THE ASSERTION, first recorded and transmitted by the Sumerians, that
"Man" was created by the Nefilim, appears at first sight to clash
both with the theory of evolution and with the Judeo-Christian
tenets based on the Bible.
But in fact, the information contained in
the Sumerian texts - and only that information - can affirm both the
validity of the theory of evolution and the truth of the biblical
tale - and show that there really is no conflict at all between the
In the epic "When the gods as men," in other specific texts, and in
passing references, the Sumerians described Man as both a deliberate
creature of the gods and a link in the evolutionary chain that began
with the celestial events described in the "Epic of Creation."
Holding firm to the belief that the creation of Man was preceded by
an era during which only the Nefilim were upon Earth, the Sumerian
texts recorded instance after instance (for example, the incident
between Enlil and Ninlil) of events that had taken place "when Man
had not yet been created, when Nippur was inhabited by the gods
At the same time, the texts also described the creation of
Earth and the development of plant and animal life upon it, in terms
that conform to the current evolutionary theories.
The Sumerian texts state that when the Nefilim first came to Earth,
the arts of grain cultivation, fruit planting, and cattle raising
had not yet extended to Earth. The biblical account likewise places
the creation of Man in the sixth "day" or phase of the evolutionary
process. The Book of Genesis, too, asserts that at an earlier
No plant of the cleared field was yet on Earth, No herb that is
planted had yet been grown... . And Man was not yet there to work
All the Sumerian texts assert that the gods created Man to do their
work. Putting the explanation in words uttered by Marduk, the
Creation epic reports the decision:
I will produce a lowly Primitive;
"Man" shall be his name.
I will create a Primitive Worker;
He will be charged with the service of the gods,
that they might have their ease.
The very terms by which the Sumerians and Akkadians called "Man"
bespoke his status and purpose: He was a lulu ("primitive"), a lulu
amelu ("primitive worker"), an awihim ("laborer").
That Man was
created to be a servant of the gods did not strike the ancient
peoples as a peculiar idea at all. In biblical times, the deity was
"Lord," "Sovereign," "King," "Ruler," "Master." The term that is
commonly translated as "worship" was in fact avod ("work"). Ancient
and biblical Man did not "worship" his god; he worked for him.
No sooner had the biblical Deity, like the gods in Sumerian
accounts, created Man, than he planted a garden and assigned Man to
And the Lord God took the "Man" and placed him in the garden of Eden
to till it and to tend it.
Later on, the Bible describes the Deity "strolling in the garden in
the breeze of the day," now that the new being was there to tend the
Garden of Eden. How far is this version from the Sumerian texts that
describe how the gods clamored for workers so that they could rest
In the Sumerian versions, the decision to create Man was adopted by
the gods in their Assembly. Significantly, the Book of Genesis -
purportedly exalting the achievements of a sole Deity - uses the
plural Elohim (literally, "deities") to denote "God," and reports an
And Elohim said:
"Let us make Man in our image,
after our likeness."
Whom did the sole but plural Deity address, and who were the "us" in
whose plural image and plural likeness Man was to be made?
of Genesis does not provide the answer. Then, when Adam and Eve ate
of the fruit of the Tree of Knowing, Elohim issued a warning to the
same unnamed colleagues:
"Behold, Man has become as one of us, to
know good and evil."
Since the biblical story of Creation, like the other tales of
beginnings in Genesis, stems from Sumerian origins, the answer is
obvious. Condensing the many gods into a single Supreme Deity, the
biblical tale is but an edited version of the Sumerian reports of
the discussions in the Assembly of the Gods.
The Old Testament took pains to make clear that Man was neither a
god nor from the heavens.
"The Heavens are the Heavens of the Lord,
unto Mankind Earth He hath given."
The new being was called "the
Adam" because he was created of the adama, the Earth's soil. He was,
in other words, "the Earthling."
Lacking only certain "knowing" and a divine span of life, the Adam
was in all other respects created in the image (selem) and likeness
(dmut) of his Creator(s). The use of both terms in the text was
meant to leave no doubt that Man was similar to the God(s) both
physically and emotionally, externally and internally.
In all ancient pictorial depictions of gods and men, this physical
likeness is evident. Although the biblical admonition against the
worship of pagan images gave rise to the notion that the Hebrew God
had neither image nor likeness, not only the Genesis tale but other
biblical reports attest to the contrary. The God of the ancient
Hebrews could be seen face-to-face, could be wrestled with, could be
heard and spoken to; he had a head and feet, hands and fingers, and
The biblical God and his emissaries looked like men and
acted like men - because men were created to look like and act like
But in this very simplicity lies a great mystery. How could a new
creature possibly be a virtual physical, mental, and emotional
replica of the Nefilim? How, indeed, was Man created?
The Western world was long wedded to the notion that, created
deliberately, Man was put upon Earth to subdue it and have dominion
over all other creatures. Then, in November 1859, an English
naturalist by the name of Charles Darwin published a treatise called
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the
Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. Summing up
nearly thirty years of research, the book added to earlier thoughts
about natural evolution the concept of natural selection as a
consequence of the struggle of all species - of plant and animal
alike - for existence.
The Christian world had been jostled earlier when, from 1788 on,
noted geologists had begun to express their belief that Earth was of
great antiquity, much, much greater than the roughly 5,500 years of
the Hebrew calendar. Nor was the concept of evolution as such the
explosive: Earlier scholars had noted such a process, and Greek
scholars as far back as the fourth century B.C. compiled data on the
evolution of animal and plant life.
Darwin's shattering bombshell was the conclusion that all living
things - Man included - were products of evolution. Man, contrary to
the then-held belief, was not generated spontaneously.
The initial reaction of the Church was violent. But as the
scientific facts regarding Earth's true age, evolution, genetics,
and other biological and anthropological studies came to light, the
Church's criticism was muted.
It seemed at last that the very words
of the Old Testament made the tale of the Old Testament
indefensible; for how could a God who has no corporal body and who
is universally alone say,
"Let us make Man in our image, after our
But are we really nothing more than "naked apes"? Is I lie monkey
just an evolutionary arm's length away from us, and the tree shrew
just a human who has yet to lose his tail and stand erect?
As we showed at the very beginning of this book, modern scientists
have come to question the simple theories. Evolution can explain the
general course of events that caused life and life's forms to
develop on Earth, from the simplest one-celled creature to Man. But
evolution cannot account for the appearance of Homo sapiens, which
happened virtually overnight in terms of the millions of years
evolution requires, and with no evidence of earlier stages that
would indicate a gradual change from Homo erectus.
The hominid of the genus Homo is a product of evolution. But Homo
sapiens is the product of some sudden, revolutionary event. He
appeared inexplicably some 300,000 years ago, millions of years too
The scholars have no explanation. But we do. The Sumerian and
Babylonian texts do. The Old Testament does.
Homo sapiens - modern Man - was brought about by the ancient gods.
The Mesopotamian texts, fortunately, provide a clear statement
regarding the time when Man was created. The story of the toil and
ensuing mutiny of the Anunnaki informs us that "for 40 periods they
suffered the work, day and night"; the long years of their toil are
dramatized by repetitious verses.
For 10 periods they suffered the toil;
For 20 periods they suffered the toil;
For 30 periods they suffered the toil;
For 40 periods they suffered the toil.
The ancient text uses the term ma to denote "period," and most
scholars have translated this as "year."
But the term had the
connotation of "something that completes itself and then repeats
itself." To men on Earth, one year equals one complete orbit of
Earth around the Sun. As we have already shown, the orbit of the Nefilim's planet equaled a shar, or 3,600 Earth years.
Forty shars, or 144,000 Earth years, after their landing, the
Anunnaki protested, "No more!" If the Nefilim first landed on Earth,
as we have concluded, some 450,000 years ago, then the creation of
Man took place some 300,000 years ago!
The Nefilim did not create the mammals or the primates or the
hominids. "The Adam" of the Bible was not the genus Homo, but the
being who is our ancestor - the first Homo sapiens. It is modern Man
as we know him that the Nefilim created.
The key to understanding this crucial fact lies in the tale of a
slumbering Enki, aroused to be informed that the gods had decided to
form an adamu, and that it was his task to find the means.
"The creature whose name you uttered - IT EXISTS"
and he added: "Bind upon it" - on the creature that already exists -
"the image of the gods."
Here, then, is the answer to the puzzle: The Nefilim did not
"create" Man out of nothing; rather, they took an existing creature
and manipulated it, to "bind upon it" the "image of the gods."
Man is the product of evolution; but modern Man, Homo sapiens, is
the product of the "gods." For, some time circa 300,000 years ago,
the Nefilim took ape-man (Homo erectus) and implanted on him their
own image and likeness.
Evolution and the Near Eastern tales of Man's creation are not at
all in conflict. Rather, they explain and complement each other. For
without the creativity of the Nefilim, modern Man would still be
millions years away on the evolutionary tree.
Let us transport ourselves back in time, and try to visualize the
circumstances and the events as they unfolded.
The great interglacial stage that began about 435,000 years ago, and
its warm climate, brought about a proliferation of food and animals.
It also speeded up the appearance and spread of an advanced manlike
ape, Homo erectus.
As the Nefilim looked about them, they saw not only the predominant
mammals but also the primates - among them the manlike apes. Is it
not possible that the roaming bands of Homo erectus were lured to
come close to observe the fiery objects rising to the sky? Is it not
possible that the Nefilim observed, encountered, even captured some
of these interesting primates?
That the Nefilim and the manlike apes did meet is attested to by
several ancient texts.
A Sumerian tale dealing with the primordial
When Mankind was created,
They knew not the eating of bread,
Knew not the dressing in garments;
Ate plants with their mouth like sheep;
Drank water from a ditch.
Such an animal-like "human" being is also described in the "Epic of
That text tells what Enkidu, the one "born on the
steppes," was like before he became civilized:
Shaggy with hair is his whole body,
he is endowed with head-hair like a woman... .
He knows neither people nor land;
Garbed he is like one of the green fields;
With gazelles he feeds on grass;
With the wild beasts he jostles
at the watering place;
With the teeming creatures in the water
his heart delights.
Not only does the Akkadian text describe an animal-like man; it also
describes an encounter with such a being:
Now a hunter, one who traps,
faced him at the watering place.
When the hunter saw him,
his face became motionless. ...
His heart was disturbed, overclouded his face,
for woe had entered his belly.
There was more to it than mere fear after the hunter beheld "the
savage," this "barbarous fellow from the depths of the steppe"; for
this "savage" also interfered with the hunter's pursuits:
He filled the pits that I had dug, he tore up my traps which I had
set; the beasts and creatures of the steppe he has made slip through
We can ask for no better description of an ape-man: hairy, shaggy, a
roaming nomad who "knows neither people nor land," garbed in leaves,
'like one of the green fields," feeding on grass, and living among
the animals. Yet he is not without substantial intelligence, for he
knows how to tear up the traps and fill up the pits dug to catch the
animals. In other words, he protected his animal friends from being
caught by the alien hunters.
Many cylinder seals have been found
that depict this shaggy ape-man among his animal friends.
Then, faced with the need for manpower, resolved to obtain a
Primitive Worker, the Nefilim saw a ready-made solution: to
domesticate a suitable animal.
The "animal" was available - but Homo erectus posed a problem. On
the one hand, he was too intelligent and wild to become simply a
docile beast of work. On the other hand, he was not really suited to
His physique had to be changed - he had to be able to
grasp and use the tools of the Nefilim, walk and bend like them so
that he could replace the gods in the fields and in the mines. He
had to have better "brains" - not like those of the gods but enough
to understand speech and commands and the tasks allotted to him. He
needed enough cleverness and understanding to be an obedient and
useful amelu - a serf.
If, as the ancient evidence and modern science seem to confirm, life
on Earth germinated from life on the Twelfth Planet, then evolution
on Earth should have proceeded as it had on the Twelfth Planet.
Undoubtedly there were mutations, variations, accelerations, and
retardations caused by different local conditions; but the same
genetic codes, the same "chemistry of life" found in all living
plants and animals on Earth would also have guided the development
of life forms on Earth in the same general direction as on the
Observing the various forms of life on Earth, the Nefilintl and
their chief scientist, Ea, needed little time to realize! what had
happened: During the celestial collision, their planet had seeded
Earth with its life. Therefore, the being, that was available was
really akin to the Nefilim - though* in a less evolved form.
A gradual process of domestication through generations of breeding
and selection would not do. What was needed was a quick process, one
that would permit "mass' production" of the new workers. So the
problem was • posed to Ea, who saw the answer at once: to "imprint"
the image of the gods on the being that already existed.
The process that Ea recommended in order to achieve a quick
evolutionary advancement of Homo erectus was, we believe, genetic
We now know that the complex biological process whereby a living
organism reproduces itself, creating progeny that resemble their
parents, is made possible by the genetic code. All living organisms
- a threadworm, a fern tree, or Man - contain in their cells
chromosomes, minute rodlike bodies within each cell that hold the
complete hereditary instructions for that particular organism.
the male cell (pollen, sperm) fertilizes the female cell, the two
sets of chromosomes combine and then divide to form new cells that
hold the complete hereditary characteristics of their parent cells.
Artificial insemination, even of a female human egg, is now
possible. The real challenge lies in cross-fertilization between
different families within the same species, and even between
different species. Modern science has come a long way from the
development of the first hybrid corns, or the mating of Alaskan dogs
with wolves, or the "creation" of the mule (the artificial mating of
a mare and a donkey), to the ability to manipulate Man's own
A process called cloning (from the Greek word klon -"twig") applies
to animals the same principle as that of I taking a cutting from a
plant to reproduce hundreds of 'similar plants.
The technique as
applied to animals was first demonstrated in England, where Dr. John
Gurdon replaced the nucleus of a fertilized frog's egg with the
nuclear material from another cell of the same frog. The successful
formation of normal tadpoles demonstrated that the egg proceeds to
develop and subdivide and create progeny no matter where it obtains
the correct set of matching chromosomes.
Experiments reported by the Institute of Society, Ethics land Life
Sciences at Hastings-on-Hudson, show that techniques already exist
for cloning human beings. It is now possible to take the nuclear
material of any human cell not necessarily from the sex organs and,
by introducing its twenty-three sets of complete chromosomes into
the female ovum, lead to the conception and birth of a
"pre-determined" individual. In normal conception, "father" and
"mother" chromosome sets merge and then must split to remain at
twenty-three chromosome pairs, leading to chance combinations.
in cloning the offspring is an exact replica of the source of the unsplit set of chromosomes. We already possess, wrote Dr. W. Gaylin
in The New York Times, the "awful knowledge to make exact copies of
human beings" - a limitless number of Hitlers or Mozarts or
Einsteins (if we had preserved their cell nuclei).
But the art of genetic engineering is not limited to one [process.
Researchers in many countries have perfected a process called "cell
fusion," making it possible to fuse cells [rather than combine
chromosomes within a single cell. As a result of such a process,
cells from different sources can I be fused into one "supercell,"
holding within itself two [nuclei and a double set of the paired
When [this cell splits, the mixture of nuclei and
chromosomes j may split in a pattern different from that of each
cell before [the fusion. The result can be two new cells, each
genetically [ complete, but each with a brand-new set of genetic
codes, [completely garbled as far as the ancestor cells were I
This means that cells from hitherto incompatible living I organisms
- say, that of a chicken and that of a mouse can be fused to form
new cells with brand-new genetic mixes that produce new animals that
are neither chickens nor mice as we know them. Further refined, the
process can also permit us to select which traits of one life form
shall be imparted to the combined or "fused" cell.
This has led to the development of the wide field of "genetic
transplant." It is now possible to pick up from certain bacteria a
single specific gene and introduce that gene into an animal or human
cell, giving the offspring an added characteristic.
We should assume that the Nefilim - being capable of space travel
450,000 years ago - were also equally advanced, compared to us
today, in the field of life sciences. We should also assume that
they were aware of the various alternatives by which two preselected
sets of chromosomes could be combined to obtain a predetermined
genetic result; and that whether the process was akin to cloning,
cell fusion, genetic transplant, or methods as yet unknown to us,
they knew these processes and could carry them out, not only in the
laboratory flask but also with living organisms.
We find a reference to such a mixing of two life-sources in the
According to Berossus, the deity Belus ('lord") -
also called Deus ("god") - brought forth various "hideous Beings,
which were produced of a twofold principle":
Men appeared with two wings, some with four and two faces. They had
one body but two heads, the one of a man, the other of a woman. They
were likewise in their several organs both male and female.
Other human figures were to be seen with the legs and-horns of
goats. Some had horses' feet; others had the limbs of a horse
behind, but in front were fashioned like men, resembling
hippocentaurs. Bulls likewise bred there with the heads of men; and
dogs with fourfold bodies, and the tails of fishes. Also horses with
the heads of dogs; men too and other animals with the heads and
bodies of horses and the tails of fishes. In short, there were
creatures with the limbs of every species of animals... .
Of all these were preserved delineations in the temple of Belus at
The tale's baffling details may hold an important truth.
It is quite
conceivable that before resorting to the creation of a being in
their own image, the Nefilim attempted to come up with a
"manufactured servant" by experimenting with other alternatives: the
creation of a hybrid ape-man-animal. Some of these artificial
creatures may have survived for a while but were certainly unable to
The enigmatic bull-men and lion-men (sphinxes) that
adorned temple sites in the ancient Near East may not have been just
figments of an artist's imagination but actual creatures that came
out of the biological laboratories of the Nefilim - unsuccessful
experiments commemorated in art and by statues.
Sumerian texts, too, speak of deformed humans created by Enki and
the Mother Goddess (Ninhursag) in the course of their efforts to
fashion a perfect Primitive Worker.
One text reports that Ninhursag,
whose task it was to "bind upon the mixture the mold of the gods,"
got drunk and "called over to Enki,"
"How good or how bad is Man's body?
As my heart prompts me,
I can make its fate good or bad."
Mischievously, then, according to this text - but probably
unavoidably, as part of a trial-and-error process - Ninhursag
produced a Man who could not hold back his urine, a woman who could
not bear children, a being who had neither male nor female organs.
All in all, six deformed or deficient humans were brought forth by Ninhursag. Enki was held responsible for the imperfect creation of a
man with diseased eyes, trembling hands, a sick liver, a failing
heart; a second one with sicknesses attendant upon old age; and so
But finally the perfect Man was achieved - the one Enki named Adapa;
the Bible, Adam; our scholars, Homo sapiens. This being was so much
akin to the gods that one text even went so far as to point out that
the Mother Goddess gave to her creature, Man, "a skin as the skin of
a god" - a smooth, hairless body, quite different from that of the
With this final product, the Nefilim were genetically compatible
with the daughters of Man and able to marry them and have children
by them. But such compatibility could exist only if Man had
developed from the same "seed of life" as the Nefilim. This, indeed,
is what the ancient texts attest to.
Man, in the Mesopotamian concept, as in the biblical one, was made
of a mixture of a godly element - a god's blood or its "essence" -
and the "clay" of Earth. Indeed, the very term lulu for "Man," while
conveying the sense of "primitive," literally meant "one who has
Called upon to fashion a man, the Mother Goddess,
"Washed her hands, pinched off clay, mixed it in the steppe."
fascinating to note here the sanitary precautions taken by the
goddess. She "washed her hands." We encounter such clinical measures
and procedures in other creation texts as well.)
The use of earthly "clay" mixed with divine "blood" to create the
prototype of Man is firmly established by the Mesopotamian texts.
One, relating how Enki was called upon to "bring to pass some great
work of Wisdom" - of scientific know-how - states that Enki saw no
great problem in fulfilling the task of "fashioning servants for the
"It can be done!" he announced. He then gave these
instructions to the Mother Goddess:
"Mix to a core the clay
from the Basement of Earth,
just above the Abzu -
and shape it into the form of a core.
I shall provide good, knowing young gods
who will bring that clay to the right condition."
The second chapter of Genesis offers this technical version:
Yahweh, Elohim, fashioned the Adam of the clay of the soil;
and He blew in his nostrils the breath of life, and the Adam turned
into a living Soul.
The Hebrew term commonly translated as "soul" is nephesh, that
elusive "spirit" that animates a living creature and seemingly
abandons it when it dies.
By no coincidence, the Pentateuch (the
first five books of the Old Testament) repeatedly exhorted against
the shedding of human blood and the eating of animal blood "because
the blood is the nephesh." The biblical versions of the creation of
Man thus equate nephesh ("spirit," "soul") and blood.
The Old Testament offers another clue to the role of blood in Man's
creation. The term adama (after which the name Adam was coined)
originally meant not just any earth or soil, but specifically
dark-red soil. Like the parallel Akkadian word adamatu ("dark-red
earth"), the Hebrew term adama and the Hebrew name for the color red
(adorn) stem from the words for blood: adamu, dam.
When the Book of
Genesis termed the being created by God "the Adam," it employed a
favorite Sumerian linguistic play of double meanings. "The Adam"
could mean "the one of the earth" (Earthling), "the one made of the
dark-red soil," and "the one made of blood."
The same relationship between the essential element of living
creatures and blood exists in Mesopotamian accounts of Man's
creation. The hospital-like house where Ea and the Mother Goddess
went to bring Man forth was called the House of Shimti; most
scholars translate this as "the house where fates are determined."
But the term Shimti clearly stems from the Sumerian SHI.IM.TI,
which, taken syllable by syllable, means "breath-wind-life."
Bit Shimti meant, literally,
"the house where the wind of life is
This is virtually identical to the biblical statement.
Indeed, the Akkadian word employed in Mesopotamia to translate the
Sumerian SHI.IM.TI was napishtu - the exact parallel of the biblical
term nephesh. And the nephesh or napishtu was an elusive "something"
in the blood.
While the Old Testament offered only meager clues, Mesopotamian
texts were quite explicit on the subject. Not only do they state
that blood was required for the mixture of which Man was fashioned;
they specified that it had to be the blood of a god, divine blood.
When the gods decided to create Man, their leader announced:
will I amass, bring bones into being."
Suggesting that the blood be
taken from a specific god,
"Let primitives be fashioned after his
pattern," E* said.
Selecting the god,
Out of his blood they fashioned Mankind;
imposed on it the service,
let free the gods...
It was a work beyond comprehension.
According to the epic tale "When gods as men," the gods then called
the Birth Goddess (the Mother Goddess, Ninhursag) and asked her to
perform the task:
While the Birth Goddess is present,
Let the Birth Goddess fashion offspring.
While the Mother of the Gods is present,
Let the Birth Goddess fashion a Lulu;
Let the worker carry the toil of the gods.
Let her create a Lulu Amelu,
Let him bear the yoke.
In a parallel Old Babylonian text named "Creation of Man by the
Mother Goddess," the gods call upon "The Midwife of the gods, the
Knowing Mami" and tell her:
Thou art the mother-womb,
The one who Mankind can create.
Create then Lulu, let him bear the yoke!
At this point, the text "When gods as men" and parallel texts turn
to a detailed description of the actual creation of Man.
the "job," the goddess (here named NIN.TI - "lady who gives life")
spelled out some requirements, including some chemicals ("bitumens
of the Abzu"), to be used for "purification," and "the clay of the
Whatever these materials were, Ea had no problem understanding the
requirements; accepting, he said:
"I will prepare a purifying bath. Let one god be bled... From
his flesh and blood, let Ninti mix the clay."
To shape a man from the mixed clay, some feminine assistance, some
pregnancy or childbearing aspects were also needed. Enki offered the
services of his own spouse:
Ninki, my goddess-spouse, will be the one for labor. Seven
goddesses-of-birth will be near, to assist.
Following the mixing of the "blood" and "clay," the childbearing
phase would complete the bestowal of a divine "imprint" on the
The new-born's fate thou shalt pronounce; Ninki would fix upon it
the image of the gods; And what it will be is "Man."
Depictions on Assyrian seals may well have been intended as
illustrations for these texts - showing how the
Mother Goddess (her symbol was
the cutter of the
umbilical cord) and Ea (whose original symbol was the crescent) were
preparing the mixtures, reciting the incantations, urging each other
The involvement of Enki's spouse, Ninki,
in the creation of the first successful specimen of Man reminds us
of the tale of Adapa, which we discussed in an earlier chapter:
In those days, in those years, The Wise One of Eridu, Ea, created
him as a model of men.
Scholars have surmised that references to Adapa as a "son" of Ea
implied that the god loved this human so much that he adopted him.
But in the same text Ami refers to Adapa as "the human offspring of
Enki." It appears that the involvement of Enki's spouse in the
process of creating Adapa, the "model Adam," did create some
genealogical relationship between the new Man and his god: It was
Ninki who was pregnant with Adapa!
Ninti blessed the new being and presented him to Ea.
Some seals show
a goddess, flanked by the Tree of Life and laboratory flasks,
holding up a newborn being.
The being that was thus produced, which is repeatedly referred to in
Mesopotamian texts as a "model Man" or a "mold," was apparently the
right creature, for the gods then clamored for duplicates.
seemingly unimportant detail, however, throws light not only on the
process by which Mankind was "created," but also on the otherwise
conflicting information contained in the Bible.
According to the first chapter of Genesis:
Elohim created the Adam in His image - in the image of Elohim
created He him. Male and female created He them.
Chapter 5, which is called the Book of the Genealogies of Adam,
On the day that Elohim created Adam,
in the likeness of Elohim did He make him.
Male and female created He them,
and/ He blessed them, and called them "Adam"
on the very day of their creation.
In the same breath, we are told that the Deity created, in his
likeness and his image, only a single being, "the Adam," and in
apparent contradiction, that both a male and a female were created
The contradiction seems sharper still in the second
chapter of Genesis, which specifically reports that the Adam was
alone for a while, until the Deity put him to sleep and fashioned
Woman from his rib.
The contradiction, which has puzzled scholars and theologians alike,
disappears once we realize that the biblical texts were a
condensation of the original Sumerian sources. These sources inform
us that after trying to fashion a Primitive Worker by "mixing"
apemen with animals, the gods concluded that the only mixture that
would work would be between apemen and the Nefilim themselves. After
several unsuccessful attempts, a "model" - Adapa./ Adam - was made.
There was, at first, only a single Adam.
Once Adapa/Adam proved to be the right creature, he was used as the
genetic model or "mold" for the creation of duplicates, and those
duplicates were not only male, but male and female. As we showed
earlier, the biblical "rib" from which Woman was fashioned was a
play on words on the Sumerian TI ("rib" and "life") - confirming
that Eve was made of Adam's "life's essence."
The Mesopotamian texts provide us with an eye-witness report of the
first production of the duplicates of Adam.
The instructions of Enki were followed. In the House of Shimti -
where the breath of life is "blown in" - Enki, the Mother Goddess,
and fourteen birth goddesses assembled. A god's "essence" was
obtained, the "purifying bath" prepared. "Ea cleaned the clay in her
presence; he kept reciting the incantation."
The god who purifies the Napishtu, Ea, spoke up. Seated before her,
he was prompting her. After she had recited her incantation, She put
her hand out to the clay.
We are now privy to the detailed process of Man's mass creation.
With fourteen birth goddesses present,
Ninti nipped off fourteen pieces of clay; Seven she deposited on the
right, Seven she deposited on the left. Between them she placed the
mould... the hair she... the cutter of the umbilical
It is evident that the birth goddesses were divided into two groups.
"The wise and learned, twice-seven birth goddesses had assembled,"
the text goes on to explain. Into their wombs the Mother Goddess
deposited the "mixed clay." There are hints of a surgical procedure
- the removal or shaving off of hair, the readying of a surgical
instrument, a cutter.
Now there was nothing to do but wait:
The birth goddesses were kept together.
Ninti sat counting the months.
The fateful 10th month was approaching;
The 10th month arrived;
The period of opening the womb had elapsed.
Her face radiated understanding:
She covered her head,
Her waist she girdled,
pronounced the blessing.
in the mould was life.
The drama of Man's creation, it appears, was compounded by a late
birth. The "mixture" of "clay" and "blood" was used to induce
pregnancy in fourteen birth goddesses. But nine months passed, and
the tenth month commenced. "The period of opening the womb had
elapsed." Understanding what was called for, the Mother Goddess
"performed the midwifery."
That she engaged in some surgical
operation emerges more clearly from a parallel text (in spite of its
Ninti ... counts the months... .
The destined 10th month they called;
The Lady Whose Hand Opens came.
... she opened the womb.
Her face brightened with joy.
Her head was covered;
... made an opening;
That which was in the womb came forth.
Overcome with joy, the Mother Goddess let out a cry.
"I have created!
My hands have made it!"
How was the creation of Man accomplished?
The text "When the gods as men" contains a passage whose purpose was
to explain why the "blood" of a god had to be mixed into the "clay."
The "divine" element required was not simply the dripping blood of a
god, but something more basic and lasting.
The god that was
selected, we are told, had TE.E.MA - a term the leading authorities
on the text (W. G. Lambert and A. R. Millard of Oxford University)
translate as "personality." But the ancient term is much more
specific; it literally means "that which houses that which binds the
memory." Further on, the same term appears in the Akkadian version
as etemu, which is translated as "spirit."
In both instances we are dealing with that "something" in the blood
of the god that was the repository of his individuality. All these,
we feel certain, are but roundabout ways of stating that what Ea was
after, when he put the god's blood through a series of "purifying
baths," was the god's genes.
The purpose of mixing this divine element thoroughly with the
earthly element was also spelled out:
In the clay, god and Man shall be bound,
to a unity brought together;
So that to the end of days
the Flesh and the Soul
which in a god have ripened -
that Soul in a blood-kinship be bound;
As its Sign life shall proclaim.
So that this not be forgotten,
Let the "Soul" in a blood-kinship be bound.
These are strong words, little understood by scholars.
states that the. god's blood was mixed into the clay so as to bind
god and Man genetically "to the end of days" so that both the flesh
("image") and the soul ("likeness") of the gods would become
imprinted upon Man in a kinship of blood that could never be
The "Epic of Gilgamesh" reports that when the gods decided to create
a double for the partly divine Gilgamesh, the Mother Goddess mixed
"clay" with the "essence" of the god Ninurta. Later on in the text,
Enkidu's mighty strength is attributed to his having in him the
"essence of Anu," an element he acquired through Ninurta, the
grandson of Anu.
The Akkadian term kisir refers to an "essence," a "concentration"
that the gods of the heavens possessed. E. Ebeling summed up the
efforts to understand the exact meaning of kisir by stating that as
"Essence, or some nuance of the term, it could well be applied to
deities as well as to missiles from Heaven." E. A. Speiser concurred
that the term also implied "something that came down from Heaven."
It carried the connotation, he wrote, "as would be indicated by the
use of the term in medicinal contexts."
We are back to a simple, single word of translation: gene.
The evidence of the ancient texts, Mesopotamian as well as biblical,
suggests that the process adopted for merging two sets of genes -
those of a god and those of Homo erectus - involved the use of male
genes as the divine element and female genes as the earthly element.
Repeatedly asserting that the Deity created Adam in his image and in
his likeness, the Book of Genesis later describes the birth of
Adam's son Seth in the following words:
And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years,
and had an offspring
in his likeness and after his image;
and he called his name Seth.
The terminology is identical to that used to describe the creation
of Adam by the Deity.
But Seth was certainly born to Adam by a
biological process - the fertilization of a female egg by the male
sperm of Adam, and the ensuing conception, pregnancy, and birth. The
identical terminology bespeaks an identical process, and the only
plausible conclusion is that Adam, too, was brought forth by the
Deity through the process of fertilizing a female egg with the male
sperm of a god.
If the "clay" onto which the godly element was mixed was an earthly
element - as all texts insist - then the only possible conclusion is
that the male sperm of a god - his genetic material - was inserted
into the egg of an ape-woman!
The Akkadian term for the "clay" - or, rather, "molding clay" - is
tit. But its original spelling was TI.IT ("that which is with
life"). In Hebrew, tit means "mud"; but its synonym is bos, which
shares a root with bisa ("marsh") and besa ("egg").
The story of Creation is replete with plays on words. We have seen
the double and triple meanings of Adam-adama -adamtu-dam. The
epithet for the Mother Goddess, NIN.TI, meant both "lady of life"
and "lady of the rib."
Why not, then, bos - bisa - besa ("clay - mud-egg") as a play on
words for the female ovum?
The Wise and learned,
Double-seven birth-goddesses had assembled;
Seven brought forth males,
Seven brought forth females.
The Birth Goddess brought forth
The Wind of the Breath of Life.
In pairs were they completed,
In pairs were they completed in her presence.
The creatures were People -
Creatures of the Mother Goddess.
Homo sapiens had been created.
The ancient legends and myths, biblical information, and modern
science are also compatible in one more aspect. Like the findings of
modern anthropologists - that Man evolved and emerged in southeast
Africa - the Mesopotamian texts suggest that the creation of Man
took place in the Apsu - in the Lower World where the Land of the
Mines was located. Paralleling Adapa, the "model" of Man, some texts
mention "sacred Amama, the Earth woman," whose abode was in the
In the "Creation of Man" text, Enki issues the following
instructions to the Mother Goddess: "Mix to a core the clay from the
Basement of Earth, just above the Abzu."
A hymn to the creations of
Ea, who "the Apsu fashioned as his dwelling," begins by stating:
Divine Ea in the Apsu
pinched off a piece of clay,
created Kulla to restore the temples.
The hymn continues to list the construction specialists, as well as
those in charge of the "abundant products of mountain and sea," who
were created by Ea - all, it is inferred, from pieces of "clay"
pinched off in the Abzu - the Land of Mines in the Lower World.
The texts make it abundantly clear that while Ea built a brick house
by the water in Eridu, in the Abzu he built a house adorned with
precious stones and silver.
It was there that his creature, Man,
The Lord of the AB.ZU, the king Enki
... Built his house of silver
and lapis-lazuli; Its silver and lapis-lazuli, like sparkling light.
The Father fashioned fittingly in the AB.ZU. The Creatures of bright
countenance, Coming forth from the AB.ZU, Stood all about the Lord
One can even conclude from the various texts that the creation of
Man caused a rift among the gods.
It would appear that at least at
first the new Primitive Workers were confined to the Land of Mines.
As a result, the Anunnaki who were toiling in Sumer proper were
denied the benefits of the new manpower. A puzzling text named by
the scholars "The Myth of the Pickax" is in fact the record of the
events whereby the Anunnaki who stayed in Sumer under Enlil obtained
their fair share of the Black-Headed People.
Seeking to reestablish "the normal order," Enlil took the extreme
action of severing the contacts between "Heaven" (the Twelfth Planet
or the spaceships) and Earth, and launched some drastic action
against the place "where flesh sprouted forth."
That which is appropriate he caused to come about.
The Lord Enlil,
Whose decisions are unalterable,
Verily did speed to separate Heaven from Earth
So that the Created Ones could come forth;
Verily did speed to separate Earth from Heaven.
In the "Bond Heaven-Earth" he made a gash,
So that the Created Ones
could come up
From the Place-Where-Flesh-Sprouted-Forth.
Against the "Land of Pickax and Basket," Enlil fashioned a marvelous
weapon named AL.A.NI ("ax that produces power").
This weapon had a
"tooth," which, "like a one-horned ox," could attack and destroy
large walls. It was by all descriptions some kind of a huge power
drill, mounted on a bulldozer-like vehicle that crushed everything
ahead of it:
The house which rebels against the Lord, The house which is not
submissive to the Lord, The AL.A.NI makes it submissive to the Lord.
Of the bad ... , the heads of its plants it crushes; Plucks at the
roots, tears at the crown.
Arming his weapon with an "earth splitter," Enlil launched the
The Lord called forth the AL.A.NI, gave its orders.
He set the Earth Splitter as a crown upon its head,
And drove it into the Place-Where-Flesh-Sprouted-Forth.
In the hole was the head of a man;
From the ground, people were breaking through
He eyed his Black-headed Ones in steadfast fashion.
Grateful, the Anunnaki put in their requests for the arriving
Primitive Workers and lost no time in putting them to work:
The Anunnaki stepped up to him, Raised their hands in greetings,
Soothing Enlil's heart with prayers. Black-headed Ones they were
requesting of him. To the Black-headed people, they give the pickax
The Book of Genesis likewise conveys the information that "the Adam"
was created somewhere west of Mesopotamia, then brought over
eastward to Mesopotamia to work in the Garden of Eden:
And the Deity Yahweh
an orchard in Eden, in the east ...
And He took the Adam
And placed him in the Garden of Eden
To work it and to keep it.
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