US Commission on

National Security/21st Century

(aka The Hart-Rudman Commission)


Initial DoD Commission initially called the “National Security Study Group”





Gary Hart


GARY HART has been extensively involved in international law and business since retiring from the U.S. Senate in 1987 after 12 years of service. He is Counsel to Coudert Brothers, a multinational law firm, and recently completed a three-year assignment as co-chair of the U.S. Commission on National Security for the 21st Century. He is president of Global Green, the U.S. affiliate of Mikhail Gorbachev's environmental foundation, Green Cross International. He is a founding member of the board of directors of the U.S.- Russia Investment Fund; a former member of the Defense Policy Board, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. The author of 12 books, Hart holds a doctor of philosophy degree from Oxford University and law and divinity degrees fromYale University.




Warren B. Rudman


Partner, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison


Warren B. Rudman became a partner of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison in 1993 after serving two terms in the U.S. Senate representing New Hampshire. He provides clients with strategic advice regarding commercial and legislative matters. He concentrates on corporate and international law with a focus on corporate investigations. He has been retained by major international corporations and other institutions to conduct internal investigations and provide independent assessments of the organizations' business practices, governance structure or major initiatives. In 1993, he was asked by the board of directors of Thorn EMI plc to investigate allegations regarding the business practices of its U.S. rent-to-own subsidiary. In 1994-95, Rudman chaired a Select Committee appointed by the board of governors of the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) to review the NASD governance and oversight of the NASDAQ Stock Market. Between 2000 and 2001 he served on the Sharm el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee (aka The Mitchell Report) which looked at the conflict between Israel and Palestinians.


While in the Senate, Rudman served on the Ethics Committee from 1985 until he left the Senate. As its chairman and vice chairman, he presided over numerous investigations including the Keating Five and was active in fashioning ethics legislation. In addition, he served on the Impeachment Panel for Judge Harry E. Claiborne and Judge Alycee Hastings.


In December 1986, Sen. Rudman was appointed vice chairman of the Senate Select Committee investigating arms transfers to Iran where he was instrumental in organizing and directing the investigation of the Iran-Contra affair. Sen. Rudman served on the Senate Appropriations Committee, the Intelligence Committee, the Governmental Affairs Committee and the well-known Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations.


Prior to serving in the Senate, he served as attorney general of the State of New Hampshire from 1970 to 1976.


Currently, Sen. Rudman is a member of the board of directors of the Chubb Corporation, Allied Waste, Boston Scientific, Collins & Aikman and the Raytheon Company, and a trustee of several funds of the Dreyfus Corporation. In addition, President Clinton appointed him chairman of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board where he served from 1993 to 2001. He serves on the Advisory Board of Stonebridge International. He is very active as co-chairman of the Concord Coalition, a non-profit organization which he founded and set up as a grass-roots movement to awaken the American people to the gravity of our nation's fiscal crisis. Sen. Rudman also serves on the board of trustees of Valley Forge Military Academy, the Council on Foreign Relations and the Brookings Institution. He is a member of the Senior Advisory Committee of the Institute of Politics of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.


Sen. Rudman received his B.S. from Syracuse University in 1952 and served in the U.S. Army as a combat platoon leader and company commander during the Korean War. In 1960, he received his law degree from Boston College Law School.


Other activities inc. media appearances







Anne Armstrong


Anne Armstrong was appointed a regent of Texas A&M University System in 1997  by Governor George W. Bush. She currently serves as chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC.


Mrs. Armstrong is a former member of the boards of directors of American Express Company, Boise Cascade, and Halliburton Company; a past member of the board of General Motors, and now serves on the General Motors Corporate Advisory Council.


She was U.S. ambassador to Great Britain from 1976 to 1977 and was chairman of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board from 1981 to 1990.


Mrs. Armstrong was the first woman appointed counsellor to the president with Cabinet rank by Presidents Nixon and Ford (1973-1974).


She was presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1987 by President Ronald Reagan.


Anne L. Armstrong was born in New Orleans, Louisiana. She was educated at Foxcroft School in Middleburg, Virginia, where she was head of the student body and served as valedictorian of her graduating class. In 1949 she received her B.A. degree from Vassar, where she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in her junior year. In 1950, she married Tobin Armstrong and moved to the Armstrong Ranch, which her husband operates in Armstrong, Texas. They are the parents of 5 grown children: Barclay, Katharine, Sarrita, and twins Tobin, Jr., and James, and they have 12 grandchildren.




Vice Chairman, American Associates of the Royal Academy of Arts, 1984-

Member of the Board of Overseers of the Hoover Institution, 1978- 1990, 1991-1997

Council on Foreign Relations

Founding Council, Oxford Institute for American Studies, 1993-

The Alfalfa Club

Citizen Regent Emeritus of the Smithsonian Institution ˇ President, Blair House Restoration Fund, 1985-1991 ˇ Chairman, English- Speaking Union of the United States, 1977-1980 ˇ Member, Commission on the Organization of Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy (Murphy Commission), 1973-1974 ˇ Council of American Ambassadors ˇ The American Academy of Diplomacy




Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree from:


Bristol University; Hamilton College; Loyola University; St Mary's University; Tulane University; Washington & Lee University; Williams College; Thomas College


Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters Degree from:


Mt. Vernon College; Ripon Co1lege ˇ International Citizen's Award, San Antonio World Affairs Council, 1993 ˇ Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievemcnt, 1989. ˇ Texas Women's Hall of Fame, 1986 ˇ Texan of the Year Award, 1981 ˇ Gold Medal Award, National Institute of Social Sciences for Distinguished Service to Humanity, 1977




Norm R. Augustine


former Chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin


Norman R. Augustine was born in Denver, Colorado, on 27 July 1935; received B.S.E. degree, 1957, and M.S.E. degree, 1959, from Princeton University majoring in aeronautical engineering; was assistant in research at the James Forrestal Research Center, Princeton University. 1957-1958; member of Douglas Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, California, as research aerodynamicist, program manager, and chief engineer, 1958-1963; was staff assistant to the Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering for Strategic Defense Systems; assistant director of Defense Research and Engineering for Tactical Missiles and Ordnance and for Land Warfare in the Office of the Secretary of Defense,1965-1970; vice president, Advanced Systems for the Vought Missiles and Space Company, LTV Aerospace Corporation, Dallas, Texas, and director, Advanced Missiles and Space Systems for the Vought Systems Division, 1970-1973; consultant to the Executive Office of the President, 1971- 1973; was Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Development, 14 September 1973-11 May 1975; member of NASA Research and Technical Advisory Council, 1972-1975; chairman of NASA Space Systems and Technical Advisory Board, 1985-; was Under Secretary of the Army, 23 May 1975-26 July 1977; vice president for operations, Martin Marietta Aerospace Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland, 1977-1982; president, Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace Company, 1982-1985, and president and chief operating officer, 1986-1987; chairman, advisory board Department of Aeromechanical Engineering, Princeton University, 1973-1983; from president to chairman, Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace Company, 1986-1995; professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Princeton University, 1997-;


He is now retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation and Chairman of the Executive Committee of Lockheed Martin (aerospace, electronics, telecommunications and information management). He is also a Director of Lockheed Martin Corporation, director of Procter & Gamble, Black and Decker Corporation and Phillips Petroleum Company. He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.




John Dancy


former NBC White House and diplomatic correspondent


John Dancy, former NBC News Correspondent in Washington and overseas, is Visiting Professor of Communications and Director of International Media Studies at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. He is also Moderator of the PBS program, "Reporting the World," produced by BYU.


Dancy also serves as a consultant to the Department of Defense in two positions: He is a Senior Advisor to the National Security Commission/21st Century, which is determining U.S. defense needs for the first part of the new century. In addition, he serves on the Board of Visitors of the U.S. Regional Security Centers.


During 1997, he served as a member of the Federal Advisory Committee on Gender-integrated Training and Related Issues. The committee, appointed by Defense Secretary William Cohen and headed by former Kansas Republican Senator Nancy Kassebaum Baker, recommended ways to improve joint training for men and women in the military services.


Upon his retirement from NBC News, in September 1996, Dancy was named a Fellow at the Joan Shorenstein Center for Press, Politics and Public Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He also taught as Visiting Professor of the Practice of Journalism at Duke University in 1997 and 1998.


Previously, he had been the most senior correspondent at NBC News. In his thirty-year career at the network, Dancy covered every major beat in Washington, and served twice as a foreign correspondent, based in Berlin, London, and Moscow.


During seventeen years in Washington, Dancy served as Senior White House Correspondent during the presidency of Jimmy Carter, covered Congress during the Reagan years, and was Chief Diplomatic Correspondent during the Bush administration. He has also served as anchor for "NBC Nightly News," as well as "NBC News at Sunrise," and "Meet the Press."


As Senior White House Correspondent, he covered the historic Camp David talks, which resulted in a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, and covered numerous summit meetings.


From 1973 to 1977, Dancy served as foreign correspondent in Berlin and London, an assignment that took him from the gold fields of Siberia to the sands of North Africa. During that time, he covered three wars; the 1973 Middle East war, the 1974 Cyprus war between the Greeks and Turks, and the beginning of the Lebanese civil war in 1975.


As Congressional Correspondent for NBC News, Dancy covered the 1987 Iran-Contra hearings. His disclosure of a secret but unclassified report by the Senate Intelligence Committee gave the nation its first comprehensive picture of the Iran-Contra affair. For his reporting, Dancy was awarded the Everett McKinley Dirksen Prize for 1987, the nation's most prestigious award for coverage of Congress. He was the first television correspondent so honored.


In covering the diplomatic beat during the Bush administration, Dancy traveled more than 650 thousand miles with Secretaries of State, beginning with George Shultz, and continuing with James Baker and Warren Christopher. His travels with Baker came at a momentous time in world history. Dancy covered the fall of the Berlin wall, the end of Soviet domination of eastern Europe, the reunification of Germany and the collapse of the Soviet Union. He covered the intense diplomatic activity that preceded the 1991 Persian Gulf war. Also in 1991, he made seven trips to the Middle East with Secretary of State James Baker, as the United States initiated the first Israeli-Arab-Palestinian peace talks, which he also covered.


Dancy took a brief hiatus from foreign policy in 1992 to cover one of his first loves, politics. He traveled extensively with Bill Clinton during the general election campaign.


In 1994, Dancy was assigned to Moscow for his second tour as a foreign correspondent. Soon after being assigned there, Dancy covered his fourth war, involving Russian Army troops and Chechen rebels.


Dancy has won the Alfred I. DuPont-Columbia University Award for Excellence in Broadcast Journalism, the Overseas Press Club's Citation for Excellence, the Dirksen Award for coverage of Congress, the Janus Award for business reporting, and four National Emmys.


Dancy attended David Lipscomb University, and was graduated in 1959 from Union University in his native Jackson, Tennessee. He was awarded an honorary doctorate by Union in 1989. He and his wife, Ann Lewis Dancy, have two sons and two daughters.




John R. Galvin


retired General and former NATO Commander


General John Galvin is the sixth dean of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. He served as NATO Supreme Allied Commander, Europe and Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Army, Navy and Air Forces in Europe during the five years that ended the Cold War. More recently, he was an envoy of the U.S. State Department with the rank of Ambassador to assist with negotiations in Bosnia. Dean Galvin played a central role in many of recent history's defining moments, including the Gulf War, the redesigning of NATO strategy, humanitarian support in Central and Eastern European nations, the rescue of 450,000 Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq, East-West negotiations on arms control, and U.S. military operations in Zaire, Liberia, and other African nations. He has published several books and articles on U.S. military strategy, transatlantic relations, and the future role of NATO. A graduate of West Point, Dean Galvin holds a master's degree in English from Columbia University and continued his military education at the Army Command and General Staff College and the Army War College. He also did postgraduate study at the University of Pennsylvania and attended The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy on a fellowship in 1972-73.




Leslie H. Gelb


President of the Council on Foreign Relations



Columnist, Deputy Editorial Page Editor, Op-Ed Page Editor, National Security Correspondent, Diplomatic Correspondent, New York Times (198193); Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment (1980-81); Asst. Sec. of State for PoliticalMilitary Affairs (1977-79); Senior Fellow, Brookings (1969- 73); Visiting Professor, Georgetown Univ. (1969-73); Dir. of Policy Planning and Arms Control for Int'l Security Affairs, Dept. of Defense (1967-69); Executive Assistant, U.S. Senator Jacob K. Javits (1966-67).


Selected publications:

AngloAmerican Relations, 1945-1950: Toward a Theory of Alliances (1988); Claiming the Heavens (Star Wars) (co-author, 1988); Our Own Worst Enemy: The Unmaking of American Foreign Policy (co-author, 1984); The Irony of Vietnam: The System Worked (co-author, 1980).



Pulitzer Prize in Explanatory Journalism (1985); APSA Woodrow Wilson Award for the best book on international relations (1981); Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences.


He is also a director of The Asia Tigers Fund, Inc.








Newt Gingrich


former Speaker of the House and Representative from Georgia


Newt Gingrich is the CEO of The Gingrich Group, a communications, and management-consulting firm with offices in Atlanta and Washington, DC. Speaker Gingrich serves as a Senior Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, DC and as a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. He is a news and political analyst for the Fox News Channel. Newt also serves as honorary Chairman of the NanoBusiness Alliance and is a member of the Advisory Board of the Museum of the Rockies.




Lee H. Hamilton


Director, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars



Member, U.S. Congress, Ninth District, Indiana

January 1965 - January 1999

Chairman, Ranking Member, and Member, Committee on International Relations; Chairman, Vice Chairman, and Member, Joint Economic Committee; Chairman and Member, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; Chairman, Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress; Chairman, October Surprise Task Force; Chairman, Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran; Member, House Standards of Official Conduct Committee



International Relations and Congress



DePauw University, B.A., 1948 - 1952; Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 1952 - 1953; Indiana University School of Law, J.D., 1953 - 1956



Lee H. Hamilton became Director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in January, 1999. The Woodrow Wilson Center, located in the heart of Washington D.C., is a pre-eminent intellectual haven where scholars, policymakers, and business leaders investigate and discuss, in a comprehensive and non- partisan manner, public policy issues, their deep historical backgrounds, and their effect on our world. The Center serves as the living memorial to former President Woodrow Wilson, a scholar and a professor who was committed to bringing the world of policy and the world of ideas together so that each will learn from the other.


Prior to becoming the Director of the Woodrow Wilson Center, Lee Hamilton served for thirty-four years as a United States Congressman from Indiana. Born in Daytona Beach, Florida, in 1931, Mr. Hamilton and his family soon relocated to Tennessee and then Indiana. After graduating from Central High School in Evansville, Indiana, he attended DePauw University where he studied history. He was involved in student government and served on the school’s Council on Religious Life and the Methodist Student Movement. He graduated with honors in 1952 and was awarded the Walker Cup, an award given to the most outstanding member of the senior class. Mr. Hamilton was the star of his basketball teams in high school and college, and his talent earned him a spot in the Indiana Basketball Hall of Fame. After college, Lee Hamilton attended Goethe University in Germany for a year, followed by law school at Indiana University, graduating in 1956. He then practiced law, first in Chicago and then in Columbus, Indiana. He was first elected to Congress from Indiana’s 9th District in 1964.


During his thirty-four year tenure in Congress, Mr. Hamilton became very influential in the area of foreign affairs. He served as a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, now the Committee on International Relations, for his entire time in Congress. He became a subcommittee chairman in 1971, and chaired a Subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East from the early 1970s until 1993. Lee Hamilton served for ten years as the Ranking Democrat on the Committee, and was Chairman of the Committee during the 103rd Congress. During his years in Congress, he made significant contributions to American foreign policy and took a particular interest in promoting democracy and market reform in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, as well as promoting peace and stability in the Middle East. He also encouraged the expansion of US markets overseas and the overhaul of US foreign aid and export policies. His service as a ranking member and a Chairman enabled him to become an astute observer of many significant historical events, such as the Arab/Israeli peace negotiations, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the 1991 Gulf War.


In addition to foreign affairs, Lee Hamilton made significant contributions to economic policy. As Chairman of the Joint Economic Committee, he worked to create a sound and healthy economy and to promote economic development by focusing on such issues as global market competition, Federal Reserve policy, and long-term economic challenges facing the nation. Other committees Mr. Hamilton has chaired include the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress, and the Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran. He was also active in strengthening Congressional ethics standards, serving on the House Standards of Official Conduct Committee and being a primary draftsman of several House ethics reforms.


In his own state of Indiana, Lee Hamilton has worked hard to improve the education, job training, and infrastructure programs of its citizens. He is now Director of a Center on Congress project at Indiana University. The Indiana Center aims to educate citizens on the way the US Congress operates, its importance, and its role in our system of government. The Center is strictly non-partisan and includes a special outreach program to the people of Indiana.


Mr. Hamilton’s distinguished service in government has been honored through numerous awards in public service and human rights. These include the Knight Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1999, the Paul H. Nitze Award for Distinguished Authority on National Security Affairs in 1999, the American Political Science Association Hubert H. Humphrey Award in 1998, the American Bar Association CEELI Award in 1998, the Center for Civic Education Civitas Award in 1998, the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service in 1998, the Center for National Policy Edmund S. Muskie Distinguished Public Service Award in 1997, the American Political Science Association Outstanding Legislator Award in 1997, the Indiana University Presidents Medal for Excellence in 1996, and the Indiana University Institute for Advanced Study Distinguished Citizen Fellow in 1994.


Some other awards of distinction include the Central Intelligence Agency Medallion in 1988, the Defense Intelligence Agency Medallion in 1987, the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985, and the Knight of the French Legion of Honor in 1984.


Lee Hamilton has received several honorary degrees, including degrees from Bellarmine University, DePauw University, Hanover College, Detroit College of Law, Ball State University, University of Southern Indiana, Wabash College, Union College, Marian College, American University, Indiana University, Suffolk University, Indiana State University, Anderson University, Franklin College, and Shenandoah University.


Lee Hamilton and his wife, the former Nancy Ann Nelson, have three children (Tracy Lynn Souza, Deborah Hamilton Kremer, and Douglas Nelson Hamilton), and four grandchildren (Christina, Maria, McLouis, and Patricia Souza).


He is also a member of the Homeland Security Advisory Council and a trustee of Brookings.




Lionel H. Olmer


former Under Secretary of Commerce


born New Haven, Connecticut, November 11, 1934; admitted to bar, 1963, Connecticut; 1975, District of Columbia.



University of Connecticut (B.A., 1957);

American University (J.D., 1963);

National War College.


From 1985 until the present, he has been a partner in the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton and Garrison

Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade, 1981-1985

Member, Board of Directors, International Rescue Committee, 1977—

Member, Board of the Nixon Center

Member, Board of Directors, SIPEX Corporation

Member, Council on Foreign Relations

Member: Connecticut Bar Association; The District of Columbia Bar. (Washington, D.C. and Tokyo, Japan Offices)


Practice Areas: International Trade and Investment; Communications




Donald B. Rice


President and CEO, Agensys


Secretary of the Air Force from May 1, 1989 to Jan. 20, 1993


Donald B. Rice was the 17th secretary of the Air Force.


He was born in Frederick, Md., in 1939. He earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from the University of Notre Dame in 1961, a master's degree in industrial management in 1962, and a doctorate in economics in 1965, both from Purdue University. He was awarded three honorary degrees: doctor of engineering by Notre Dame in 1975, doctor of management by Purdue in 1985 and doctor of laws by Pepperdine University in 1989.


In April 1972 Rice became president and chief executive officer of The RAND Corp., an independent, nonprofit, public service institution which conducts research and analysis on problems of national security and domestic affairs, and doctoral degree programs in several fields of public policy. He served in that capacity until May 1989, resigning to accept appointment by President Bush as secretary of the Air Force.


From September 1970 to April 1972, he served as assistant director in the Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, Washington, D.C. He was responsible for budgeting, program analysis and management improvement activities in the areas of agriculture, atomic energy, commerce, energy, environment, natural resources, public works, science and technology, space and transportation.


From February 1969 to September 1970, he served as deputy assistant secretary of defense for resource analysis. He was responsible for analysis of cost, manpower and logistics requirements, preparation of fiscal guidance issued by the secretary to the military services and the coordination of DOD's program and budget planning with the National Security Council. He had served as director of cost analysis in the Office of the Secretary of Defense from June 1967.


He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps upon graduation from Notre Dame in June 1961. From June 1965 to June 1967, he served on active duty as first lieutenant and then captain in the U.S. Army. During that time, he was assistant professor of management and acting deputy director for academics at the Navy Management Systems Center, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif.


From 1975 to 1977 he was appointed by the president to serve as chairman of the National Commission on Supplies and Shortages. He then was requested by the president to direct a resources management review for the secretary of defense, which he conducted from 1977 to 1979. From 1974 to 1986, he served two terms on the National Science Board.


Rice has published articles, reports and papers dealing with economic policy, government organization and budgeting, defense resources management, energy systems, strategic capabilities and arms control, regulatory problems, and analytical techniques.


He was awarded the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Civilian Service Award in September 1970. He also was a Ford Foundation fellow.


Chairman, President and CEO, Director and Founder of Agensys, Dr. Rice was President and COO of Teledyne, Inc. from 1993-1996. Dr. Rice serves on the Board of Directors of biopharmaceutical corporations Amgen, Inc., and Scios, Inc., where he is non-executive chairman. He also serves on the Boards of Wells Fargo & Company, Vulcan Materials Company, and Unocal Corporation. Dr. Rice received a BS degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Notre Dame, an MS in Industrial Management from Purdue University, and a PhD in Economics, also from Purdue. Dr. Rice serves as a Trustee of the RAND Corporation and Chairman of the Board of Governors of the RAND Graduate School, and served previously on the Commission on National Security/21st Century, the National Science Board, and the Defense Science Board. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including five honorary doctorates.




James Schlesinger


former Secretary of Defense and Energy and Director of the CIA.


James R. Schlesinger serves as senior adviser to the investment banking firm of Lehman Brothers and as chairman of the Board of Trustees of the MITRE Corporation. He also serves as counselor to the Center for Strategic and International Studies.


Born in New York City on February 15, 1929, Mr. Schlesinger received an A.B. summa cum laude from Harvard University in 1950. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and was selected for the Frederick Sheldon Prize Fellowship, 1950-1951. Subsequently he received an A.M. (1952) and Ph.D. (1956) from Harvard. From 1955 to 1963 he served as assistant and associate professor of economics at the University of Virginia. Subsequently he was associated with the RAND Corporation as a senior staff member (1963-67), and Director of Strategic Studies, (1967-1969). During this period he also served as consultant to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and to the U.S. Bureau of the Budget.


In March 1969, Mr. Schlesinger began his government service as assistant director of the Bureau of the Budget (later the Office of Management and Budget) and served for a period as acting director. He left the Bureau of the Budget in August 1971 when President Nixon selected him to become chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. He held that post until February 1973 when he was named director of the Central Intelligence Agency. He served in the latter position until July 1973 when he was appointed secretary of defense. He remained at the Defense Department until November 1975.


In 1976 President-elect Carter asked Mr. Schlesinger to become assistant to the president, charged with the responsibility of drafting a plan for the establishment of the Department of Energy and a national energy policy. On August 5, 1977, Mr. Schlesinger became the nation's first secretary of energy, taking the oath of office one day after President Carter signed the legislation creating the new department. He held that post until August 1979.


Mr. Schlesinger is a member of the Board of Directors of BNFL, Inc. He is a trustee at the Atlantic Council, Center for Global Energy Studies, and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation. He is a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and a member of the America s Academy of Diplomacy. He served with the President's Commission on Strategic Forces (1982-1983) and the Governor's Commission on Virginia's Future (1982-1984. He was vice chairman of the President's Blue Ribbon Task Group on Nuclear Weapons Program Management (1984-1985.


Mr. Schlesinger is the author of The Political Economy of National Security (1960), America at Century's End (Columbia University Press, 1989), and numerous articles. He has been awarded eleven honorary doctorates. Mr. Schlesinger is the recipient of the National Security Medal as well as five departmental and agency medals. He is the winner of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Distinguished Service Medal, the George Catlett Marshall Medal, the H.H. Arnold Award, the Navy League's National Meritorious Citation, the Military Order of the World Wars Distinguished Service Award, the Jimmy Doolittle Award, the William Oliver Baker Award, and the Henry M. Jackson Award for Distinguished Public Service.


He and his wife, the late Rachel Mellinger Schlesinger, have eight children. He resides in Arlington, Virginia.




Harry D. Train


Retired Admiral and former Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic


Senior Vice President

Science Application International Corporation


Former Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet; Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic


Trustee Emeritus, Institute for Defense Analysis


Board of Advisors, National Institute for Public Policy (NIPP)




Andrew Young


The Honorable Andrew Young is Chairman and Co-Founding Partner of GoodWorks International, LLC, a company he formed in 1997 with Mr. Carlton A. Masters to energize the private sector to produce substantial economic development in Africa and the Caribbean. Ambassador Young's long-held vision was honed during his comprehensive leadership in public service and private industry as he addressed the challenges of business, government, international affairs and human rights. His extensive and diverse career provides GoodWorks clients with an exceptionally qualified advisor who possesses a global perspective on business expansion.


1993 to 1997: Vice-Chairman of Law Companies Group, Inc.

1995 to 1997: Director of Law Companies Group, Inc.

1990 to 1993: Chairman of Law Companies International Group, Inc.

1982 to 1990: Mayor of the City of Atlanta

1977 to 1979: United States Ambassador to the United Nations

1973 to 1977: Member House of Representatives of the U. S. Congress


In 1996, Ambassador Andrew Young served as Co-Chair of the Atlanta Committee for the Centennial Olympic Games. In 1995, President Clinton appointed Mr. Young Chairman of the $100 million Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund (SAEDF), which was established to help create small and medium size businesses throughout Southern Africa. In 1985, Young was reelected Mayor of Atlanta and under his administration, more than a million jobs were created as the metropolitan region attracted more than $70 billion dollars in investments and construction.




Ambassador Andrew Young serves on the Board of Directors of numerous businesses and organizations, including Archer Daniels Midland, Atlanta Market Center, Cox Communications, Delta Airlines, Film Fabricators, and Thomas Nelson Publishing. He is an Advisory Board member of Argus Newspapers, Barrick Gold, The Martin Luther King Center for Nonviolent Social Change and The United Nations Foundation. He was appointed Chairman of the African-American Summit in July 2001, following the passing of Reverend Dr. Leon Howard Sullivan.




Andrew Young is an ordained minister and current President of the National Council of Churches USA. He is a human right activist and former public servant. Top aid to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. during the civil rights movement, Young was involved in the movement's inception and served as Vice-President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He now serves on the Board of the King Center for Non-Violent Social Change.


Ambassador Young remains active in community matters. He often sets time aside to talk to various schools and universities on a range of issues. He participates in events that foster sound public policy, economic development, human rights and education.




Under Ambassador Young's leadership, the U. S. played an active role in the negotiations for the Independence of Namibia and Zimbabwe in 1977. He now travels extensively to meet with officials and individuals interested in improving economic conditions in Africa and the Caribbean. Ambassador Young has headed numerous missions to the continent of Africa and continues to energize an extensive network to facilitate new business developments. Not limiting his interest in international affairs to Africa and the Caribbean, he frequently addresses and attends conferences dealing with global affairs. Ambassador Young is Distinguished Executive Fellow and Honorary Professor of Public Policy at the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University, a school that enrolls a significant number of students from all regions of the world.




Ambassador Young is the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including The Presidential Medal of Freedom, The French Legion d' Honneur, The Bishop Walker Humanitarian Award and more than 58 honorary degrees from universities including Yale, Notre Dame, Wake Forest, Emory University and the University of Georgia.




Ambassador Young has published two books: A Way Out of No Way (Thomas Nielson Publishing) and An Easy Burden (Harper Collins). He is currently writing a memoir on Africa.




Executive Director


Charles Boyd


General Charles G. Boyd, U.S. Air Force (Ret.), became president and chief executive officer of Business Executives for National Security (BENS) on May 1, 2002. Before joining BENS, he served as senior vice president and Washington program director of the Council on Foreign Relations. He is currently the Henry A. Kissinger Senior Fellow in National Security and European Affairs there.


General Boyd was commissioned through the aviation cadet program in July 1960 and retired in 1995 after 35 years of service. A combat pilot in Vietnam, he was shot down on his 105th mission and survived 2,488 days as a prisoner of war. The only POW from that war to achieve the four-star rank, General Boyd's final military assignment was as deputy commander in chief of U.S. forces in Europe. His other assignments as a general officer include vice commander of Strategic Air Command's 8th Air Force, director of plans at Headquarters U.S. Air Force in Washington, D.C., and commander of Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. He is a command pilot with more than 3,000 flight hours.


Following his retirement from active duty, he served as the Director, 21st Century International Legislators Project for the Congressional Institute, Inc. and strategy consultant to then Speaker of the House, Newt Gingrich. In July 1998 he became executive director of the Hart-Rudman National Security Commission, which foresaw the growing terrorist threat to the United States well before the September 11, 2001 attacks and advocated priority attention be devoted to homeland security.


His military decorations include the Air Force Cross, Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star with oak leaf cluster, Bronze Star with combat "V" and two oak leaf clusters, Distinguished Flying Cross, and the Purple Heart with two oak leaf clusters.


General Boyd is a native of Iowa. He is a graduate of the University of Kansas, the Air War College, as well as the Program for Senior Executives in National and International Security at Harvard University.


General Boyd's wife, the late Millicent Sample Boyd, died in 1994. He has a daughter and a son.


He is currently serving on the committee for the “Strengthening the Federal Response” committee of the Century Foundation Homeland Security Project.





Deputy Executive Director


Arnold Punaro


Major General Arnold L. Punaro is the Director of Reserve Affairs, HQMC. He assumed these duties on May 15, 2001.


As a general officer, he has previously served as Deputy Commanding General (Mobilization) for the Marine Corps Combat Development Command (2000-2001), as the Commanding General of the 4th Marine Division (1997-2000); the Commanding General, Marine Corps Reserve Support Command in Kansas City (1995- 1997), and as Deputy Commander, Marine Forces Reserve (1994-1995).


General Punaro served on active duty as an infantry platoon commander in Vietnam with Lima Company, 3/7 and on the staff of the Basic School. As a reserve officer, he has served in numerous organizations to include serving on active duty in Operation Desert Shield. In December 1993, he completed a tour of extended active duty as the Commander of Joint Task Force Provide Promise (Forward) in command of U.S. Forces serving in the former Yugoslavia. He has served as the Chief of Staff (Mobilization) Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, VA, as the Deputy Director of Reserve Affairs Division at Headquarters Marine Corps, with the Law of War RAU and several tours with the 4th Civil Affairs Group. As a general officer he has served as a member of the Commandant's "Vision 21" Study Group, 1994 to 1995, and the General Officer's Future Group, 2000. He served on the General Officer's Steering Committee for the Commander-in-Chief, United States Atlantic Command from 1994-1997, and on the Board of Gover

nors of the Marine Corps Association from 1994 to 1998.


He currently serves on the adjunct faculty at the Marine Corps University and on the Secretary of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board.


In civilian life, Major General Punaro is a senior vice president of Science Applications International Corporation which he joined in 1997. SAIC is a $6 billion a year employee-owned business specializing in information technology, telecommunications and national defense. Previously he worked in the US Senate for Senator Sam Nunn on national security matters for 24 years (1973-1997). He served as Staff Director of the Senate Armed Services Committee from 1987 to 1995 and Staff Director for the Minority of the Senate Armed Services Committee from 1983 to 1986, and 1995 to 1997. He is a senior associate at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. He was an adjunct professor from 1990 to 2000 in the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, teaching an annual graduate-level course on "National Security Decision-Making."


In 1997 he chaired the "Defense Reform Task Force" for Secretary of Defense William Cohen which supported the Secretary's Defense Reform Initiative announced in November 1997. From 1998 to 2001, he served as Deputy Executive Director, of Secretary Cohen's National Security Study Group--a two year effort to develop a national strategy and resulting organizational and process changes. In 2000, he served on the Senior Review Panel for the National Defense University's Quadrennial Defense Review project.


General Punaro attended Spring Hill College, graduating in May 1968 with a Bachelor of Science degree in English. He has two Masters of Arts Degrees, one in Journalism from the University of Georgia (1973) and the other in National Security Studies from Georgetown University (1979). His formal military education includes The Basic School (1969), Civil Affairs Course (1975), Law of War Course (1982), Reserve Components National Security Course (1990), and Landing Force Staff Planning Course (1991).


He is the recipient of numerous awards to include the Marine Corps League "Iron Mike" Award and the Air Force Association's "Extraordinary Service Award."


His decorations include: the Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V," the Purple Heart Medal, the Joint Service Commendation Medal, the Combat Action Ribbon, the Joint Meritorious Unit Award, the Navy Unit Commendation, the Meritorious Unit Commendation with three Bronze Stars, National Defense Service Medal with one Bronze Star, Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, Vietnam Service Medal with three Bronze Stars, Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service Ribbon with one Bronze Star, Armed Forces Reserve Medal, Selected Marine Corps Reserve Medal with Silver Hourglass, Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation with Gallantry Cross Color with Palm, Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation with Civil Action Color First Class, Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal, Armed Forces Service Medal and the NATO Service Medal.

(Revised Mar 5, 2001)




Chief of Staff


Hank Scharpenberg

(aka Henry S. Scharpenberg)




Bachelor of Science, United States Military Academy

Master of Theater Operations, School of Advanced Military Studies

Master of Program Management, George Washington University




Chief of Staff, National Security Study Group (1998-2001)

Director, Legislators Network for the Congressional Institute, Inc. (1997-1998)

Chief, Contingency Plans Branch, U.S. European Command, Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany (1993- 1996)

Commander, 5th Battalion, 77th Armored Regiment, 1st Armored Division, Mannheim, Germany (1991-1993)




Defense Superior Service Medal

Legion of Merit

Meritorious Service Medal

Army Commendation Medal




Graduate, U.S. Army Airborne School

Graduate, U.S. Army Ranger School

Member, Order of St. George




Study Group Coordinator


Dr. Pat Pentland


Research Analyst, Policy, Strategy, and Forces Division at Center for Naval Analysis




Ph.D., History, University of Idaho (1975)

M.A., History, Gonzaga University (1972)

B.S., Education, University of Idaho (1971)




Research Analyst, Policy Strategy & Forces, Center for Naval Analysis

Deputy Inspector General, U.S. Pacific Command

Deputy Commander, 27th operations group

Professor of History and Strategy, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, Air University

Squadron Commander, 510th Fighter Squadron

Operations Officer, 92nd Fighter Squadron

Force Planner, Headquarters, United States Air Force




Numerous Military Awards

Directorate Order of Daedalians

Commander's Award of Excellence at Air War College

Outstanding Graduate, USAF Fighter Weapons School

Whittenberger Fellow, University of Idaho


Member of the Council on Foreign Relations



Study Group Members


Dr. Jeffrey Bergner


Jeffrey T. Bergner serves as President of the government relations consulting firm Bergner, Bockorny, Castagnetti, Hawkins & Brain, Inc. He focuses on issues relating to international trade, technology, finance and political issues. Dr. Bergner also serves as Adjunct Professor of National Security Studies at Georgetown University, where he teaches on Congress and national security policy.


Prior to founding his consulting firm in 1986, Dr. Bergner served in a variety of capacities in the United States Senate, including legislative director and chief of staff to Senator Richard Lugar, and as staff director of the Committee on Foreign Relations. As Staff Director, Dr. Bergner's responsibilities included daily advice to Chairman Richard Lugar and other members of the Foreign Relations Committee. He administered a staff of sixty, coordinated with the Administration, especially the Departments of State and Defense and the National Security Council, and oversaw the Committee's activities related to nominations, treaties, and legislation, including the foreign assistance and State Department authorization bills. He also taught at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Michigan.


Dr. Bergner holds a B.A. degree from Carleton College, and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in politics and philosophy from Princeton University. He has taught at the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Michigan, and Georgetown University. He is the author of three books and of numerous articles and book reviews in the area of international affairs and public policy. His books include The New Superpowers (St. Martin's Press, 1991).


Dr. Bergner speaks and writes widely on politics, political thought and international affairs. He serves on a variety of not- for-profit boards, projects and commissions. He is a member of the Hudson Institute, a trustee of the Asia Foundation, a member of the Project for the New American Century, and the Calvert Institute. He also serves on the board of advisors to Silver Method, LLC.





Dr. Coit Dennis Blacker


Coit D. Blacker is Deputy Director and Senior Fellow at the Institute for International Studies, and, by courtesy, Professor of Political Science at Stanford University.


During the first Clinton administration Professor Blacker served as Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Senior Director for Russian, Ukrainian and Eurasian Affairs at the National Security Council. At the NSC, he oversaw the implementation of U.S. policy toward Russia and the New Independent States, while also serving as principal staff assistant to the President and the National Security Advisor on matters relating to the former Soviet Union.


Professor Blacker is a graduate of Occidental College (A.B., Political Science) and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (M.A., M.A.L.D., Ph.D.). He has held fellowships from Harvard University, Stanford University and the Council on Foreign Relations. In 1993 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Institute of Far Eastern Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences for his work on U.S.-Russian relations and the promotion of peace and security in the Asia-Pacific region


Professor Blacker is the author or editor of seven books and monographs, including Hostage to Revolution: Gorbachev and Soviet Security Policy, 1985-91 (1993); Reluctant Warriors: The United States, the Soviet Union and Arms Control (1987); and, with Gloria Duffy, International Arms Control: Issues and Agreements (1984)


He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the International Institute for Strategic Studies, and the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University. Professor Blacker co-directs the Aspen Institute’s U.S.-Russia Dialogue, which twice each year brings together prominent American and Russian specialists on foreign and defense policy for discussion and review of critical issues in U.S.-Russian relations. He is also a director of the International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX).




Dr. Christopher J. Bowie


Manager, Defense Policy, Integrated Systems and Aerostructures, Northrop Grumman Corporation




Ph.D., University of Oxford (1984)

B.A., University of Minnesota (1978)




Senior Member, Professional Staff, RAND Corporation

Air Force History Advisory Board

Issues and Policy Analyst, Secretary's Staff Group, Secretary of the Air Force




President's Award, RAND

Air Force Exceptional Civilian Service Medal




Dr. Ivo H. Daalder


Visiting Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies, Brookings Institution


Ivo H. Daalder is a Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution, where he also holds the Sydney Stein Jr. Chair in International Security. He is a frequent commentator on current affairs and his writings have appeared in numerous journals and the opinion pages of leading American and European newspapers. A specialist in American foreign policy, European security, and national security affairs, Daalder is the author, co-author and coeditor of nine books, including Protecting the American Homeland (2002); Winning Ugly: NATO’s War to Save Kosovo (2000); Getting to Dayton: The Making of America’s Bosnia Policy (2000); The United States andEurope in the Global Arena (1999); Rethinking the Unthinkable: New Dimensions for Nuclear Arms Control (1993); The Nature and Practice of Flexible Response: NATO Strategy and Theater Nuclear Forces since 1967 (1991); and Strategic Defenses in the 1990s: Criteria for Deployment (1991).


Daalder’s current research focuses on the implications of globalization and American power for U.S. foreign policy, homeland security organization, and the past, present, and future of the national security council.


Prior to joining Brookings, Daalder was associate professor at the University of Maryland’s School of Public Affairs, where he was also director of research at the Center for International and Security Studies. In 1995-96, he served as director for European Affairs on President Clinton's National Security Council staff, where he was responsible for coordinating U.S. policy toward Bosnia. From 1998-2001, Daalder served as a member of the Study Group of the U.S. Commission

on National Security/21st Century (the Hart-Rudman Commission), a multi-year examination of U.S. national security requirements and institutions.


Daalder was educated at Oxford and Georgetown Universities, and received his Ph.D. in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has been a fellow at Harvard University's Center for Science and International Affairs and the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. He is the recipient of a Pew Faculty Fellowship in International Affairs and an International Affairs Fellowship of the Council on Foreign Relations. Daalder is a member of the

Academy of Political Science, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. He is currently serving on the committee for the “Strengthening the Federal Response” committee of the Century Foundation Homeland Security Project.


Ivo Daalder was born in the Hague, the Netherlands, in 1960. He is married to Elisa D. Harris, and they and their two sons live in the Washington, D.C. area.





Rhett Dawson


President, Information Technology Industry Council


(The Information Technology Industry Council (ITI) represents the leading U.S. providers of information technology products and services. In 2000, ITI member companies employed more than one million people in the United States and exceeded $668 billion in worldwide revenues. Since 1995 the IT industry was the dominant force behind the U.S. economy's acceleration in productivity growth and was directly responsible for one third of the U.S. economic growth.)




J.D., Washington University, St. Louis (1969)

B.S., Illinois Wesleyan University (1966)




President and Chief Executive Officer, ITI

Senior Vice President, Law and Public Policy, PEPCO

Assistant to the President for Operations, The White House

Partner, McNair law firm

Director of Former President Reagan's Special Review Board on Iran-Contra Matters

Director of Former President Reagan's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management

Partner, Dickstein, Shapiro and Morin law firm

Staff Director and Chief Counsel for Senate Armed Services Committee

Minority Counsel to the Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to

Intelligence Activities (the Church Committee) and the Joint Committee on Defense Production




Executive Committee for the Greater Washington Board of Trade

Executive Committee of the Regional National Conference of Christians and Jews

Board of Directors of the Community Partnership for the Prevention of Homelessness


Member: Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy




Dr. Keith Dunn


Office of the Secretary of Defence




Ph.D., History, University of Missouri (1973)

M.A., History, University of Missouri (1971)

B.S., Education, Southeast Missouri State College (1969)




Special Assistant to the Executive Director and Secretary of Defense's Designated Federal Officer, National Security Study Group (NSSG)

Principal Director, Inter-American Affairs, Office of the Secretary of Defense

Department of State Senior Seminar

Deputy Defense Advisor, US Mission to NATO

Director Defense Plans Division, US Mission to NATO

Assistant for Conventional Forces Policy, Office of Secretary of Defense

Senior Fellow, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University

Senior Policy Analyst and Political Scientist, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College




Meritorious Senior Executive Presidential Rank Award

Numerous Military Awards




Books and Monographs

Two Books (In Defense of NATO: The Alliance's Enduring Value and Strategic Implications of the Continental-Maritime Debate), four edited volumes (Military Strategy in Transition: Defense and Deterrence in the 1980s; Alternative Military Strategies for the Future; Conflict Termination and Military Strategy: Coercion, Persuasion, and War; and NATO in the 5thDecade)



Over 50 classified studies and scholarly articles in national and international journals (e.g., Foreign Policy, Survival, Orbis, etc.) on national security strategy, U.S. defense policy, U.S. military strategy, NATO Southwest Asia, Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact.




Amb. Chas. W. Freeman, Jr


Chairman, Projects International, Inc.; President, Middle East Policy Council; Co-Chair, US-China Policy Council; Vice Chair, Atlantic Council


Ambassador Chas. W. Freeman, Jr. succeeded Senator George McGovern as President of the Middle East Policy Council on December 1, 1997.


Ambassador Freeman was Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs from 1993-94, earning the highest public service awards of the Department of Defense for his roles in designing a NATO-centered post-Cold War European security system and in reestablishing defense and military relations with China. He served as U. S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia (during operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm). He was Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs during the historic U.S. mediation of Namibian independence from South Africa and Cuban troop withdrawal from Angola.


Chas. Freeman served as Deputy Chief of Mission and Chargé d'Affaires in the American embassies at both Bangkok (1984-1986) and Beijing (1981-1984). He was Director for Chinese Affairs at the U.S. Department of State from 1979-1981. He was the principal American interpreter during the late President Nixon's path-breaking visit to China in 1972. In addition to his Middle Eastern, African, East Asian and European diplomatic experience, he served in India.


Ambassador Freeman earned a certificate in Latin American studies from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, certificates in both the national and Taiwan dialects of Chinese from the former Foreign Service Institute field school in Taiwan, a BA from Yale University and a JD from the Harvard Law School. He is the recipient of numerous high honors and awards. He was elected to the Academy of American Diplomacy in 1995. He is the author of The Diplomat's Dictionary (Revised Edition) and Arts of Power, both published by the United States Institute of Peace in 1997. Ambassador Freeman is Chairman of the Board of Projects International, Inc., a Washington-based business development firm that specializes in arranging international joint ventures, acquisitions, and other business operations for its American and foreign clients. He also serves as Co-Chair of the United States-China Policy Foundation and Vice Chair of the Atlantic Council of the United States. He is a member of the boards of the Institute for Defense Analyses (trustee) the regional security centers of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the Washington World Affairs Council. He is also a director of the American-Iranian Council, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and a director of the World Affairs Council of Washington DC.


Previous Positions

1995 - Present Chairman of the Board, Projects International, Inc.

1994-95 Distinguished Fellow, United States Institute of Peace

1993-94 Assistant Secretary of Defense, International Security Affairs

1992-93 Distinguished Fellow, Institute for National Strategic Studies

1989-92 U S. Ambassador to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1986-89 Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, African Affairs


Recent Honors

1995 Elected to American Academy of Diplomacy

1994 Distinguished Public Service Award (Policy innovation in Europe)

1994 Distinguished Public Service Award (Contributions in Defense Policy)

1994 Order of 'Abd Al-'Azziz, 1st Class (Diplomatic Service)

1991 Defense Meritorious Service (Desert Shield/Storm)

1991 CIA Medallion (Desert Shield/Storm)

1991 Distinguished Honor Award (Desert Shield/Storm)




Dr. Adam Garfinkle


Former Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Editor of The National Interest


The National Interest is “considered to be one of the premier journals in the field of international affairs” and leads the voice of the right in the post Cold War era.  It is chaired by Kissinger & Conrad Black and includes Richard Perle, Charles Krauthammer and Samuel Huntington on its board. (Complete listing of management)


Garfinkle is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.


In the months after 9-11 he wrote an article entitled “September 11: Before and After




Ph.D., International Relations, University of Pennsylvania (1979)

B.A./M.A., International Relations, University of Pennsylvania (1972)




Professorial Lecturer of American Foreign Policy, SAIS, Johns Hopkins University

Director, Middle East Council of the Foreign Policy Research Institute

Book Review Editor, Orbis

Visiting Professor of Politics, Tel Aviv University

Visiting Professor of Political Science (University of Pennsylvania; Haverford College)

Research Aide to General Alexander Haig, Jr. (USA, Ret.)

Special Assistant, Office of Senator Henry Jackson




Moshe Dayan Center Fellowship

United States Institute of Peace Grant

Fulbright Research Fellowship

German Marshall Fund Travel Grant




Richard Haass


Richard Haass is Director of Policy Planning for the Department of State. Haass, who is the twentieth person to head the Policy Planning Staff since it was established in 1947, is a principal advisor to Secretary of State Colin Powell on a broad range of foreign policy concerns. Confirmed by the U.S. Senate to hold the rank of ambassador, Haass is also the lead U.S. Government official in support of the Northern Ireland peace process and served as U.S. Coordinator for policy toward the future of Afghanistan.


Previously, Ambassador Haass was Vice President and Director of Foreign Policy Studies at The Brookings Institution. He was also a consultant for NBC News and a frequent contributor to foreign affairs journals and the op-ed pages of major newspapers. He is the author or editor of nine books on American foreign policy, including The Reluctant Sheriff: The United States after the Cold War; Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy; and Intervention: The Use of American Military Force in the Post-Cold War World. He is also the author of one book on management: The Bureaucratic Entrepreneur: How to Be Effective in Any Unruly Organization.


Ambassador Haass has extensive prior government experience. From 1989-1993, he was Special Assistant to President George Bush and Senior Director for Near East and South Asian Affairs on the staff of the National Security Council. In 1991, Haass was awarded the presidential Citizens Medal for his contributions to the development and articulation of U.S. policy during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Previously, he served in various posts in the Departments of State (1981-85) and Defense (1979-80) and was a legislative aide in the U.S. Senate.


Ambassador Haass also has been Director of National Security Programs and a Senior Fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Sol M. Linowitz Visiting Professor of International Studies at Hamilton College, a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, a Lecturer in Public Policy at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, and a research associate at the International Institute for Strategic Studies. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. A Rhodes Scholar, Haass holds a B.A. from Oberlin College and both the Master and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Oxford University.


Richard Haass was born in Brooklyn, N.Y. in 1951. He lives in the Washington, D.C. area with his wife and two children.


Interview on BBC Newsnight, June 11th 2002




Keith Hahn


Dr. Keith D Hahn is the Vice-President for Systems Analysis and Engineering at TRW Inc. From February 1995 to January 1999, he was the Vice-President, Defense Planning and Programs at BDM International before its merger with TRW. He also currently serves as a director of eNGENUITY Technologies.


He served on the U.S. National Security Council under both President George P. Bush and President Bill Clinton. Mr. Hahn served as the Director for Strategic and Long Range Planning on the Chief of Naval Operations Executive Panel. As Navy Long Range Planner, he directed a broad-based, multifaceted long range planning process that provided Navy leadership with ongoing, detailed analyses of emerging technologies and concepts and their potential applications. During a twenty-three year career as a U.S. Navy pilot, he served in a wide range of fleet assignments, including command of an operational aviation squadron. He holds a Doctor of Philosophy degree in International Relations from the American University, Washington D.C.


He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.




Frank Hoffman


Colonel Hoffman is a national security affairs anayst with more than 20 years of policy and operational experience. Currently, he is a strategic planner at the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory, Quantico, Virginia. Prior to this position, he was appointed by the Secretary of Defense to the National Security Strategy Group to support the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century. He was the principal analyst for the Commission's homeland security and future military conflict assessments. He holds degrees from the Wharton Business School, George Mason University, and the U.S. Naval War College.




Department of Navy Superior Service Medal

Department of Navy Commendation and Achievement Medals

Awards from Marine Corps Association, US Navy League, Reserve Officers Association, Veterans Of Foreign Wars, and Military Order of World Wars

Member, Marine Corps Association, US Naval Institute, US Strategic Studies Institute, Marine Heritage Foundation


He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.




Dr. Charles B. Johnson




Ph.D., Policy Analysis & Administration in Education, Northwestern University

M.A., Human Resource Development in Education, George Washington Univ.

B.S., Major, Biology/Education (minor), St. John's University




Research Consultant, Congressional Commission on Military Training and Gender-Related Issues

Vice President, Free Congress Education and Research Foundation

Superintendent of Schools, Kewaskum School District, Wisconsin

Deputy Research Director, Presidential Commission on the Assignment of Women in the Armed  Forces, Washington, D.C.

Professional Military Education Systems Manager (l989-92), Marine Corps University, MCCDC,  Quantico, Va.

Professional Education Joint Planner, MCCDC, Quantico, Va.

Faculty-At-Large (l994-95), Marian College, Graduate School of Business Leadership

Assistant Professor, Northwestern University, Military History




Colonel Leo A. Codd Memorial Award for College teaching

Member, Wisconsin Association of School District Administrators

Member, Board of Directors, Educational Services, Inc., Appleton, Wisconsin

Member, Board of Governors, Marine Corps Association, Quantico, Va.

Research Fellow, Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society


Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Alumni Achievement Award, Combat Action Ribbon, Meritorious Service Medal, Navy Commendation Medal, Navy Achievement Medal, Second Marine Division Retired Officers Award for Valor




Robert B Killebrew




National Defense Fellow, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (l984-85)

US Naval War College (l983)

M.A., International Relations, Salve Regina University (l983)

M.A., History, University of South Florida (l982)

B.A., Political Science, The Citadel (l965)




Instructor in Military Strategy and Operations, US Army War College (l992-94)

Study Member, Project on Military Cultures, Center for Strategic and International Studies

Participant in Navy's global War Game Series, Newport, Rhode Island

Study Member (security strategies), Project for a New American Century

Consultant, Toffler Associates

Fellow, Landpower Institute, Association of the United States Army

Consultant to various armed service projects centered on future warfare, national security  strategies, missile and space defense, power projection and other subjects


Active Duty – Developer and Deputy Director of the Army After Next project

Special Assistant to the Chief of Staff, US Army

War plans officer, XVIII Airborne Corps

War plans officer, Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force




Dr. Richard H. Kohn


Chairman, Curriculum in Peace, War, and Defense and Professor of History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Executive Secretary, Triangle Institute for Security Studies




A.B., Harvard University (Magna cum Laude, History), 1962

M.S., University of Wisconsin--Madison, History, 1964

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin--Madison, History, 1968




Assistant Professor of History, City College of the City University of New York, 1968-1971

Professor of History, Rutgers University--New Brunswick (Assistant Professor, 1971-1975; Associate Professor, 1975-1983; Professor, 1983-1984)

Chief, Office of Air Force History, and Chief Historian, United States Air Force (Senior Executive Service, Department of the Air Force), 1981-1991

Adjunct Professor, National War College, Washington, D.C., 1985-1990

Visiting Scholar in Strategic Studies, The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 1991

Professor of History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Associate Professor, 1991-1993; Professor, 1993-present); Chairman, Curriculum in Peace, War, and Defense, 1992-present; Executive Secretary, Triangle Institute for Security Studies, 1992-2000; Fellow, Institute for the Arts and Humanities, 1995-present

Professor of Public Policy Studies, Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University, 1998-2000





American Historical Association (Local Arrangements Committee, 1968; Council, 1986-1989; Finance Committee, 1986-1989; Co-Chair, Ad Hoc Committee on the Future of the AHA, 1987-1988; Special Committee on AHA Publications, 1989-1990)

Columbia University Seminar in Early American History and Culture (Nominations Committee, 1973- 1976; Steering Committee, 1977-1980)

Inter-University Seminar on the Armed Forces and Society (Executive Council, 1977-1987)

Society for Military History (Program and Planning Committee, 1979-1985; Trustee, 1981-1989, 1995- present; Parliamentarian, 1982-1989, 1995-present; Chair, Special Committee on Future of Military Affairs, 1986-1987; President, 1989-1993; ex officio, Society Council, 1993-1995; Long- Range Planning Committee, 1996-1998; Chair, Nominations Committee, 2000-2003)

US Army Training and Doctrine Command, Commander's Advisory Committee on Military History Education,

1981-1984 Board of Advisors, Air University Quarterly/Airpower Journal/Aerospace Power Journal, 1981-1991, 1996-present

Ex officio member, Air Force Museum Foundation Board of Managers, 1981-1991

Advisor, Air Force Historical Foundation, 1981-1991

Office of Air Force History, 1983-1991

USAF Scientific Advisory Board Summer Study on Air Base Operability, 1986-1987

Chair, Museum Advisory Committee, Air Force Sergeants Association, 1987-1991

Presidential Materials (Nixon Papers) Review Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1988-1991

Harmon Memorial Lecture Committee, USAF Academy, 1989-1992

Board of Directors, National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History, 1989-2000 (Treasurer, 1996-1998; Chair, 1998-2000)

Organization of American Historians, Public History Committee, 1989-1992 (Chair, 1991-1992); Chair, Executive Secretary Search Committee, 1992-1993

Consultant, Center for National Security Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1991-1992

Board of Directors, Center on Law, Ethics and National Security, Duke University School of Law, 1993- present

Steering Committee, “Post-Cold War U.S. Civil-Military Relations in America,” Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1993-1994

Senior Advisory Council, “The U.S. Military in Post-Cold War American Society,” John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies, Harvard University, 1995-1997

External Advisory Committee, Air Force 2025 Study, Air University, USAF, 1995-1996

Board of Visitors, Air University, USAF, 1996-present

Editorial Board, American Diplomacy, 1996-present

Senior Fellow, Center for Strategic Education, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 1997-present

Co-Principal Investigator, Project on the Gap between the Military and Society, Triangle Institute for Security Studies, 1998-2001

Member, National Security Study Group and consultant, US Commission on National Security/21st Century [The Hart-Rudman Commission], 1998-2001


Member of the Council on Foreign Relations – nntp (119)



Dr. William Lewis


Director, McKinsey Global Institute;


former Assistant Secretary of Energy


Member of the Council on Foreign Relations






James R. Locher, III


Visiting Fellow, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University


Mr. Locher graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1968 and received an M.B.A. from Harvard University. In 1978 he joined the Senate Committee on Armed Services as a professional staff member, leading efforts that resulted in the Goldwater-Nichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. Prior to this, he served as an operations research analyst in the Naval Forces Division of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Analysis and Evaluation, 1974 - 1978, and an operations research analyst in the Mobility Forces Division of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Analysis and Evaluation, 1968 - 1972.


In October 1989, President George H. W. Bush appointed him assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict. Since 1993, he has written, lectured, consulted, and served on commissions related to the organization of the Defense Department. In 1996, he assisted the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina in drafting its defense law and organizing its ministry of defense. He is the author of Victory on the Potomac: The Goldwater-Nichols Act Unifies the Pentagon. Currently, he works as a consultant and lecturer on defense matters in Springfield, Virginia.


He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations




Dr. Charles Moskos


Professor of sociology at Northwestern University


Military Service:

U.S. Army Combat Engineers, 1956-1958 (draftee)



B.A., Sociology (cum laude), Princeton University, 1956

M.A. University of California, Los Angeles, 1961.

Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles, 1963.


Professional Experience:

1964- 1966 Assistant Professor of Sociology University of Michigan

1966-1970 Associate Professor of Sociology Northwestern University

1970-present Professor of Sociology Northwestern University

1996-present Harold H. and Virginia Anderson Chair, College of Arts and Sciences, Northwestern University



1969-1970 Senior Faculty Fellow, Ford Foundation: study of United Nations peacekeeping forces in Cyprus

1980-1981 Fellow, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: study of all-volunteer force

1983-1984 Humanities Fellow, Rockefeller Foundation: study of citizenship and national service

1987-1988 S.L.A. Marshal Chair, Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences: study of military sociology

1991 Guest Scholar, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: study of postmodern military

1992-1993 Fellow, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation: study of race relations in military

1995 Visiting Fellow, Annenberg Washington Program, Northwestern University; study of military and the media

1995-1996 S.L.A. Marshal Chair, Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences: study of armed forces after the Cold War


In favour of a post 9-11 draft: “President Bush has said that the new war against terrorism will be "a different kind of conflict." He's more right than he knows. Not only are we facing a uniquely shadowy enemy, one committed to inflicting mass civilian casualties on U.S. soil, but for the first time in our history we're entering a war of significant size and probable duration without drafting young men to fight the threat.


This will have to change.America needs a draft. But because this is a new kind of war, we need a new kind of draft: One that would focus less on preparing men for conventional combat -- which hasn't been very extensive in this war so far -- than on training young men and even young women for the arguably more daunting task of guarding against and responding to terrorism at home.” – Washington Post, November 4th 2001 (with Paul Glastris)




Dr. Williamson Murray




B.A. Yale University, (1963)

M.A. Yale University, (1971)

Ph.D. Yale University, (1975)




Harold K. Johnson Professor of Military History, Military History Institute, U.S. Army War College, 1998-1999

Charles Lindbergh Professor, Air and Space Museum, 1997-1998

Horner Professor of Military Theory, Marine Corps University, 1995-1997

Centennial Visiting Professor, London School of Economics, 1994-1995

Professor Emeritus, Ohio State University, 1995

Secretary of the Navy Fellow, Naval War College, 1991-1992

Professor of History, Ohio State University, 1977-1995

Maintenance Officer, 314th TAL Wing, South East Asia, 1968-1969




Long Committee on Professional Military Education, 1989-1990

Second Andrew D. White Prize in European History, Yale University, 1963




He is currently a consultant to the Institute for Defense Analyses


He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations




Dr. Pat Pentland




Dr. Barry Ross Posen


Professor of Political Science, Center for International Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


BARRY R. POSEN is Professor of Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he is affiliated with the Security Studies Program. He is also on the Executive Committee of Seminar XXI, an educational program for senior military officers, government officials and business executives in the national security policy community. He has written two books, Inadvertent Escalation: Conventional War and Nuclear Risks and The Sources of Military Doctrine. The latter won two awards: The American Political Science Association's Woodrow Wilson Foundation Book Award, and Ohio State University's Edward J. Furniss Jr. Book Award.


Prior to coming to MIT, he taught at Princeton University, and has also been Guest Scholar at the Brookings Institution; Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Center for International Affairs at Harvard; Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow; Rockefeller Foundation International Affairs Fellow and Guest Scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies; and Woodrow Wilson Center Fellow, Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Posen's current activities include research on innovation in the U.S. Army, 1970-1980, and the role of force in US Foreign Policy.


He is still a member of the Council on Foreign Relations


He presented a paper to the “Homeland Security 2005: Charting the Path Ahead” sympsium organised by ANSER.


He also wrote an essay shortly after 9-11 for Harvard’s “International Security” magazine entitled “The Struggle against

Terrorism Grand Strategy, Strategy, and Tactics



Complete online CV (PDF)




Dr. Barbara Samuels


President, Global Assessment Networks




Dr. James S. Thomason


Senior Analyst, Strategy, Forces and Resources Division, Institute for Defense Analyses




Ph.D., International Relations, Northwestern University (1978)

B.A., Government, Harvard College (1969)




Senior Projects Manager, Institute for Defense Analyses

Director of consulting team to the CORM

Professional Staff Member, Center for Naval Analyses

Consultant, State Department

Member, Intergovernmental Cooperation Commission, State of Illinois

Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Hawaii




Division Nominee, Outstanding Research Analyst, Institute for Defense Analyses

Dissertation Fellowship Award, Northwestern University

National Institute of Health Research Fellowship

Magna cum Laude, Honors thesis, Harvard College




Ruth Wedgwood


She is currently the `Ruth Wedgwood Senior Fellow, International Organizations and Law’ at the Council on Foreign Relations. She is also a member of the center’s `Terrorism Resource Center’.



International law and terrorism, law of armed conflict, war crimes trials, United Nations and peacekeeping and peace operations.



Edward B. Burling Professor of International Law and Diplomacy, Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies; Professor of Law, Yale University Law School; Director of Studies, Hague Academy of International Law; National Security Study Group Hart-Rudman Commission on Security in 2025); Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on International Law; advisor to the Secretary of Defense on international law issues in the war on terrorism; Stockton Professor of International Law, U.S. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island (1998- 99); amicus curiae, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (1997); federal prosecutor (1980-86); Supreme Court law clerk (1977-78).


Selected publications:

Toward an International Criminal Court? (Council Policy Initiative, co-author, 1999); American National Interest and the United Nations (Co-author, 1996); The Revolutionary Martyrdom of Jonathan Robbins (1990); articles in the American Journal of International Law, International Herald Tribune, the Washington Post, and the New York Times.


J.D., Yale University Law School

B.A., Harvard University