Executive Summary of the Commission can be downloaded from:
presentation & findings of the report to Congress:
The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld
Barry M. Blechman
International, Founder, President and CEO
Barry M. Blechman founded DFI International in 1984. Today, he drives the
corporate strategy and vision for the DFI family of companies, including DFI
International’s two operating units, DFI Corporate Services and DFI Government
Services, and SwannStreet Ventures LLC, which provides a unique combination of
early seed-stage capital and strategic planning for high-tech start-ups in the
Washington, DC region.
Blechman has over thirty years experience in the defense, foreign policy, and
advanced technology sectors. An expert in political-military affairs, defense
planning, national security strategy, and high technology markets, Dr. Blechman
has been providing expert advice and analyses to government and industry
officials since the 1960s.
Blechman currently serves as a member of the Defense Policy Board, an
organization within the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) that provides
advice to the Secretary and other senior DoD officials. Recently, he chaired the
Homeland Security Working Group of the (Hart-Rudman) Commission on National
Security/21st Century. Over the past several years, he provided strategic
guidance to OSD, the Services, and other Department of Defense offices during
the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Reviews. In 1998, Dr. Blechman was a member of the
congressionally- appointed Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to
the United States (The Rumsfeld Commission). In addition, he chairs The Henry L.
Stimson Center, a nonprofit, nonpartisan research institute devoted to enhancing
international peace and security, which he co-founded in 1989.
the 1960s, Dr. Blechman worked as an operations research analyst for both the US
Army and the Center for Naval Analyses. In 1971, he became a senior fellow at
the Brookings Institution, where he headed the defense analyses staff and co-
authored Brookings’ annual analysis of the federal budget, Setting National
1977, Dr. Blechman was nominated by President Carter and confirmed by the Senate
as Assistant Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Among other
assignments, he served as deputy chairman of the US delegation for negotiations
on arms transfers and as head of the Agency’s policy planning staff.
leaving the government, Dr. Blechman was affiliated at various times with the
Carnegie Endowment, the Roosevelt Center, the Center for Strategic and
International Studies, and the Johns Hopkins University Foreign Policy
Blechman’s long list of published works includes the widely respected Key West
Revisited: Roles and Missions of the United States Armed Forces in the 21st
Century, a report that reassesses decisions made in 1947 and recommends new
roles for the Services in the protecting of the homeland and US interests
abroad. He also authored Force Without War: U.S. Armed Forces as a Political
Instrument (with Stephen S. Kaplan), an empirical study of the use of military
force short of war.
Blechman received his Ph.D. in political science from Georgetown University. He
holds a master’s degree in political science from New York University and is a
graduate of Queens College. Dr. Blechman has taught at The Johns Hopkins
University, Georgetown University, and the University of Michigan.
General Lee Butler, USAF (Ret.)
Lee Butler retired from 33 years of
military service on February 28, 1994. He remained in Nebraska and joined Peter
Kiewit Sons, Inc., a privately held corporation headquartered in Omaha.
1961-1994 Butler was an officer in the United States Air Force, attaining the
rank of General in 1991. In the latter capacity he was the Commander-in-Chief of
the Strategic Air Command and subsequently Commander-in-Chief of the United
States Strategic Command, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. In this capacity, he
had the responsibility for all U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy strategic nuclear
forces which support the national security objective of strategic defense.
is a 1961 graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy. He attended the University of
Paris, France, as an Olmsted scholar where he attained a master's degree in
military career included a wide range of flying and staff positions. He served
in numerous policy positions in the Pentagon, the last being the Director for
Strategic Plans and Policy, Joint Chiefs of Staff.
currently serves as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations as well as the
Committee on International Security and Arms Control for the National Academy of
Sciences and the Canberra Commission. He serves on numerous boards of Omaha
Dr. Richard L. Garwin
L. Garwin is a physicist long employed at the IBM Research Center, Yorktown
Heights, NY and now Philip D. Reed Fellow for Science and Technology at the
Council on Foreign Relations, New York. He began his work with nuclear weapons
and national security technology at Los Alamos in 1950 and continues to this
day. He has been particularly active in nuclear weapons and space technology, in
ballistic missiles and ballistic missile defense, and in arms control and
national security policy. He served two four-year terms on the President's
Science Advisory Committee under Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, and
four years on the Defense Science Board. He received from the U.S. government
the Enrico Fermi Award and the R.V. Jones Award for Scientific Intelligence, and
in 2000 was named one of ten Founders of National Reconnaissance."
L. Garwin was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1928. He received the B.S. in Physics
from Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, in 1947, and the Ph.D. in Physics
from the University of Chicago in 1949.
is now Philip D. Reed Senior Fellow for Science and Technology at the Council on
Foreign Relations, New York and IBM Fellow Emeritus at the Thomas J. Watson
Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York. After three years on the faculty of
the University of Chicago, he joined IBM Corporation in 1952, and was until June
1993 IBM Fellow at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights,
NewYork; Adjunct Research Fellow in the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard
University; and Adjunct Professor of Physics at Columbia University.
addition, he is a consultant to the U.S. government on matters of military
technology, arms control, etc. He has been Director of the IBM Watson
Laboratory, Director of Applied Research at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research
Center, and a member of the IBM Corporate Technical Committee. He has also been
Professor of Public Policy in the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard
has made contributions in the design of nuclear weapons, in instruments and
electronics for research in nuclear and low-temperature physics, in the
establishment of the nonconservation of parity and the demonstration of some of
its striking consequences, in computer elements and systems, including
superconducting devices, in communication systems, in the behavior of solid
helium, in the detection of gravitational radiation, and in military technology.
He has published more than 500 papers and been granted 44 U.S.patents. He has
testified to many Congressional committees on matters involving national
security, transportation, energy policy and technology, and the like.
coauthor of many books, among them Nuclear Weapons and World Politics(1977),
Nuclear Power Issues and Choices (1977), Energy: The Next Twenty Years (1979),
Science Advice to the President(1980), Managing the Plutonium Surplus:
Applications and Technical Options (1994), and Feux Follets et Champignons
Nucleaires (1997) (in French with Georges Charpak).
was a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee 1962-65 and 1969-72,
and of the Defense Science Board 1966-69. He is a Fellow of the American
Physical Society and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and a member
of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the National
Academy of Engineering, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the American
The citation accompanying his 1978 election to the U.S.
National Academy of Engineering reads "Contributions applying the latest
scientific discoveries to innovative practical engineering applications
contributing to national security and economic growth." He received the 1983
Wright Prize for interdisciplinary scientific achievement, the 1988 AAAS
Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award, the 1991 Erice "Science for
Peace"Prize, and from the U.S. Government the 1996 R.V. Jones Foreign
Intelligence Award and the 1996 Enrico Fermi Award.
1977 to 1985 he was on the Council of the Institute for Strategic Studies
(London), and during 1978 was Chairman of the Panel on Public Affairs of the
American Physical Society. He is a long-time member of Pugwash and has served on
the Pugwash Council.
work for the government has included studies on antisubmarine warfare, new
technologies in health care, sensor systems, military and civil aircraft, and
satellite and strategic systems, from the point of view of improving such
systems as well as assessing existing capabilities. For example, he contributed
to the first U.S. photographic reconnaissance satellite program, CORONA, that
returned 3 million feet of film from almost 100 successful flights
has been a member of the Scientific Advisory Group to the Joint Strategic Target
Planning Staff and was in 1998 a Commissioner on the 9-person "Rumsfeld"
Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. He
Chairs the Arms Control and Nonproliferation Board of the Department of State.
On the 40th anniversary of the founding of the National Reconnaissance Office
(NRO) he was recognized as one of the ten Founders of National
Fellow Emeritus, IBM Research Division (current); Adjunct Professor of Physics,
Columbia University (current); Chair, Arms Control and Nonproliferation Advisory
Board, Department of State (1994-2001).
Dr. William R. Graham
William R. Graham, a founder and executive of R&D Associates, Marina Del
Rey, California, became Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration on November 25, 1985. Nominated for the post by President
Reagan on September 12, he was confirmed by the Senate on November 18, 1985.
1980, Dr. Graham served as an advisor to candidate Ronald Reagan and was a
member of the President-elect's transition team. He had served for the three
years previous to his appointment as NASA Deputy Administrator as chair of the
General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament, having been
nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate in 1982.
the founding of R&D Associates in 1971, Dr. Graham had spent six years with
the Rand Corp., Santa Monica, California. Prior to his employment at Rand, he
served three years active duty as a project officer with the Air Force Weapons
Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico, directing a group
conducting experimental and theoretical research on strategic system
Graham had also been a consultant to the Office of the Secretary of Defense and
served on many international and national boards and advisory groups, including
the National Academy of Science/National Research Council Committee on Undersea
Warfare, the Air Force Science Advisory Board Task Force on Manned Strategic
System Vulnerability, the U.S.-U.K. Joint Working Group on Atomic Weapons, the
Defense Nuclear Agency Scientific Advisory Group on Effects, and the Defense
Science Board System Vulnerability Task Force and Associated Task Forces.
on June 15, 1937, in San Antonio, Texas, Dr. Graham received his B.S. degree in
physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1959. In addition, he
earned an M.S. degree in engineering science in 1961, and a Ph.D. in electrical
engineering in 1963, both from Stanford University.
Graham left NASA in October 1986 to become Director of the White House Office of
Science and Technology Policy. On October 16, 1986, he was sworn in as Science
Advisor to the President, a position he held until June 1989 when he left
government service to join Jaycor, a high-technology company headquartered in
San Diego, California.
is also on the Board of Advisors to the National Institute for Public Policy
Dr. William Schneider, Jr.
Schneider, Jr. is currently the Chairman of the Defense Science Board in the
U.S. Department of Defense. He is also president of International Planning
Services, Inc., an international trade and finance advisory firm, and an Adjunct
Fellow of the Hudson Institute.
1982-1986, Dr. Schneider was Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance,
Science and Technology. He initially joined the Reagan Administration as the
Associate Director for National Security and International Affairs at the Office
of Management and Budget
addition, Dr. Schneider served as Chairman of the President's General Advisory
Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament (1987-1993); as a member of the
Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission; as a member of the Commission to Assess the
Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (Rumsfeld Commission); and
presently serves as a consultant to the Department of State, Department of
Defense, and the Department of Energy.
Schneider received his Ph.D. from New York University in 1968.
also serves on the Board of Directors of DFI International.
General Larry D. Welch, USAF (Ret.)
Welch is President, Institute for Defense Analyses. Prior to retiring from the
United States Air Force, he served as the 12th Chief of Staff. He received a
Bachelor of Arts degree in business administration from the University of
Maryland and a Master of Science degree in international relations from The
George Washington University. The general completed Armed Forces Staff College
and National War College. He enlisted in the Kansas National Guard in 1951,
serving with the 161st Armored Field Artillery until he enlisted in the U.S. Air
Force. He entered the aviation cadet program and received his pilot wings and
commission as a second lieutenant. He served initially as a flight instructor
until his assignment to Headquarters Air Training Command, Randolph Air Force
Base, Texas. General Welch then served in tactical fighter units in Europe, the
continental United States and Alaska before transferring to the Republic of
Vietnam where he flew combat missions in F-4C's over North and South Vietnam,
and Laos. After completing the Armed Forces Staff College, he was assigned to
Headquarters U.S. Air Force. Upon graduation from the National War College, he
was assigned to Tactical Air Command, where he served in wing deputy commander
for operations, vice commander and wing commander positions. He transferred to
Headquarters Tactical Air Command where he served as inspector general, deputy
chief of staff for plans and deputy chief of staff for operations. He became
commander of the 9th Air Force and Air Force component commander for the Rapid
Deployment Joint Task Force. The General was assigned as deputy chief of staff
for programs and resources at Air Force headquarters and became vice chief of
staff of the U.S. Air Force. He then served as commander in chief, Strategic Air
Command, and director, Joint Strategic Target Planning Staff, Offutt Air Force
also sits on the “Role of American Military Power” (RAMP) advisory board:
is a senior fellow of the “Joint Forces Staff College” (JFSC)
Dr. Paul D. Wolfowitz
February 5, 2001, President Bush announced his intention to nominate Dr. Paul
Wolfowitz to be Deputy Secretary of
Defense. He was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on Feb. 28th and
sworn in March 2, 2001 as the 28th Deputy Secretary of Defense. This is Dr.
Wolfowitz's third tour of duty in the Pentagon.
the last seven years, Dr. Wolfowitz has served as Dean and Professor of
International Relations at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International
Studies (SAIS) of The Johns Hopkins University. SAIS is widely regarded as one
of the world's leading graduate schools of international relations with 750
students, studying on campuses in Washington, D.C.; Nanjing, China; and Bologna,
Italy. As Dean, he led a successful capital campaign that raised more than $75
million and doubled the school's endowment. Also under his leadership, the
curriculum and facilities were modernized and new faculty and programs were
added to shift the school's focus from the Cold War to the era of
1989 to 1993, Dr. Wolfowitz served as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy in
charge of the 700-person defense policy team that was responsible to Secretary
Dick Cheney for matters concerning strategy, plans, and policy. During this
period Secretary Wolfowitz and his staff had major responsibilities for the
reshaping of strategy and force posture at the end of the Cold War.
his leadership, the Policy Staff played a major role in reviewing war plans for
the Gulf War, and developing and executing plans that successfully raised more
than $50 billion in Allied financial support for the war and prevented Iraq from
opening a second front with Israel. Other key initiatives included the
development of the Regional Defense Strategy, the Base Force, and two
presidential nuclear initiatives that led to the elimination of tens of
thousands of U.S. and Soviet nuclear weapons.
the Reagan administration, Dr. Wolfowitz served for three years as U.S.
Ambassador to Indonesia - the fourth largest country in the world and the
largest in the Moslem world. There he earned a reputation as a highly popular
and effective Ambassador, a tough negotiator on behalf of American intellectual
property owners, and a public advocate of political openness and democratic
values. During his tenure, Embassy Jakarta was cited as one of the four
best-managed embassies inspected in 1988.
to that posting, he served three and a half years as Assistant Secretary of
State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, where he was in charge of U.S.
relations with more than twenty countries. In addition to contributing to
substantial improvements in U.S. relations with Japan and China, Assistant
Secretary Wolfowitz played a central role in coordinating the U.S. policy toward
the Philippines that supported a peaceful transition from the dictatorship of
Ferdinand Marcos to democracy.
Wolfowitz's previous government service included:
years as head of the State Department's Policy Planning Staff (1981-82):
earlier Pentagon tour as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Regional
Programs (1977-80), where he helped create the force that later became the
United States Central Command and initiated the Maritime Pre-positioning Ships,
the backbone of the initial U.S. deployment twelve years later in Operation
years (1973-77) in the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, working on the
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and a number of nuclear nonproliferation issues;
year as a Management Intern at the Bureau of the Budget (1966-67).
Wolfowitz taught previously at Yale (1970-73) and Johns Hopkins (1981). In 1993,
he was the George F. Kennan Professor of National Security Strategy at the
National War College. He has written widely on the subject of national strategy
and foreign policy and was a member of the advisory boards of the journals
Foreign Affairs and National Interest .
his many awards for public service are:
Presidential Citizen's Medal,
Department of Defense's Distinguished Public Service Medal,
Department of State's Distinguished Honor Award,
Department of Defense's Distinguished Civilian Service Medal, and
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency's Distinguished Honor Award.
Wolfowitz received a bachelor's degree from Cornell University (1965) in
mathematics, and a doctorate in political science from the University of Chicago
The Honorable R. James Woolsey
of the CIA (1993-1995):
James Woolsey is, in 2001, a partner at the law firm of Shea & Gardner in
Washington, D.C. He returned to the firm in January 1995 after serving two years
as Director of Central Intelligence. He has practiced there for twenty-one
years, on four occasions, since 1973.
Woolsey's law practice has been in the fields of civil litigation, alternative
dispute resolution, and corporate transactions; increasingly his practice has
been international. He has served recently as counsel for major American and
overseas corporations in both commercial arbitrations and the negotiation of
joint ventures and other agreements. He serves regularly as a neutral (both as
an arbitrator and a mediator) in commercial disputes between major
Woolsey is presently a member of the Board of Directors or Board of Managers of:
Linsang Partners, LLC; BC International Corporation; Fibersense Technology
Corporation; Invicta Networks, Inc.; DIANA, LLC; Agorics, Inc.; and Sun
HealthCare Group, Inc. He is also a member of the Board of Governors of the
Philadelphia Stock Exchange. He has served in the past as a member of the Boards
of: USF&G; Yurie Systems, Inc.; Martin Marietta; British Aerospace, Inc.;
Fairchild Industries; Titan Corporation; and DynCorp.
serving as Director of Central Intelligence, Mr. Woolsey has served in the U.S.
government as: Ambassador to the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in
Europe (CFE), Vienna, 1989-1991; Under Secretary of the Navy, 1977-1979; and
General Counsel to the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services, 1970-73. He was
also appointed by the President as Delegate at Large to the U.S.-Soviet
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) and Nuclear and Space Arms Talks (NST),
and served in that capacity on a part-time basis in Geneva, 1983- 1986. During
military service in the U.S. Army he served as an adviser on the U.S. Delegation
to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I), Helsinki and Vienna,
Woolsey has been a Director or Trustee of numerous civic organizations,
including The Smithsonian Institution, where he was Chairman of the Executive
Committee of the Board of Regents, The Goldwater Scholarship Foundation, The
Aerospace Corporation, and Stanford University. He has been a member of: The
National Commission on Terrorism, 1999-2000; The Commission to Assess the
Ballistic Missile Threat to the U.S. (Rumsfeld Commission), 1998; The
President's Commission on Federal Ethics Law Reform, 1989; The President's Blue
Ribbon Commission on Defense Management (Packard Commission), 1985-1986; and The
President's Commission on Strategic Forces (Scowcroft Commission), 1983. He is
currently a Trustee of The Center for Strategic & International Studies and
Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the Clean Fuels Foundation.
Woolsey was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1941. He is married to Suzanne Haley
Woolsey, the Chief Operating Officer of the National Academy of Sciences, and
they have three sons: Robert, Daniel, and Benjamin. Mr. Woolsey attended Tulsa
public schools, graduating from Tulsa Central High School in 1959. He received
his B.A. Degree in 1963 from Stanford University (With Great Distinction, Phi
Beta Kappa), an M.A. from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar
1963-65, and an LL.B from Yale Law School in 1968, where he was Managing Editor
of the Yale Law Journal.
Woolsey is a frequent contributor to major publications, and from time to time
gives public speeches, on the subjects of foreign affairs, defense, energy, and
is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)
“Commission To Assess United States National Security Space Management and
Download the entire report here:
The Honorable Duane P. Andrews
Mr. Andrews is Corporate Executive Vice President and
Director, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) (1993 to
present). He previously was an officer in the United States Air Force (1967-77),
a professional staff member with the House Permanent Select Committee on
Intelligence (1977-89), and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command,
Control, Communications and Intelligence (1989-93). Mr. Andrews was awarded the
Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service and the National
Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal.
Mr. Robert V. Davis
Mr. Davis is President of R.V. Davis & Associates (1997
to present). He previously was a professional staff member of the House
Appropriations Committee (1977-95) and Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for
Space (1995-97). Mr. Davis was awarded the Secretary of Defense Medal for
Outstanding Public Service (1997).
Robert V. Davis is President of R.V. Davis and Associates, a
management consulting firm that provides strategic-planning and
government-relations support to senior executives in aerospace and information
technology companies. He has served on the boards of several high-tech startup
companies and is currently on the board of the Friends of the National Zoo. He
was recently a Member of the U.S. Congressional ("Rumsfeld") Commission to
Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization. From
1995 to 1997, Mr. Davis served as the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for
Space. In this position he was responsible for policy, strategy, and plans for
DOD space and space- intelligence systems, their acquisition and employment,
space control, and space cooperation with foreign governments. From 1977 to
1995, he was on the professional staff of the House Appropriations Committee.
His awards include the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service
and the National Guard Eagle Award. He is a member of Pi Alpha Alpha, the
national honor society for public affairs and administration. Mr. Davis earned
his B.S. degree at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and his Master of
Public Administration degree at The American University. He is a resident of
General Howell M.
Estes, III, United States Air Force (Retired)
General Estes is President of Howell Estes & Associates,
Inc. (1998 to present) and serves as Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees, The Aerospace
Corporation. He entered the United States Air Force in 1965 and served for
33 years. At the time of his retirement in 1998, General Estes was Commander in
Chief, North American Aerospace Defense Command, Commander in Chief, United
States Space Command, and Commander, Air Force Space Command. He previously
served as a consultant to the Defense Science Board Task Force on Space
General Ronald R.
Fogleman, United States Air Force (Retired)
General Fogleman is president and chief operating officer of
the B Bar J Cattle and Consulting Company, Durango Aerospace Incorporated, and a
partner in Laird and Company, LLC (1998 to present). He entered the United
States Air Force in 1963 and served for 34 years. At the time of his retirement
in 1997, General Fogleman was Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force. He
previously served as the Commander in Chief of the U.S. Transportation Command
(1992-94). He serves on the Boards of Directors for International Airline
Service Group, DERCO Aerospace, EAST Inc., Mesa Air Group, MITRE Corporation,
North American Airlines, Rolls-Royce North America, and World Airways. General
Fogleman is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
General Ronald R. Fogleman, U.S. Air Force (Ret.), operates a
cattle and consulting business and is on the board of trustees of several
aviation organizations and airlines.
On his final tour of duty, General Fogleman served as the
15th chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
and a military advisor to the Secretary of Defense, the National Security
Council and the President. His staff experience and time as chief of staff saw a
heavy emphasis on long-range programming and strategic planning. He retired in
1997, after 38 years of distinguished service.
General Fogleman graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy in
1963, and subsequently earned a Master’s degree in military history and
political Science from Duke University. During his career he acquired an
extensive background in fighter and mobility aircraft, having flown more than
6,800 hours, including operational tours in five different fighter aircraft. He
served two tours in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, flying 315 combat
missions and logging 806 hours of combat fighter time. He has also flown seven
different mobility aircraft in support of humanitarian and contingency
General Fogleman has served as commander-in-chief, US
Transportation Command; and as commander of Air Mobility Command; the 7th Air
Force, and the Air Component Command of the US/ROK Combined Forces Command. He
was also director, programs and evaluation, and chairman, Air Staff Board at
Headquarters U.S. Air Force.
Among his numerous decorations are the Defense Distinguished
Service Medal, the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, the Army Distinguished
Service Medal, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, the Silver Star, the Legion
of Merit, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Purple Heart, and awards from
eight foreign countries.
General Fogleman is a member of the Council on Foreign
Relations, the Fort Lewis College Foundation, the Air Force Association, and the
Order of Daedalians.
General Fogleman joined MITRE’s Board of Trustees in
Jay M. Garner, United States Army (Retired)
General Garner is President of SY Technology (1997 to
present). He entered the United States Army in 1962 and served for 35 years.
Prior to leaving military service in 1997, he served as Assistant Vice Chief of
Staff of the Army (1996-97). Previously he was the Commander of the U.S. Army
Space and Strategic Defense Command (1994-96).
SY Technology of Sherman Oaks, Calif., boasts "unique
expertise in space and missile defense technologies, systems engineering and
integration." The company is focused almost exclusively on National Missile
Defense. In 1999, SY Technology received a Star Wars contract worth up to
$365,934,442 to provide the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, the
U.S. Army Space Command, the U.S. Space Command, the U.S. Navy Space Command,
the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, and the Joint National Test
Facility, with scientific, analytical, engineering and technical assistance
expertise in any effort that involves space and/or missile defense. Work is
expected to be completed by Sept. 30, 2004.
The Honorable William R. Graham
Dr. Graham is the Chairman of the Board and President of
National Security Research, Inc. (1997 to present). He previously served as the
Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(1985-86), Science Advisor to President Reagan and Director of the White House
Office of Science & Technology Policy (1986-89), and Member of the
Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (1998).
He has a Ph.D. in electrical engineering.
General Charles A.
Horner, United States Air Force (Retired)
General Horner is a business consultant, author and national
defense advisor (1994 to present). He entered the United States Air Force in
1958 and served for 36 years. He served as Commander in Chief, North American
Aerospace Defense Command, Commander in Chief, United States Space Command,
Commander, Air Force Space Command, and he commanded Allied Air Forces during
the 1991 Gulf War.
Admiral David E.
Jeremiah, United States Navy (Retired)
Admiral Jeremiah is President of Technology Strategies &
Alliances Corporation (1994 to present). Prior to leaving military service in
1994, he served as Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (1990-94) for Generals
Powell and Shalikashvili. He serves on the Boards of Directors for several
firms, including Litton Industries, Alliant Techsystems Inc., Getronics
Government Systems, LLC and Geobiotics, Inc. Admiral Jeremiah serves on various
national security and intelligence panels, boards and commissions, including the
Defense Policy Board, and a National Reconnaissance Office Advisory Panel.
General Thomas S.
Moorman, Jr., United States Air Force (Retired)
General Moorman is a Partner in Booz-Allen Hamilton (1998 to
present). He also serves as a member of the Board of Trustees for The Aerospace
Corporation, is an Outside Director on the Board of Smiths Industries and is
a member of the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee. He entered the United
States Air Force in 1962 and served for 35 years. General Moorman served as
Commander of Air Force Space Command (1990-92). At the time of his retirement in
1997, General Moorman was Vice Chief of Staff, United States Air Force. He is a
member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
Booz, Allen & Hamilton ranked as the DOD's 34th top
contractor last year receiving close to $420 million in contracts for work on
everything from missile defense to the Milstar program and numerous classified
programs. Moorman's position is described as "vice president-Air Force
programs," putting him in the thick of the Star Wars boodle. His judgment and
expertise were sought by Lockheed Martin, which tapped him in 1999 as vice
chairman of a review team "to assess program management, engineering and
manufacturing processes, and quality control procedures" within that company's
Space & Strategic Missiles Sector. The independent panel was formed when
Lockheed Martin experienced four launch failures over an eight-month period
costing more than $3 billion that year.
This is a "one strike and you're out business," Moorman said
at the time. "Therefore, Lockheed Martin needs to demonstrate to its Department
of Defense customers that it is putting in place rigorous quality control
procedures, especially for Titan IV, perhaps equivalent to those that apply to
human space flight."
The panel's harsh professional judgment: "excessive cost
cutting" was to blame for the failures. It recommended raises for Lockheed
Moorman is also an expert on the space "industrial base,"
which he believes should be expanded, and he took part in the U.S. military's
first (publicly announced) "space war games" conducted in January.
Mr. Douglas H. Necessary
Mr. Necessary is an independent management consultant. He has
recently served on several government boards. He served on active duty in the
U.S. Army from 1964-1984 and as a professional staff member of the Committee on
Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives (1984-2000).
General Glenn K.
Otis, United States Army (Retired)
General Otis serves as a consultant for many defense firms
and serves on the Defense Science Board and Ballistic Missile Defense Advisory
Committee. Previously he was Senior Vice President of Coleman Research
Corporation (1988-96) and Chairman of the Board on Army Science and Technology
at the National Academy of Sciences. He entered the United States Army in 1946
and served for 42 years. Prior to leaving military service in 1988, he served as
Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Europe and 7th Army, and Commander, NATO's Central
Army Group (1983-88).
Previously he commanded the U.S. Army's Training and Doctrine
The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld*
Mr. Rumsfeld is currently in private business. He serves as
Chairman of the Board of Directors of Gilead Sciences, Inc., and on the Boards
of Directors of a number of corporations and non-profit organizations.
Previously he served as CEO of G.D. Searle & Co. and of General Instruments
Corporation, and in a variety of U.S. government posts, including: Naval
Aviator, Member of U.S. Congress, U.S. Ambassador to NATO, White House Chief of
Staff, Secretary of Defense, Presidential Envoy to the Middle East and Chairman
of the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States.
He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian
award, in 1977.
* The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld served as a member and
chairman of the Commission from its inception until December 28, 2000, when he
was nominated for the position of Secretary of Defense by President-elect George
- and now –
Until being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense, Mr.
Rumsfeld was in private business. Born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1932, he
attended Princeton University on scholarship (AB, 1954) and served in the U.S.
Navy (1954-57) as a Naval aviator.
He went to Washington, DC, in 1957, during the Eisenhower
Administration, to serve as Administrative Assistant to a Congressman. After a
stint with an investment banking firm, he was elected to the U.S. House of
Representatives from Illinois in 1962, at the age of 30, and was re-elected in
1964, 1966, and 1968.
Mr. Rumsfeld resigned from Congress in 1969 during his fourth
term to serve in the Nixon Administration as:
Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity, Assistant to
the President, and a member of the President's Cabinet (1969-1970); and, as
Counsellor to the President, Director of the Economic
Stabilization Program, and a member of the President's Cabinet (1971-1972).
In 1973, he left Washington, DC, to serve as U.S. Ambassador
to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Brussels, Belgium
In August 1974, he was called back to Washington, DC, to
serve in the Ford Administration successively as:
Chairman of the transition to the Presidency of Gerald R.
Chief of Staff of the White House and a member of the
President's Cabinet (1974-1975); and, as
The 13th U.S. Secretary of Defense, the youngest in the
country's history (1975-1977).
From 1977 to 1985 he served as Chief Executive Officer,
President, and then Chairman of G.D. Searle & Co., a worldwide
pharmaceutical company. The successful turnaround there earned him awards as the
Outstanding Chief Executive Officer in the Pharmaceutical Industry from the Wall
Street Transcript (1980) and Financial World (1981). From 1985 to 1990 he was in
Mr. Rumsfeld served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
of General Instrument Corporation from 1990 to 1993. A leader in broadband
transmission, distribution, and access control technologies for cable, satellite
and terrestrial broadcasting applications, the company pioneered the development
of the first all- digital high definition television (HDTV) technology. After
taking the company public and returning it to profitability, Mr. Rumsfeld
returned to private business in late 1993. Until being sworn in as the 21st
Secretary of Defense, Mr. Rumsfeld served as Chairman of Gilead Sciences,
During his business career, Mr. Rumsfeld continued public
service in a variety of posts, including:
Member of the President's General Advisory Committee on Arms
Control – Reagan Administration (1982 - 1986);
President Reagan's Special Envoy on the Law of the Sea Treaty
(1982 - 1983);
Senior Advisor to President Reagan's Panel on Strategic
Systems (1983 - 1984);
Member of the U.S. Joint Advisory Commission on U.S./Japan
Relations – Reagan Administration (1983 - 1984);
President Reagan's Special Envoy to the Middle East (1983 -
Member of the National Commission on the Public Service (1987
Member of the National Economic Commission (1988 - 1989);
Member of the Board of Visitors of the National Defense
University (1988 - 1992);
Member of the Commission on U.S./Japan Relations (1989 -
FCC's High Definition Television Advisory Committee (1992 -
Chairman, Commission on the Ballistic Missile Threat to the
United States (1998 - 1999);
Member of the U.S. Trade Deficit Review Commission (1999 -
Chairman of the U.S. Commission to Assess National Security
Space Management and Organization (2000).
Mr. Rumsfeld's civic activities included service as a member
of the National Academy of Public Administration and a member of the boards of
trustees of the Gerald R. Ford Foundation, the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships,
the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, and the National Park Foundation.
He was also a member of the U.S./Russia Business Forum and Chairman of the
Congressional Leadership's National Security Advisory Group.
In 1977, Mr. Rumsfeld was awarded the nation’s highest
civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Senator Wallop is currently a Senior Fellow with the Heritage
Foundation and chairs Frontiers of Freedom, a non-profit public policy
organization he established in January 1995. Previously he served as a U.S.
Senator from Wyoming (1977-95). In 1977 he was the first elected official to
propose a space-based missile defense system. Prior to serving in the U.S.
Senate, he was a rancher, a businessman, and a member of the Wyoming Legislature
Both in and out of public office, Senator Wallop has been an
outspoken conservative commentator and activist, working on such issues as tax
reform, federal deregulation, energy policy, private property rights, and
national defense. In 1978, Senator Wallop was the first elected official to
propose a space based missile defense system, a program that later became part
of the Strategic Defense Initiative.
Elected to the Senate in 1976, Senator Wallop held his seat
for eighteen years, retiring in 1994. During his tenure, Senator Wallop served
on numerous committees, including Energy and Natural Resources, Finance, Small
Business, Armed Services and the Select Committee on Intelligence. He was also
the first non-lawyer in U.S. Senate history to serve on the Judiciary Committee.
As the ranking Republican member of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee
from 1990 to 1994, Senator Wallop was an outspoken advocate of the multiple
economic uses of federal lands and development of domestic energy supplies of
coal, oil and natural gas.
Also Acknowledged by the Committee
“The Commissioners wish to express their appreciation to the
men and women of the U.S. Government national security space community who took
time to discuss national security space organization and management with the
Commissioners and the Commission Staff.
In particular, the Commissioners express their thanks to the
Honorable Arthur L. Money, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control,
Communications and Intelligence in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and
the Honorable Keith Hall, Director of the National Reconnaissance Office.
Special thanks are extended to Major General H. J. "Mitch"
Mitchell, USAF, the Department of Defense Liaison to the Commission. His
knowledge of the current organization and management of national security space
and his persistence in obtaining information for the Commission made its task
much easier than it might have been.
The Commissioners would also like to thank the organizations
that detailed personnel to staff the Commission: National Defense University,
United States Air Force, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Naval
Research Laboratory, Federal Communications Commission, Goddard Space Flight
Center and Central Intelligence Agency.
The National Reconnaissance Office and the Department of
Defense's Washington Headquarters Services provided excellent administrative and
logistical support under difficult time constraints. Thanks also are extended to
the Central Intelligence Agency's Printing and Photography Group, which assisted
in the design and publication of this report.”