyone with Jewish or Israeli connections to see, much less study, the scrolls under his control at the Rockefeller Museum.

Vegas Moutaner, L.

Vermes, Geza

Vesco, Father Jean-Luc

Viviano, Benedict T.

A Dominican priest; served as ordinarius professor of New Testament at the Ecole Biblique since 1984. He is the first American to hold a permanent position at this French school. He was the New Testament editor for the Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible (Macmillan, 1986) and his articles and revues have appeared in Revue biblique, Journal of Biblical Literature, and Catholic Biblical Quarterly.

Wacholder, Ben Zion

Weinfeld, Moshe

White, Sidnie A.

Wilford, John Noble

Wilmot, David

Wilson, Sir Charles

Wilson, Edmund

Wise, Michael O.

Assistant Professor of Aramaic at the University of Chicago; specialist in Aramaic and Hebrew philology.

Wolters, Al

Woodward, Scott

Woude, A. S. van der

Wright, G. E.

Wright-Baker, H.

Yadin, Yigael

Chief of Staff, Israeli Defense Forces, 1949-52, PhD, Hebrew University, Archaeology, 1955. Professor, Hebrew University, 1955-1984. Excavated Masada between 1963 and 1965 and Hazor. Also led and expedition of search the caves near the Dead Sea. Served as head of the Department of Archaeology and later of the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Son of Eleazer L.Sukenik. Until his death in 1984 he was Israel's greatest archaeologist.

Through his efforts the four scrolls stored in a bank vault in New York and under the control of Mar Athanasius Yeshua Samuel were purchased with donated funds following the appearance of an ad in the Wall Street Journal, and transferred to Israel in July, 1954. These four along with the three scrolls purchased originally by Sukenik in 1947 and the Temple Scroll, confiscated from Kando after the 1967 Six Day War (later purchased from Kando for $105,000), are now all held in the Shrine of the Book in Israel. The confiscation of the Temple Scroll has been blamed by some (especially Strugnell) for the unavailability of certain scrolls still said to be held in private hands. Yadin says that they agreed to pay Kando for the scroll in order to prove to others that the Israeli givernment would act honorably in any future transactions involvng purchases of scroll material.

Yadin edited the War Scroll and the Temple Scroll, and with the help of his students after his death, published all of his archaeological reports.

Yardeni, Ada

Yellin, Joseph

Youtie, H. C.

Zeitlin, Solomon

Ziobro, Bill

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