by Richard Flavin
Dedicated to the late
Vincent J. Mooney, Jr.
I cannot prove that the Cave, its owner, the latter's munificent gift of
$25,000,000, and the ton of gold do not exist.
In a world where men walking
on the moon have been televised to Earth, where surgeons perform heart
transplants, where the Berlin Wall came tumbling down, where the Cold War
suddenly ended, etc., who can say that other miracles can't happen?
there is a tiny kernel of truth to the wild stories about Burrows Cave. But
I have no time to search for it.
I have other priorities.
Background of Russel Burrows of Olney, Ill.
1935 Born 1935, Richwood, West Virginia. Parents were Earl. V. Burrows
(Deceased) Amanda J. Burrows
1952 Graduated from High School 1952 Enlisted in U.S. Army 1952 Sent to
1953 Commissioned (Battlefield Commission) or cannon fodder. Wounded
Decorated five times, 1 Bronze Star, 2 Silver stars, 1 Legion of Merit, 2
Purple Hearts US Disability. Repatriated to Continental U.S. Promoted to 1st
Lieutenant. Took and passed U.S. Army Officers Qualification, retained
Commission. Went inactive to attend college 2 years at West Virginia
University majoring in archaeology.
1955 Reactivated, sent to Advanced Ranger training in guerilla warfare.
Posted in Leopold in South Africa to help put down Mau-Mau uprising.
1960 Applied for and accepted for Special Forces Training,
1961 Posted in Saigon.
1963 Returned to the United States. Resigned Commission -0-6-Col.
1963 Started a transportation business in New Jersey.
1976 Went out of business on account of rising fuel costs.
1979 Took employment with the Illinois Department of Corrections at Pontiac,
as a Certified State Corrections Officer. Resigned that post of own
1982 Found a cave while hunting.
"The artifacts may be as old as 726 B.C. to 10,000 B.C.," said Russell
Burrows, Olney, who discovered the site approximately 18 months ago while
looking for an Aztec site purported to be in this area.
"The pieces, which have been scrutinized by an anthropologist from a major
western university, as well as the site are not ready for public perusal as
yet," Burrows said.
He continued that the university will probably begin the dig next year. At
that time, more information can be given.
"Until then," he said, "the site must be protected from mercenary
scavengers, those who would strip the site of these priceless artifacts. I
want them preserved for history, since their creators definitely were here
far before the peoples that we usually associate with prehistoric American
Burrows quoted in The Olney Daily Mail, July 27, 1984 (Miller 1984).
[Note: The phenomena of Burrows Cave is commonly understood to be a long
running hoax involving the claim of a fantastic cave and the sale of
inscribed stones. What follows concerns my investigation, involvement with
others, and an attempt to provide information for the next sucker.]
During an early January 1994 telephone conversation with the late Cyrus H.
Gordon, I was asked about "Burrows Cave in southern Illinois."
previously spoken with Prof. Gordon on dozens of occasions about ancient
history, alphabetology, and other related topics, but this was the first
time he'd mentioned Burrows Cave.
As I was then living in Chicago and
southern Illinois is not that far of a drive, Prof. Gordon assumed I'd
perhaps investigated the claims. Though I was familiar with the name, having
read brief mentions describing debate about a fantastic cave allegedly
containing skeletons, gold, and thousands of mysterious inscribed stones,
I'd decided not to waste my time on tall tales (Bailey 1988; Buchanan 1989a,
1989b, 1990, 1991; Burrows 1989a, 1989b, 1990b, 1991a; Dexter 1988; Fell
1987, 1990a, 1990b; Gordon 1991; Hunt 1989, 1992, 1993; Mosely 1993a, 1993b,
1993c; Payn 1990; Skupin 1991a, 1991b, 1992).
Prof. Gordon seemed almost
relieved with my indifference and it was several months before we discussed
Burrows' Cave again.
Less than a week later Bill Rudersdorf, the editor of The Louisiana Mounds
Society Newsletter (Burrows 1994; Covey 1991; Skupin 1994), made a similar
inquiry. I reasoned that with my residence in Illinois, access to Chicago's
renowned Field Museum of Natural History and willingness to deal with the
State Archaeologist, I could probably put together a comprehensive feature
article with little effort.
When I fell into Burrows' 'cave' I had no idea
how long it would take to climb out.
An inscribed stone from "Burrows' Cave."
Photo by W. McGlone.
At the Field Museum I was told investigating the claims about Burrows Cave
was a waste of time and the mysterious inscribed stones were laughable
attempts at depicting antiquities. The state archaeologist was nearly as
dismissive. However he put me in touch with a former state archaeologist who
allowed the possibility of some 19th century secret society, The Knights of
the Golden Circle, making the inscribed stones for either ceremonial or
I rejected the guess of a 19th century origin as
improbable, as many of the inscribed stones have examples and combinations
of ancient alphabets not well known or popularized until after the
publication of America B.C. by Barry Fell (Fell 1976), which suggested the
presence of various Old World scripts in the New World before Columbus.
Within a month of Gordon and Rudersdorf's inquiries, I'd spoken with a few
professionals, a dozen or so amateurs, and even the source of the claims,
Russ Burrows. Then, I happened upon a new magazine about possible
pre-Columbian contacts between the Old and New worlds, The Ancient American,
and noticed the name of the editor was "Frank Joseph." I recalled from
previous information provided by a Chicago-area bookseller six years before
that "Frank Joseph" was the pseudonym of the neo-Nazi, Frank Collin.
infamous person threatened to march in the predominantly Jewish village of
Skokie, just north of Chicago, and which sparked a legal battle which
granted him the right to march (though he never did). He later wrote about
the mythical continent of Atlantis after his release from prison for
molesting young boys (Martin and Flavin 1995). And, coincidentally, The
Ancient American publishes articles in support of Burrows' Cave (Flavin
Such a small world. The temerity of my investigation became
frustrating and the tenor went suddenly from sad to sick.
As Bill Martin, the bookseller who told me that Collin marketed his first
Atlantis book as "Frank Joseph," had sold his half of the store and moved
around Chicago a couple of times, it took five weeks for me to get a message
to him. When I spoke with "Frank Joseph" three or four times on the
telephone, I was Rick Flavin, a struggling sci-fi writer and amateur
archaeologist, who'd taken Steve Williams' "Fantastic Archaeology" course at
Harvard and got the final paper in the course published as the cover article
in ESOP #20 (Williams 1991; Flavin 1992).
I was skeptical about many diffusionist claims, but interested in the debate, and had a couple of
favorite enigmas which fascinated me. I didn't tell "Frank Joseph" I was
waiting for confirmation that he was the infamous half-Jewish, ex-neo-Nazi,
and convicted pederast, Frank Collin. Our conversations were structured as
those between a writer and the editor of a nationally distributed magazine.
It was creepy.
[Note: Two examples which immediately come to mind are the
time Collin wasn't home and I spoke with his mother for a while and she said
that her knees bothered her from spending so many hours at prayer, and one
weekend conversation when Collin said that a favorite pastime of his was
buying white, unfinished lawn statuary of little boys and painting them in
While looking into Collin's past, I continued investigating Burrows Cave. I
spoke with several people whose advice and friendship would benefit me for
years to come, notably Lois Benedict (Emerson 1993) from Michigan and the
late Bill McGlone (Whittall and McGlone 1991, 1992) from Colorado. I also
began speaking with Russ Burrows on a regular basis. My initial conversation
with him was straightforward, in that I was interested in his claims and he
was trying to impress me with his fictitious exploits and fraudulent
When I told him of my suspicions regarding the true identity of
"Frank Joseph," our conversations took on the pretensions of immediacy and
justice, and research and truth. We were two guys trying to figure out
something together. I had fallen into Burrows' 'cave' and Russ was setting
me up to make sure that my stay was as lousy as possible.
I submitted an article to The Ancient American about Punt and Atlantis (or
rather the legend of Punt and the allegory of Atlantis involving astronomy
and myth) on Collin's suggestion (Joseph 'Collin' 1994b). Burrows increased
his affectation of concern with every phone call and suggested I attend an
upcoming conference in Wisconsin.
Then, Bill Martin got back to me and the
question of "Joseph" being Collin was put to rest. Martin had interviewed
Collin in his neo-Nazi heyday, published an article in Crawdaddy (Martin
1976), and even ran into Collin in his fallen period, when he worked as a
messenger in downtown Chicago (later, a janitor at a suburban hospital),
between being ousted for being half-Jewish from his neo-Nazi party and his
arrest on child molestation charges. When Collin self-marketed his first
Atlantis book in 1987, Martin recognized him (as did several other local
booksellers), and was in a position to swear so in court.
In one telephone
conversation with Collin, I said "I'd heard a rumor," in the next I informed
him that some believed "Frank Joseph" was Frank Collin, and in a final
conversation I asked his opinion how such a mistake, if a mistake it was,
could have been made. They were polite conversations, though we were both
engaged in a sad dance. Manners and decorum work well in most cases, but not
when it comes time to deal with a sicko.
Rudersdorf, the LMS Newsletter editor, sent me some money to attend the
upcoming conference in Wisconsin with Burrows. As I didn't own a car at the
time, I made arrangements with Burrows to pick me up at a bus station on the
way to Wisconsin.
[Note: To his credit, as the bus schedule was wrong, I was
dropped off in a different town and had to leave word where he could find
me. Burrows managed to get the message and follow through. I believe the bus
company later gave me free tickets for the hassle.]
The day I first met Russ
Burrows was also the day of the Bronco chase with O. J. Simpson, an event I
didn't hear about until I returned to Chicago after the conference.
The "Indian Mounds and Other Mysteries of the Upper Midwest" conference was
held on the University of Wisconsin campus at Richland Center, WI. It was
sponsored by Scherz's Ancient Earthworks Society and The Ancient American,
though Burrows and his inscribed stones were the stars of the show (Scherz
and Burrows 1992). Collin, as "Frank Joseph," had been scheduled to attend,
but something came up and he couldn't make it.
While it was understood I
attended the conference because of Burrows and his claims, many were aware I
also carried a folder of photographs showing Collin in full neo-Nazi regalia
and these were to be shown to The Ancient American's publisher, Wayne May,
as well as to Prof. Jim Scherz, who had known and worked with "Frank Joseph"
for several years.
Various pics of Collin and crew.
1975 Tony Soluri.
I got nervous. Rudersdorf was putting together a brief article exposing the
true identity of "Frank Joseph" for a future LMS Newsletter (written, but
never published, as the newsletter folded), Martin was my only witness who
had personally seen both Collin and "Frank Joseph," and I was unsure of my
reception among the diffusionists and crackpots in Wisconsin.
before the conference I sent out an affidavit which outlined what I knew to
be true about Collin and what was speculation (Flavin 1994a). I shouldn't
have been nervous. It was Burrows, May, and Scherz who were on the defensive
at that point. They were the ones working with a sicko; I was just doing
background for a story.
My first examination of a Burrows Cave "artifact," one of the inscribed
stones, was in Burrows' mini-van after he picked me up. It was a favorite
piece of his, named "Charley," and said to be magical and possessed by a
spirit. I turned the stone over, saw a speck of purple paint on the back,
asked Burrows about it, and he immediately snatched it out of my hands.
Later, at the conference, I unloaded his artifacts and carried them to their
display places. I also assisted John White with his sizeable collection of
inscribed stones allegedly from Burrows' Cave.
It was ironic as I had a
check-stub in my wallet from the previous week for a four day in-and-out of
a display of Mesoamerican artifacts at the Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum
in Chicago. Needless to add, the crates, top-of-the-line packing material,
white cotton gloves for handling genuine artifacts, and other considerations
were not shown to Burrows' "artifacts." I humped them from Burrows' mini-van
and White's car like I was carrying in groceries.
The theme of the conference, Scherz's suggestion that local Native American
mounds have some connection to Old World travelers, was as disturbing as a
speaker, Merlin Redcloud, who shared a claim of a "Winnebago Perspective"
which told that Native elders have information about many mysteries, but
aren't talking. Right.
During one presentation I joined Burrows outside for
a cigarette. He asked if I was enjoying myself and I just grinned. Then,
much to my later regret, I jokingly suggested that Burrows was conducting an
anthropological experiment on popular gullibility, much like Carlos
Castaneda and his tales of the Yaqui shaman, Don Juan Matos. He chuckled,
agreed with me, and that was that. Burrows knew I didn't believe his claims
involving a discovery of a fantastic cave.
Saturday evening, as the sun was setting and I was bouncing from one
dorm-room where Burrows, May, and Scherz were trying to get me to write
something with Scherz, and another dorm-room where I was sharing beers with
the bare-footed Buck Trawicky, who was responsible for the horrendous
editing of The Mystery Cave of Many Faces (Burrows and Rydholm 1992), Bev
Mosely (of The Midwestern Epigraphic Society) showed me two large
collections of photographs of various Burrows Cave "artifacts" and inscribed
stones. I sat cross-legged on a sidewalk and flipped through hundreds of
photographs as the sun set behind me.
All of the photographs showed items
similar to those I'd already examined, that is ...crude, modern attempts to
depict unknown antiquities.
Throughout the three-day conference Burrows was soft-spoken and said little.
On the drive home, he began to show traits which demonstrated his true
demeanor. When we stopped for gas Burrows got a free cup of coffee for
telling the owner of the gas-station that he made a "damned fine cup of
As we walked back to the mini-van, I said,
"There's no such thing as a
good cup of coffee, and there's no such thing as a bad blowjob."
thought for a couple of seconds and then replied,
"As long as it's not from
Later, on the highway, Burrows went into trucker-mode on his
CB radio, talking and cursing to truckers on the road from the quaint
confines of his purplish mini-van. Burrows is a strange one, I knew that
much, but I had no idea how strange.
The day after I returned home a letter arrived from Collin about my
"My attorney tells me that should your affidavit be
published in any periodical, you and the editor could be vulnerable to
serious legal action (Joseph 'Collin' 1994c)."
I was immensely pleased with
this, as I've always abhorred frivolous, or less than serious, legal action.
A week later a letter from a lawyer was delivered which recommended that I "seek the advice of legal counsel (Kano 1994)." The next twenty fours of
laughing hysterically wasn't wasted. It would be a while before I was able
to laugh like that again.
Burrows telephoned one night and said he "could" have met Collin at Pontiac
Correctional when Collin was serving time for violating young boys and
Illinois law. and Burrows was a guard. Collin was in jail from 1980 to 1983
(three years on a seven-year sentence), started out at Joliet Correctional
Center, but I had no way of knowing if Collin had ever been transferred to
Joliet Correctional is a reception and classification center and
many prisoners are transferred to other Illinois facilities. Burrows and the sicko? It was possible. However, it was apparent that Burrows had begun to
play a game of disinformation with me and I'd have to take everything he
said from that point on with several grains of salt. I was the enemy.
July and August of 1994 were busy ones for me, as I was scheduled to move to
Boston on September 1. Most days were devoted to investigating Collin during
his neo-Nazi period, talking to Jewish organizations about the effects he
had on the Jewish community, local occult bookstores who knew him as "Frank
Joseph," and meetings with a representative of the American Indian Movement
and discussing what trouble someone like Collin, with his racist past and in
his position as editor of The Ancient American, might cause (Joseph 'Collin'
My evenings were spent on the telephone falling deeper into
Burrows' 'cave' (as well as into debt with the telephone company).
From: Engravings of Prehistoric Specimens from Michigan
I benefitted from my conversations with Lois Benedict and Bill McGlone
during those months.
Lois is a retired nurse and school teacher, as well as
a tireless researcher into the so-called "Michigan Relics," often referred
to as the Soper-Savage frauds. These thousands of artifacts (estimates range
from 20,000 to 40,000 items), were "discovered" between 1890 and 1912 in
Michigan, with a few "finds" said to have originated in other Midwestern
Though the "Michigan Relics" had their supporters (and still do),
they were judged early on to be fraudulent and that position hasn't changed
(Williams 1991, pp. 176-186). The mystery, of course, remains who made them
and why. Because of the sheer number of manufactured items, I argued to Lois
that a group was likely responsible, probably a cult, and the only candidate
which came to mind was James J. Strang (1817-1856).
It was my suggestion the
principals in the "Michigan Relics" hoax came upon extensive caches of Strang cultist items and attempted to pass them off as genuine
archaeological finds. On the surface, there seemed to be many similarities
between the "Michigan Relics" and the Burrows Cave inscribed stones–both
groups were modern, a large number of items were involved, previously
unknown alphabets were used in conjunction with apparent religious imagery,
etc. Oh, and Lois was investigating Burrows as well. She even achieved "enemy" status before me.
Lois was in contact with Mildred Ward, the widow of Jack Ward, an associate
of Burrows, who helped sell the inscribed artifacts at weekend arrowhead
conventions between c. 1984 and 1990 (Allison 1994).
[Note: Lois said
Mildred told her Burrows first met Jack Ward in 1979, earlier than the
claimed dates of 1983 and 1984.]
From what she learned from Mildred, Lois
passed on a few names, a lawyer, a couple of friends, and these in turn
supplied more names of people to talk to. I must stress, at this time, that
these were extremely sad telephone conversations. The senior citizens who
had purchased the inscribed stones from Burrows and/or Ward were very
They wanted to believe in something fantastic, but knew they'd
wasted their money. Lois also suggested Burrows may have been involved with
other incidents before the "cave," and often mentioned the tragedy of the
Native American site of Slack Farm in Kentucky, and the wholesale looting
that occurred. She maintained Burrows was one of those who had escaped
arrest (Hayden 1993).
When confronted with the above, Burrows called Mildred a "gold-digger," who
married Jack Ward for his money, referred to Lois Benedict in a term often
used in animal husbandry when a female is mentioned, and ...sputtered and
stuttered regarding allegations he was involved in the Slack Farm crimes. It
was the only time I've ever known Burrows to be so mad as to be at a loss
for words. In one of our next telephone conversations, he quickly recovered
and attacked his past associate, Jack Ward, in a cruel and vile fashion.
claimed Ward was selling the inscribed stones without his knowledge, implied
it was to support Ward's secret homosexual lifestyle, and told me a
disgusting story of going to Ward's home after the funeral, meeting with the
family, discovering a hidden cigar-box near the living-room, and finding a "shit-encrusted dildo" inside of it. Ouch! I knew then that any man who
could spew such vicious lies about a one-time associate, was capable of much
evil and deception. And, as these things go, it got worse.
My conversations and correspondence with Bill McGlone, a retired engineer
and devout diffusionist, helped me immensely. He was critical of the amateur
archaeology (and epigraphy) community and his challenging insights continue
to inspire me. He'd previously put his time and talent where another's
deceit reigned by testifying in a New Mexico courtroom regarding fraudulent
antiquities (McGlone, et al 1993, pp. 46-49). Bill took me to task for every
wasted phone-call I made, scribbled notes that I couldn't read the next day,
and sharing of information with Burrows that wasn't necessary.
Unfortunately, my seeking Bill's help was not without cost.
The amateur archaeology and diffusionist community had been split concerning
Burrows Cave from its public beginnings with the talks by Jack Ward in 1984
at ISAC (The Institute for the Study of Ancient Cultures) in Columbus,
Georgia, and by Ward and Burrows in 1988. For various reasons, some believed
the claims of Burrows were true and the many inscribed stones were genuine,
most did not.
McGlone began his interest in diffusion allied with Barry
Fell, but later became highly critical of his methodology (McGlone, et al
1993, pp. 27-40), a re-evaluation he also applied to Gloria Farley (best
known for her investigation of the so-called "Heavener Runestone"). It
became petty with Fell and Farley supporters rallied on one side, McGlone
continuing his work with a small, but growing group on another side, and
there were believers and nonbelievers in Burrows Cave sprinkled about in
When Fell passed away in early 1994, the amateur archaeology and diffusionist community split further. I spoke with many at this time who
seemed more concerned with my dealings with McGlone, than with Collin and
[Note: The Ancient American was continuing to publish articles in
support of Burrows Cave (May and Burrows 1994, Scherz 1994, White and Mosley
1993, 1994), as well as a few letters indifferent (Coppens 1994; Godlewski
1993; Hart 1993; Petraitis 1994), and against (Lurio 1994).]
I moved back to Boston because my girlfriend had been accepted into a
two-year program offered by The Institute for Advanced Theatre Training at
Harvard's American Repertory Theater. I'd lived in Boston from 1978-1984,
returned to visit friends often, and even spent a winter away from Chicago
taking Williams' "Fantastic Archaeology" course.
The choice of moving was a
fairly easy one, except that it distanced me from the backyards of Collin
and Burrows. My phone-bills were already substantial, however with the move
to Boston it resulted in the stuff of legend (as well as disconnection
In the autumn of 1994 an extremist group of Burrows' 'cave' believers
emerged, fronted by two young men from Florida (hereafter: "The Kids"), Paul
Kelly (a.k.a. Schaffranke) and Brian "Harry" Hubbard (a.k.a. Horatio
Rybnikar). Paul and Harry claimed they could read the hodgepodge of ancient
alphabets on the inscribed stones as a previously unknown combination of
Latin and Etruscan.
They believed the inscriptions described a voyage from
the Old World to ancient Illinois by various minor historical personages and
which, perhaps, included the New World reburial of the revered corpse of
Alexander the Great. Yup, The Kids claimed the "lost" tomb of Alexander the
Great was located in southern Illinois, and that Burrows had discovered and
subsequently plundered it. What made The Kids and their group extremist,
beside their laughable historical reconstruction and silly attempts at
decipherment, were their relentless attacks against anyone who disagreed
with them and their constant solicitation of money.
They appeared to spend
the majority of their time seeking investors and peddling home-made
video-tapes. Though a dysfunctional duo, Kelly seems to have done the geek
work, with Hubbard playing the freak. Greed aside, the extreme arrogance and
viciousness of Hubbard are his most defining character traits, unheard of
before (at least to such a degree) in the amateur archaeology and diffusionist community, with the possible exception of Russ Burrows.
Hubbard also shares with Burrows a complete disdain for the opinions of
interested amateurs and professionals. Their style of debate follows a
consistent line. Whenever their fantastic claims are not greeted with total
acceptance, they will question the doubter's education as well as his or her
political and religious beliefs.
They often challenge skeptics to disprove
their fantastic claims and when that fails, they attack with vulgar epithets
and slurs aimed at sexual orientation. Annoyed with Hubbard's arrogance
during our first telephone conversation, I threatened to "bitch-slap" him up
alongside of his head if ever we met face-to-face. Hubbard is a punk and has
this effect on most people. I hung up on him, he wrote a letter (Rybnikar 'Hubbard' 1994), and continues to stay in contact with me. As with Burrows:
keep your friends close and your enemies closer.
I'd spoken with several who'd purchased inscribed stones from Burrows, and
all were ...not that smart. Sorry; but it's a case of the classic "a fool
and his money are soon parted" thing. Some believers in the claims of
Burrows and a 'cave,' as well as in the authenticity of the inscribed stones
as being from antiquity, became convinced independently and early on, such
as Virginia Hourigan (Hourigan 1987; Burrows and Rydholm 1992, Sections
34-36 and 38-41), while others switched over to the 'Dark Side' after Ward
and Burrows' talk at ISAC in 1988.
Cyclone Covey, professor emeritus of
history at Wake Forest College and author of Calalus, a book which argues
for an ancient Roman-Jewish presence in Arizona (Covey 1975), was, and
remains, a dedicated believer.
Another was the late Joseph P. Mahan, founder
of ISAC, and author of The Secret: America in World History Before Columbus
(Mahan 1983), who, for reasons we still don't completely understand,
believed Burrows Cave was somehow connected with,
mortals [who] were the descendants of extraterrestrial immortal
progenitors who had come to earth in fire ships, had resided for a
while, had upgraded the humanoids they found here by modifying the genes
of these children of earth thus producing a hybrid progeny (Mahan
Both Covey and Mahan
bought into the claims of Burrows hook, line, and sinker after the 1988 ISAC
conference. That faith was especially unfortunate for Mahan who also bought
several thousand dollars worth of inscribed stones (Mahan 1994).
Mahan generated compassion and loyalty among his friends, strong feelings
and traits which have enabled ISAC to survive his recent passing. That he
was outgoing and cheerful is apparent after meeting anyone who knew and
worked with him, however as far as his belief in Burrows Cave was concerned,
his manner changed somewhat. I spoke briefly with Mahan on two occasions in
1994, and both telephone calls did not go well. He was reluctant, edgy, and
seemed more annoyed than anything else.
These where difficult times for
Mahan and ISAC and it was to get much more difficult before things got
Besides dedicating a substantial part of my income to the telephone company,
I kept the Post Office in business as well, with various drafts of a feature
story about Collin passing back and forth between Martin and myself. As a
writer, my main tool had been an electric typewriter for many years, though
since 1990 I'd moved into electrics with the ability to save an ASCII file
to a floppy disk. These personal word processors got more advanced with each
new purchase, but it was time for me to move into computers.
had offered me an old 356 PS2 IBM, which his wife, Toni, kindly carried to
Boston's Logan Airport, as she was in town attending a P. G. Wodehouse
convention. I believe he also mailed a printer along at this time via
Greyhound Bus, which I used a refund ticket to pay for from the Burrows
mix-up from some months back.
As 1994 closed, I arranged for a three-way conference call between Bill
McGlone, Tom Cullen, and myself. Tom was the son of the late Norman Cullen,
a business associate of Jack Ward and an initial investor and believer in
Burrows and his claims. Tom hated Burrows for separating his father from so
much money, but despite the open animosity, he possessed a wooden bas-relief
carving by Burrows which he displayed proudly in his home.
Tom said the
carving was top-notch and the work was quite lovely. Burrows had previously
admitted to making cabinets and chests, but here was an example of detailed
artistic work. It was more circumstantial evidence he was making the
inscribed stones he was selling.
The end of January 1995 saw the publication of the first article naming
"Frank Joseph," the editor of The Ancient American, as the infamous
ex-neo-Nazi, Frank Collin (Martin and Flavin 1995). Mahan used the article
as a pretext to attack anyone critical of diffusionist claims, totally
disregarding the basic theme of the article, that Collin is a sicko (Mahan
I would encounter this position again and again among the amateur
archaeology and diffusion community (Whittal 1995).
Of course things were different back in Chicago. Friends and family
applauded my efforts. During a telephone conversation with a neo-Nazi about
Collin's past, I was asked for his home address so some skin-heads could be
dispatched to beat him senseless for lying about his Jewish ancestry and his
criminal record for child abuse.
Needless to add, I didn't provide the
information, as I hate Nazis, whether they're real, fake, neo, ex-neo, or
any other form of Nazi. Art Golab, a Chicago Sun-Times staff writer, was
aggressively pursuing an in-depth piece on Collin, pushing the idea to
Playboy and other magazines, and even interviewed the late Vincent J.
Mooney, Jr., for a diffusionist perspective and possible connection between
Collin and Burrows Cave.
It was Golab who gave me my first modem, a puny
14k, in 1995 and which allowed me to go online, exchange e-mail, surf the
Web, and goof off for hours on end.
Burrows knew about my work and sent me a photocopy of a document he claimed
was his separation notice from Pontiac Correctional Center. The photocopy
shows a period of report from 1-23-79 to 10-3-80 and under "Type of Report"
has "Seperation [sic] - No reinstatement rights." Art Golab was able to
verify Collin at Pontiac and Burrows gave me a photocopy of a document which
placed him likewise at Pontiac, albeit for only a short while, but at the
same time as Collin.
Could Collin have given Burrows the idea for marketing
inscribed stones and suggested some of the hodgepodge of ancient alphabets?
The suggestion has always been a long shot, but I've never been able to get
rid of it. It's a strange coincidence.
[Note: Burrows has said he joined
Pontiac to qualify for retirement. He seems to have been trying to build a
resume, but his outlandish military claims and less than two years service
as a state employee simply didn't add up to 20 years of accomplishment. A
better guess might be that as a self-employed worker and truck driver he
hadn't paid much into Social Security. The eighteen months at Pontiac
according to the separation notice falls short of Burrows' previously
published estimate of "better than two years (Burrows and Rydholm 1992, p.
Dealings with Burrows began to get ugly. Rudersdorf, who edited articles of
mine for ESOP and the LMS Newsletter, who sent me money and gave me my first
'puter, lost his patience one day and said I was being a "whore" for
continuing to speak with Burrows.
Apparently Rudersdorf disagreed with the
"keep your friends close and your enemies closer" approach. Burrows knew
about my dealings with Native Americans and was in the process of trying to
scam some cash from the Hochunk Nation (the Winnibago tribe). During one
conversation his vulgarity reached a new low, as he described Native
Americans as "prairie-niggers."
It was ugly, the lies were difficult to
separate from bits of truth, but as long as he was out there causing trouble
and taking people's money, I tried to stay on top of things.
It's not like I wasn't trying. I telephoned the F.B.I. and got nowhere.
State Police in Burrows' backyard knew of his controversial antics and told
"It's not against the law to
be a liar."
Ouch! I filed a complaint with
the Illinois Attorney General arguing the violations of Illinois law under
"815 IL CS 505/1 Consumer Fraud and deceptive business practices" and
"Article 17 5/17-1 Deceptive practices. Act 295/1a Untrue, misleading or
The matter went round and round for a few months
between the Attorney General's office, the Governor, and Sen. Paul Simon,
whom I had contacted for help. For some reason still not clear to me, a
case-worker attached the name of Collin to my complaint against Burrows
("Re: Frank Collin File No: CF95 05 0418") and eventually I got a letter
saying the Attorney General was passing and recommended I go after Burrows
privately in a Chicago civil court. It was small beer to them and Burrows
continued to slip through the cracks.
The Kids had taken part in a special ISAC conference on April 21 and 22,
1995 which initially impressed those who were already believers in Burrows
Cave. The late Vincent J. Mooney, Jr. critiqued the Latin advanced by Kelly
'Schaffranke' and found a too generous correlation near 80% between attested
forms and transcriptions and translations made from inscribed stones
purchased from Burrows (Mooney 1995), but ultimately rejected all associated
work because of the lack of provenance for the inscribed stones.
Mahan thought The Kid's work was promising, but most everyone else regarded
Burrows' Cave as a hoax, the inscribed stones as fraudulent, and the claims
of UFOs transporting the body of Alexander the Great to southern Illinois as
ludicrous. Incredibly, though few could keep a straight face against these
claims, The Kids were just getting started.
I decided to take a 'working' vacation in the autumn of 1995 and spend a
week and a half with McGlone in Colorado. Originally, a director friend was
invited along to assist me in making a brief documentary of the trip, but he
backed out at the last minute. I borrowed a high 8mm video-cam and tripod
from a Harvard film student, and gave it a go.
The trip went fine, but the
film is still raw, unedited, and sitting on a shelf behind me. I was
challenged by what I saw during the trip, such as Anubis and Crack Caves,
the so-called Sun Temple, and other interesting sites, however the
conversations, arguments, and critical thinking were what I most benefitted
from (besides breathing clean air).
McGlone and his group had long been
contemptuous of Burrows (Whittall 1990; McGlone, Leonard, and Gillespie
1995). I assisted McGlone in a follow-up piece critical of Burrows, which
was rejected by The Ancient American for their letters-to-the-editor
section, and was later privately distributed (McGlone 1996).
McGlone was concerned with why some believe and behave as they do. Burrows
is a liar who craves attention. Like Collin, he has a uniform fetish
(Burrows and Rydholm 1992, see pics on pp. 23 and 30, text on p.23). He also
has a penchant for telling tall tales and once bragged "he was called in by
the Air Force to interrogate UFO witnesses (Heck 2001)."
His involvement in
financial scams is well documented. A pathological liar? A master
con-artist? In 1995, Burrows tried his hand at writing again and produced
pieces suggesting Carthaginian pirates were responsible for Burrows Cave
(Burrows 1995a), and a non-fantastic overview of the so-called "Black Hawk
War (Burrows 1995c)." To suggest that Burrows likes to keep busy would be
the grossest of understatements.
Ditto, The Kids. Hubbard and his group had interviewed people said to have
visited the "cave," though actually a rocky ledge and they were simply told
that the "real cave" was somewhere nearby. Upon hearing of this Burrows
declared he'd predicted just such an occurrence and that the area of the
rocky ledge was the "decoy cave," with the "real cave" being someplace else.
With this information Hubbard tracked down the property and convinced the
landowner that a fantastic cave was somewhere nearby and it would be in the
landowner's best interest to let Hubbard and his group start digging things
up with a back-hoe. The Chicago Tribune did a full-page story on the claims
and dismissed it all as silliness (Smith 1996).
Unfortunately, the problem
of Burrows' 'cave' didn't go way, it got worse. Since the beginning of the
Burrows Cave hoax it's been about separating fools from their money, getting
investors, and moving on to the next series of ducks in a row. The Kids took
lessons from Burrows and began the same scam. Others would follow.
One night, I got a call asking me to appear on a Native American
radio-program the next morning and discuss Burrows Cave. I had laryngitis at
the time, but was more than willing to take part. Burrows had tried to lure
in Native American investors, he's a bigot and a racist, his ongoing scams
take away from serious studies of Native American pre-history, and my
speaking out was the right thing to do (Flavin 1996a).
I wish I could do
Lois Benedict had studied the so-called "Michigan Relics" for many years
and, as mentioned above, had looked into the matter of Burrows Cave. She was
old and getting older, her personal financial problems had required the
unthinkable (selling parts of her book and ms. collection), and she regarded
me as someone she could trust to help her gain a better understanding of
those responsible for the "Michigan Relics," and perhaps the inscribed
stones that Burrows peddled.
It was an extraordinary task, but I agreed to
attempt it. The classes I've taken in archaeology, my dealings with
professional archaeologists, museum workers, librarians, art critics, and
the like, all went ...okay, as long as manners were exercised, intelligent
questions were asked, and the impossible was neither asked for or expected.
I believed I could interest professionals to take a hard look at some of the
Michigan Relics Lois had collected over the years, as well as an inscribed
stone said to be from Burrows Cave.
Well... The awful skinny is as follows:
Williams was long gone from Harvard, though he did provide the name of a
hard-of-hearing fellow at the Peabody who directed me to M.I.T., as they
were said to be doing dating experiments.
[Note: The "hard-of-hearing"
fellow was a senior North American archaeologist who heard me say "twisted
history" extremely fast. He said "Twistory, I like that term for what you're
describing," and ...I sort of appropriated the invented term from him for my
M.I.T. lost its funding for any new dating experiments,
and reaching out to private investors to contribute to dating had begun to
take on a circus atmosphere smelling not that dissimilar to previous
investing scams by others mentioned above.
Mooney suggested I talk with a West Virginia archaeologist, Robert Pyle,
with regard to testing the Michigan and Burrows material. I'd known of Pyle
since his work on the enigmatic Wyoming County "inscription," believed by
some to be an example of the ancient Irish alphabet, ogham, by others as "turkey tracks" or Native American symbolic petroglyphs, while a few suggest
they could be natural (Pyle 1983).
The West Virginia debate began my
interest in diffusion theory in 1983, continues to intrigue me, and Pyle
seemed a good suggestion. Besides, Pyle had spoken at The Mid-Atlantic
Epigraphic Society (Buchanan 1994) and also at a meeting of ISAC and fooled
Burrows and many believers by producing an inscribed stone which resembled
those peddled by Burrows, but had been actually made by Pyle a few days
before. One has to admire hands-on science and skepticism.
During a long talk with Pyle on the telephone, I apparently emptied an
ashtray with cigarette butts that weren't entirely extinguished into my
waste-basket and, in the middle of the talk, was informed the basket was on
fire and the room was filling with smoke. Such things happen when one is
devoting one's attention to a given task. I hung up, dumped water in the
basket, opened some windows, and then called Pyle back and finished the
I sent Pyle the Michigan and Burrows items for him to test. I also, as my
girlfriend had graduated from her Harvard program and wished to pursue a
professional acting career, moved to New York City.
We do what we do.
New York City 1996-1997
I'd made two sales immediately before leaving Boston and the arrival of a
couple of checks made my initial dealings with New York City a tad less
traumatic. The first was a small feature in a Chicago weekly on Frank Collin
(Flavin 1996b), and the second was an overview of enigmatic stone structures
and diffusionist claims in New England (Flavin and Strubbe 1996).
were minor, did little to promote further interest in their respective
topics, but the cash was appreciated and spent with ease.
Pyle wasn't long in getting back to me about the Michigan and Burrows items
I'd sent him (Pyle 1996).
He deemed all of the material to be of a recent
manufacture and not thousands of years old as alleged. Of the Burrows'
'cave' inscribed stone he examined (see Pearson pic below), Pyle wrote:
"[The stone] ...displays
grinding around the entire edge. The pictographs and symbols may
represent a known text, therefore, may be translatable. However, the
prepared polished surface has deposits of polish compound left within
the grooves from that recent effort. Again the characteristics of the
grooves indicate hasty manufacture causing fracturing along the top
edge. My conclusion based on the surface preparation and line
characteristics is that this piece is also of recent manufacture."
As Pyle used it, "recent" could mean any date between c.1880 and 1980 or so.
He ended his report with,
"It is unfortunate that items
of this nature are being passed off on the public as artifacts for the
profit of a few individuals."
Unfortunately, the Burrows Cave scam involves more than a
individuals," and that number continues to increase as other opportunists
Mrs. Benedict seemed about as pleased as I was with Pyle's appraisal, to
wit, it was okay, but could have been more in depth. McGlone chastised the
testing because it disrupted the "chain of evidence," as certain microscopic
metallic fragments magnetically recovered from the inscribed grooves of the
Burrows' stone were not preserved and shipped back along with the tested
For privacy considerations, I censored Pyle's name and
"Archaeological Archives, Inc." contact information on the report, made
copies, and sent them to Burrows and a few of his supporters. Burrows wasn't
impressed, made a couple of guesses as to who made the report, continued to
make guesses over the next couple of months, and finally hit on Pyle, as
Pyle had prior experience with Burrows' 'cave' inscribed stones and cared
enough about diffusionist claims to test items, rather than summarily
dismiss them as fantastic and fraudulent.
Apparently, further testing was
There was a great deal of activity from both Burrows and The Kids during the
end of 1996. Burrows was preparing to move his family to Colorado and tying
up loose ends in double and triple knots, while The Kids were making a
tremendous push to get anyone to pay attention to them.
continuing to dig up some poor guy's backyard in southern Illinois, yet had
moved on to a new level of soliciting investor interest, with such claims
(Burrows 1996b) that an archaeologist had been secured, and,
"...the firm Waterford Public
Relations will handle the press conference which will be held at the
Kennedy Space Center Main Press Room. The Radison Hotel of Cape
Canaveral has been retained to host the 3-day press event of seminars
and briefings of 'A New History For A New Century' Conference."
The Kids thought they could spin a
"friend-of-a-friend's friend" connection
with the former astronaut, Dr. Mae Jamison.
Burrows e-mailed me (Burrows
1996c), that he'd,
"...finally [sic] heard back
from Dr. Jamison's office today, Wed. and was told in no uncertain terms
that Dr. Jamison is not associated with those crooks in Florida. I was
told that she knows George Lodge's wife from High School, but that is
all. Those fellows can tell some whoppers."
I already knew this, as I'd telephoned NASA and Jamison's office
the week before. Calling NASA was cool, even if it did cost ten bucks at
[Note: George Lodge was, at the time, young businessman in
Florida who worked with Hubbard and Kelly (Raskin and Lodge 1996; Lodge
1997). Their ways have since parted.]
Toward the end of November, 1996, I walked into Brooklyn's 94th precinct of
the New York City Police Department and tried to file a complaint against
Hubbard for telephoning and leaving obscene messages for me, and a couple of
times, for my girlfriend.
Hubbard's punk behavior had steadily increased
with those he thought he could get over on (though requesting Mooney to
translate a Bob Marley album into Latin, before any discussion on epigraphy
would be forthcoming, remains a plastic pink flamingo attesting to extremely
low standards). It was bad. Here was a punk with a telephone leaving vulgar
messages across the country and, also, sending threatening e-mail from his
new computer. It was bad and wrong of me to waste the time of the NYPD. They
said we should change our telephone number.
We couldn't do that.
On Thursday, November 28, 1996, I received an e-mail (Rybnikar 'Hubbard'
1996) which said,
"I would like to wish all you
assholes a Happy Thanksgiving!"
It was sent to Burrows, with copies forwarded to me, Scherz,
and Mooney. I suppose everyone faces hatred to some degree, though not
believing Alexander the Great's body was transported from the Old World to
southern Illinois by a UFO and being harassed by a punk, probably doesn't
rate particularly high on the sympathy scale. The Kids were taking their
Burrows sent out a two-page, "To whom it may concern," letter (Burrows
1996d), which repeated prior dissociations with The Kids (as well as
Virginia Hourigan, who'd sold them some pics and included a description of
the "decoy cave"), but notched up the "Never! I will die before I tell you!"
rhetoric. It was typed better than his usual correspondence, however was
just more of his standard greased fluff. Burrows loves the game.
The Kids are said to have paid $3000 (Mooney 1998) to have their own issue
of The Ancient American (Vol. 3, No. 16, January/February 1997). It was
double-sized, labeled "Special Report," the cover featured the headline "Ancient Gold in Illinois," and featured a picture of Jack Ward with a small
horde of fake gold coins and artifacts.
The cover photograph boldly
established a dichotomy of silliness and a disturbing thoroughness, which
the rest of the issue continued. While articles in the issue sought to draw
attention to Hubbard's efforts at discovering the "real" cave (Rybnikar 'Hubbard' 1997a; May 1997), the translation illusions of Kelly (Schaffranke
'Kelly' 1997; May and Schaffranke 'Kelly' 1997) and the accompanying yarn
about Alexander Helios (the lost son of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony, a sort
of diffusionist Anastasia Romanoff), the story of the fake gold coins and
artifacts was the only one worth telling.
And, of course, The Kids took the
story into The Twilight Zone.
The "gold" allegedly removed by Burrows from some fantastic cave has never
been seen. Burrows has privately stated all pieces that have made it into
private collections are reproductions, mere lead and gold paint, made by the
"landowner" at a private firm in St. Louis.
Oh, Burrows has said, at one
point, that Ward sold some of the "real" gold, but the truth is probably
that Ward was in on the scam, helped sell the fake gold coins and artifacts
with Burrows at week-end arrow-head conventions, and feigned support for
Burrows' claims to divest (read: cheat) the other local investors. The
Burrows Cave legend holds that many tons of gold were removed, melted down
and sold as bullion, and the money is in a Swiss bank account.
and opinions differ as to who has the Swiss bank account, i.e., the
"landowner," Ward, Ward and Burrows, Burrows alone, or no one at all. The
Kids claim to believe the cover of AA #16 shows Ward with a small horde of "real" gold, which Burrows later sold (May and Rybnikar 'Hubbard' 1997).
They also argue that the "landowner," as described by Burrows, never existed
and publish various signatures and letters purportedly from a "George Neff"
(Rybnikar 'Hubbard' 1997d).
The Kids' scam follows the main Burrows Cave
legend, then encourages all future investors to give them lots of money, as
The Kids are in the best position to save the "cave," maybe some more gold,
and rewrite history. Oh, and they'd like it if everybody bought their
video-tapes. Others would soon seize upon and revise The Kid's scam to
further bilk investors.
In March of 1997, an auction to sell over two hundred "Burrows Cave" items
was held in East Peoria, Illinois (Flavin 1997b). The items were represented
as "The Olney, Illinois 'Burrows Cave' Stone Collection of Thelma McClain"
and, according to Burrows (Burrows 1997), was a "fantastic success."
McClain, the owner of an antique and curio store not far from where Burrows
used to live in Olney, is on record for being the earliest known victim of
the Burrows Cave hoax (Burrows and Rydholm 1992, pp. 12, 52, and 108-109),
acquiring an estimated "fifteen or twenty" stones in 1983.
might be too generous, as McClain and her associates stayed in the business
of peddling Burrows' items for many years, and she possessed up to 1000
stones, at one time (Burrows 1991a). And, her dealings with Burrows began
before the first newspaper account of the claimed "discovery" (Miller
I'd spoken briefly with Mrs. McClain a few months previously. She
seemed annoyed that strangers were asking questions and bothering her about
Burrows. Mrs. McClain said a young man had recently been in her shop and
arrogantly demanded that she answer his questions. When she asked for
identification, the only thing the young man could produce was a Social
Security card. Apparently, Harry Hubbard didn't possess a driver's license
at the time.
I began a weekly column for the online The Greenwich Village Gazette at the
end of May, 1997. A month later, The Kids had their first website up, the
It seems hawking video-tapes and photocopies
didn't keep The Kids busy enough, so for several weeks they would play
Photoshop with my headshot pic from The Gazette, and offer prizes if any of
their four or five readers could guess who I was. I don't believe anyone
The Kids probably wouldn't have come through with a prize, anyhow
(Raskin and Lodge 1997).
The Kids and their 'alexhelios.com' were soon joined by Burrows Cave
Committee (now defunct) and The Ancient American web-sites. AA offered an
online forum for the general readership, though it was mainly used by
Burrows' Cave combatants (myself, Burrows, Hubbard, Mooney, and five or six
others; a line-up which also posted to the similarly useless
'alexhelios.com' online forum), with the publisher, Wayne May, and the
editor, Frank 'Joseph' Collin, only posting occasionally.
One bizarre post
by 'Joseph' Collin at the end of June, 1997, which was yanked offline less
than a day after it was posted, concerned Collin and May being taken to the
"cave" by Burrows (Joseph 'Collin' 1997b). After the summer of 1997, perhaps
inspired by the scams of Burrows and The Kids, May began to semi-seriously
look for the "cave" on his own. His efforts were few and simple at first,
but in the years since have become as slick and slimy as anything Burrows or
The Kids could have come up with.
My time in New York City was coming to a close. I wasn't impressed with the
town's bookstores, The Museum of the American Indian wasn't interested in
testing Mrs. Benedict's Michigan and Burrows items, The Explorers Club
wouldn't let me run around their library because I wasn't a member, and my
relationship with the actress was cooling. It was time to return to Boston.
I arranged for a one month job in Boston which, fortunately, went longer and
lasted until the end of the year.
It was a difficult move, with most of my
books and files going into storage, and was further complicated by my
confused feelings for the actress. I wasn't sure if I should give Metropolis
another shot, go back to Chicago, or remain in Boston.
It was two and a half
years before I made a decision. Some choices are hard to make.
By 1998, the online forums at The Ancient American and 'alexhelios.com', the
Hubbard-site at the time, favored vulgar and juvenile attacks against any
and all who didn't believe the claims of Burrows and/or Hubbard, over
possible discussions of history and science.
An honest appraisal of what I
personally endured at the fingertips of diffusionist bigots consumed with
web-rage could probably suffice with:
"They called me everything,
but a white man."
In one early salvo by Burrows (Burrows 1998a), I was called a
"liar," as far as my ever attending Harvard, described as making my "living
hauling refrigerators up and down stairs for homosexuals in Boston,"
and it was suggested my ex-girlfriend had found out about some "other life"
After a few "liar," bum," and "leach" remarks, Burrows wrote:
"A good example of his LIEING
and DECEIT is what he did to the little old lady in Michigan, Lois
Benidict He sucked up to her, made her think he was her friend and
convienced her to give him her Michigan tablet/Soper/Savage artifacts.
All the while, he was telling me via telephone what a crazy old woman
she is. Nice man."
[Note: All misspellings and punctuation mistakes in
the above, as well as those quoted below, are in the original posts and
Things weren't going well with Mrs. Benedict. Her husband had passed away,
her dog died, she got another dog and a new house, but she was later
hospitalized a few times, and there were long stays in nursing and assisted
She'd been calling collect for years, by then, but hadn't
called in months. At one point I got the State Police to go to her home to
see if she was okay. My possession of Mrs. Benedicts' Michigan and Burrows
items became the subject of attacks by Burrows, Hubbard, May, and their
fans. McGlone said to ignore the attacks, and even if I didn't get any
further testing done, keeping the items away from Burrows, Hubbard, and May
would upset them, which could be regarded as a minor success all its own.
May was offering Mrs. Benedict a lot of money for her items and she was
often very tempted, though she'd long planned for her "Michigan Relics" to
go to Michigan State University in East Lansing, MI (she had a history of
dealings with the library department and even used a couple of student
research assistants as interns in her home). Sometimes, I think, she didn't
call me for long periods because she felt bad about selling her books to
She probably felt real bad.
Despite my public condemnation for his continued employment of Frank
'Joseph' Collin as editor, I still spoke occasionally with Wayne May, the
publisher of The Ancient American. Usually about Burrows or Mrs. Benedict,
but never about Collin. That is, until I got a call from Burrows one night
encouraging me to telephone May and ask him about what he found in Collin's
[Note: Collin was then staying in May's home.]
I called May,
he told me he'd discovered boxes of neo-Nazi newsletters and asked what he
should do. He said he was concerned for his family. It was all lies to get
me to write up something and embarrass myself. They weren't even very
Hubbard, conversely, was able to generate very imaginative falsehoods when
he took his show on the road. Speaking at a UFO, New Age, and dowser
convention, Hubbard lectured on "Aliens from the Lost Tomb."
video-taped version of this lecture is sometimes referred to as "The
Cold-Blooded Video" or "The Lizard Flick."]
The gist of the lecture was that
images on the inscribed stones from Burrows' 'cave' suggest an ancient
awareness of extraterrestrial lizards who killed off the dinosaurs and later
liked to dress up in Egyptian and Roman garb.
Of course, according to
Hubbard, such an awareness continues in our own day, as government
cover-ups, academic conspiracies, alleged evidential foot-prints of humans
co-existing with dinosaurs, claims of alien abductions, and the ability of a
roomful of people to sit and listen to Hubbard for forty-five minutes, all
combine to attest to a greater mystery that could, perhaps, be better
understood if one were to purchase a few videos from Hubbard.
theme about reptiles from outer space is certainly one about which most
would have a handy opinion, it makes the idea of a "lost" tomb of Al the
Great in southern Illinois seem almost tolerable by comparison, and
Hubbard's allegations of numbered Swiss bank accounts filled with the spoils
of the looting of this "lost" tomb are understood as harmless rambling.
However, he did get someone to listen.
It was only a matter of time. Hubbard tried nearly every American media
outlook he could think of from Reader's Digest to the National Enquirer, but
still couldn't get anyone (outside of those few who buy his videos) to take
him seriously or, at the very least, not openly laugh in his face.
Hubbard took his theory, of Old World UFOs abducting the corpse of Al the
Great and dropping it somewhere in the New World, across the Atlantic and
found an audience. Right. Export American hoaxes to stimulate the economy
and better understand European gullibility. It worked for Hubbard and,
later, others involved with the Burrows' Cave hoax.
Swiss author and journalist, Luc Buergin (also Bürgin), a specialist in
paranormal, UFO, and related wacky-topics, published Secret File:
Archaeology (Buergin 1998), which repeats information as provided by Hubbard
about Burrows Cave.
Jack Ward, gold, Swiss bank accounts, gold, UFOs, more
gold, suppressed history which the public has the right to know, maybe some
undiscovered gold, though the book didn't include a plug for any
Hubbard-produced videos. The publication demonstrated conclusively that
gullibility may be found in the Old World, as well as the New. Burrows,
naturally, felt left out of this trans-Atlantic extension of his hoax.
It was Ward, again. According to Burrows, Ward wrote innocuous letters to
solicit responses from government offices, sold reproductions of the "real"
gold for chump change, and conned local investors out of thousands of
dollars, dying a painful, disgraced death, shortly afterwards.
replied to online newsgroup comments about Buergin's book with:
"Luc has made a very bad
mistake. He has published material which he obtained from Harry Hubbard,
who is now being sued by Dr. James P. Scherz for copyright infringement.
Jack Ward may have phonied up something to appear as though he had Swiss
bank accounts but, he did not. In fact, none of the gold in Burrows Cave
According to Burrows, Ward was a bad guy, Hubbard sent Buergin bits of
Ward's con of local investors, and, most importantly, there was never any
gold in the first place. Simple? Not with Burrows.
[Note: Though few ever
believed in the authenticity of "gold" items said to be from Burrows' Cave,
recent testing suggests copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) in the pigmentation of the
gold paint used to cover the crudely molded lead items (Chandler, Henson,
and Totten 2001).]
A recent feature on Buergin's book by the controversial revisionist
periodical, The Barnes Review, (Tiffany 2001) didn't include quotes from Buergin or Hubbard, but did include those of Burrows, May, and others.
Burrows' quotation begins with:
"TBR [The Barnes Review.]
managed to reach Mr. Burrows personally at his home in Windsor, Colorado
on August 15. He told us that Buergin got his information from Harry
Hubbard and Rick Flavin, 'both of whom are high school dropouts. Hubbard
is trying to sell stock in a company called Ptolemy Productions, but has
been on the run from the police for selling fraudulent stock for over a
year. Flavin is a guy who stole artifacts from a woman in Cadillac,
Michigan and who just likes to shoot his mouth off'."
The feature goes on to include other quotes about Burrows Cave and why those
quoted believe in such. Hubbard is never mentioned again in the feature. We
are known by the company we keep, "wretched subjects" be damned (Neugebauer
1951), certain areas of investigation are uglier than others, and some might
suggest I should appreciate Burrows for the undeserved mention. I won't. I
But, I'd gladly send him a buck and half to buy a cheap beer for
himself at a local tavern and consider it from me. Burrows is a determined
hoaxer and a cheap beer would be the absolute least I could do to
I've never been in contact with Buergin, Burrows remains a liar, and the
folks at The Barnes Review are invited over to my place (call first) for
refreshments and some screaming at the top of my lungs. Burrows has been in
touch with Buergin since 1993 (Bürgin and Hayden 1993).
Wayne May, on a rare visit to his The Ancient American online forum in early
November of 1998, decided he'd focus on my possession of Mrs. Benedict's
Michigan and Burrows items.
"She wants you to call her
immediately to arrange for the return of the artifacts she has sent you
on loan. She wants to know why you have not responded to her letters. If
you need her address let me know and I will e-mail it to you. Lois says,
send her artifacts without delay!"
Letters from Lois Benedict?
She was legally blind, at this time, and needed
a magnifying glass to read. It had been almost two years since she'd written
me and while her nurses and living assistants were certainly capable of
producing letters in her name, I doubt any were composed and somehow lost in
the mail on their way to me.
We talked on the telephone when her health was
up to it. May knew my home address, telephone number, and personal e-mail
information. However, privately contacting me wouldn't have been near as
much fun as public innuendo.
I posted in reply:
"Wayne, I don't know what
you're talking about. Lois has contacted you on a couple of occasions as
part of her investigation of your Mormon-Nazi-Burrows Cave publication.
Your pathetic attempt to move away from the LIES of Burrows, the
neo-Nazi past of your EDITOR, and your disregard for manners (dude, you
could have called or e-mailed me), compels me to ...say, f*ck you.
You, your queer, sick, nazi,
mormon, asshole buddies... F*ck your lies... My family, my friends, my
country will not stand for your stink... There... Be warned..."
Okay, not some of my finest work, but I tried. I was genuinely surprised at
the continuation of the accusations that somehow my possession of Mrs.
Benedict's Michigan and Burrows items was wrong or illegal. I shouldn't have
May took the time for a reply, posting:
"Dear Dick: Do you deny ever
receiving these artifacts from your trusted friend Lois Benedict? You
have spoken of these 'fake michigan' relics to myself about two
conversations over the past year. Was this all a lie? Did you or did you
not test a burrows cave artifacts also? Or is this a lie also?"
He then went on to request I never respond on his online forum again,
promised to send a copy of my "denial" to Mrs. Benedict, and guessed,
"She will probably swearout
[sic] a warrant for your theft and Lois and I know that you don [sic]
indeed have the artifacts."
After another reply of mine (a forgettable ditty ending with
"I'm going to
have the time of my LIFE cleaning up this crap..."), Burrows enjoined with:
"War! Well now, this could
get interesting but, I think you are attempting to run a bluff. ....
Mean time, how many more little old ladies have you ripped off, and them
in nursing homes yet. I think you are just a slug and a bum who lives
off of young women until they get tired of your mooching and run you
off, Then you go rip off little old ladies in nursing homes.
For shame, for shame. I guess
I had better get in touch with Lois benedict myself and urge her to
swear out a warrant for you. Yep! Like I said. Those cons in Jackson
State Prison are just gonna love you. Heck, you might like that, from
what I hear."
It's dedication like this that rates a cheap shot to go along with that
cheap beer. Burrows' mention of the Jackson prison, first built in 1838
(then billed as the world's largest prison) is interesting. So, according to
Burrows and May, I'm a thief. One day, I'll laugh about it.
Twenty-odd years earlier, Lois Benedict had acquired several "Michigan
Relics" from the daughter of a principal participant of the hoax and, later,
traded one to Wayne May in exchange for a Burrows' 'cave' inscribed stone.
[Note: The correspondence between Benedict and May about whose artifact was
fake reveals the worst of diffusionist silliness.]
May wanted the rest of
Mrs. Benedict's collection and, predictably, Burrows wanted to know exactly
where all his handiwork was. It took three telephone calls (to an
assisted-living nurse, a hospital, and a nursing home), before I got a
message through for Mrs. Benedict to call me. She did, it was a nice and
upbeat conversation, and I offered to send her items back, but said I might
be able to arrange for more testing, if I had more time.
agreed I should hang on to her Michigan and Burrows items and do my best.
I'm not sure I've done my best.
Since Leonard Nimoy's syndicated television series In Search Of... "Lost
Vikings" episode, in 1978, diffusionists have been eager to work with film
crews. Bill McGlone and Phil Leonard assisted in the making of History on
the Rocks (Monahan 1985), a television documentary about their work in
southeastern Colorado. Some have claimed (wrongly) that PBS science-editor,
Evan Hadingham, was reprimanded after 1987's Nova: "Secrets of the Lost Red
Paint People," which suggested early diffusion may have occurred in both
directions across the Atlantic.
Neil Steede, an archaeologist with strong
diffusionist leanings, jumped at the chance to work on B.C. Video's, The
Mysterious Origins of Man, aired as an NBC Network Special and hosted by
Charlton Heston (Cote 1996). And, as these things go, there's always talk of
this special or that documentary being done by this television network or
that cable company.
Occasionally, short episodes with a diffusionist theme
make it to a program on The History or Discovery Channels. Sometimes a
production group can be a guy, a camera, a telephone, and a get-rich-quick
scheme. It's all about easier ways to make money and those involved with the
Burrows Cave hoax have long sought the excitement of "Lights, camera; now
film me while I count my money!"
Now, I can appreciate a nice check as much as the next person, and I wasn't
displeased (at first) when a co-author took a previously published feature,
rewrote parts of it, and sold it for some respectable change in early 1999
(Flavin and Strubbe 1996).
Historic Traveler was a top-notch publication (no
longer printed separately--currently used as an "insert" in history-related
magazines from its publishers), I worked closely with an editor in getting
proper maps and directions to controversial sites, and the professional
quality of production (paper and printing) made me proud to have contributed
to a feature which favorably addressed diffusionist issues (though I later
discovered some poor research on the part of my co-author).
Burrows bought a
copy at a local bookstore, congratulated me, but teased about my name being
listed as second in the feature's shared byline. He called a couple of days
later and informed me of the passing of Bill McGlone.
"I'm sorry for the loss of
Things were starting to move quickly in early
1999 and Burrows wasn't concerned with what I might write about his antics
and the Burrows Cave hoax. He went about his business of separating fools
from their money.
Burrows had been receptive to taking money from film production companies
for many years. However, small, independent companies, like Najor
Productions from Indiana (Heck 2001), lacked up-front grease, though Burrows
often dropped their name like a teenager might brag about bumping into a
celebrity at a shopping mall.
Other companies approached Burrows, but were
either too worldly and wily to advance Burrows any money for "exclusive
rights" to a non-existent cave, or too wacky for even Burrows' dysfunctional
standards, i.e., the racist Christian preacher, Arnold Murray.
perseverance often will out and Burrows finally got himself a few bucks from
"Wayne May, Ralph Wolak of Fox Publications and three other investors" by
taking them out into the woods and saying "This is the cave! (Uncredited
And, faithful to his nature, Burrows immediately denied revealing
the "true" location of the "cave" to May and Wolak, and said the "real cave"
[Note: A curious antecedent to May and Wolak securing a
signed agreement with Burrows, concerns the reporting in AA #25 of fantastic
archaeological discoveries in southern Illinois caves. An article (May 1998)
states that a landowner claims he discovered pottery which "suggested
Phoenician manufacture," a 'magnificent, metal shield," and a medieval metal
axe, probably from "Western Europe." Three accompanying photographs were
copyrighted by "Ralph Wolak, John King Productions, Escondido, California,
So, to re-cap: Burrows claims there's a "real cave," which he discovered in
1982, there's also a "decoy cave," and then some spots he just out and out
lied about. Hubbard is apparently digging up some poor guy's backyard in the
vicinity of the "decoy cave." And now, with typical Mormon historical
aplomb, Wayne May (May 1999a, p. 34) has a signed document from Burrows
which alleges the existence of a "cave" somewhere in southern Illinois.
Ralph Wolak is listed as "Advertising Manager" in The Ancient American
credits from # 23, April/May 1998 through #29, October/November 1999
(thereafter, publisher Wayne N. May takes a nod for that position). The "three other investors"? Fools, would be the only safe guess.
At about the same time Burrows was leading May and Wolak around in the
woods, The Ancient American had an issue on-sale (Vol. 4, No. 27, April/May
1999) which listed the "Ho-Chunk Nation, Dept. of Heritage Preservation,
Cultural Resources Division, Black River Falls, Wisconsin," as "Advisors" to
I deny reports of explosive diarrhea upon reading this, but
will admit I was shocked at the apparent endorsement by the
Winnebago/Ho-Chunk. I'd some prior dealings with the Ho-Chunk about May's
magazine, its blatant Mormon bias, its attempted manipulation of local
(Wisconsin) Native American prehistory, as in the efforts of Scherz and his
Ancient Earthworks Society and Joseph 'Collin' and his ongoing "investigation" of Rock Lake, as well as the involvement of a couple of its
members in the Burrows Cave hoax.
The representative from the Cultural
Resources Division I spoke with remembered my previous calls, made
arrangements that The Ancient American would never list the Ho-Chunk Nation
as an "Advisor" again, and we commiserated about those "couple" of members
who'd bought into the Burrows' Cave hoax.
Hearing the sounds of another game about to begin, other gamblers joined
May's investigation. Glenn Kimball, a New Age revisionist author and dealer
in photocopies of photocopies of alleged ancient manuscripts, spreads the
good news that May has located a repository of mystical writings in southern
Illinois, and Robert Ghostwolf (a.k.a. Robert Franzone), a New Age shyster
and author who exploits Native American themes, believes May will soon
re-discover a "cave of the ancestors," or some such silliness.
court documents, May was penniless in July of 1998 (Mooney 1998).
later, May was macking with his crew (Rule Number Nine).
In April of 1999, I received a series of e-mails inviting me to a corner a
few blocks away from where I lived. The e-mails were signed "Yuri Yurin" and
sent from 'excite.com', a provider of anonymous e-mail accounts. Anyone who
knew my mailing address, was computer savvy and capable of registering for
an anonymous e-mail account, could certainly type my street address into a
map-finder, which are easily found on many search engines. It was creepy.
None of my friends would do such a thing. Enemies? Right. My guess was, and
remains, Hubbard. And, I mentioned this to the police after they advised me
to skip the meeting, though I went ahead, anyway, and wasted a half-hour
waiting for someone to show up.
That summer, Hubbard went on a road-trip with his cat. He said he had a
lighting or sound gig for a week in New Jersey (?) with Ted Neeley (of
Christ Superstar infamy), working on, I believe, rehearsals for Rasputin,
The Musical. On his way to the rehearsals, he stopped at Mooney's, in
Virginia, for the night. Hubbard telephoned me in Massachusetts and invited
himself for a visit after the gig was over.
Mooney telephoned the next day
and recommended giving the guy a few bucks for a room someplace. There was
mention of a lack of hygiene and Mooney felt bad for the cat.
Over the next week, Hubbard called a few times.
The conversations started
innocently enough, banal banter about diffusion, how the rehearsals were
going, when I should expect him, and so on. At the end of the rehearsals, he
telephoned from somewhere on the road. Civility quickly degenerated into a
screaming accusation that I'd stole Lois Benedicts' artifacts and he was
driving to my local police station to have me arrested. I hung up. He called
back a couple of more times that night, still screaming, then went away. An
unbalanced punk, to be sure.
I spoke with Mrs. Benedict about Hubbard. She was enraged and very worked up
as she described Hubbard's rudeness to her on the telephone. Hubbard had
apparently screamed something about her artifacts belonging to history and
he could go to her local police and have her arrested. I conjectured that
Hubbard probably got her telephone number from Wayne May. She suddenly
sounded tired and asked that I call back the next night. She said she wanted
to talk about Wayne.
The next night, Lois began by telling me about how May stole one of her
books, forgetting we were speaking on the telephone at least twice a week,
at the time of the incident. She'd, of course, told me the story several
times previously; it was part of her repertoire. It was sad she also forgot
about the conclusions reached by the state police.
"May did mention to undersigned that he was aware of an incident that had
occurred with a Vincent Mooney, when he was accused of taking something from
Lois Benedict, when in fact he hadn't. He states apparently this is just
another incident that occurred..
May states he was allowed to make a
copy of 'Ten Tribes of Israel' the book in question, but again he only
had a copy given to him by Benedict, which he bound up. This is the only
copy he had and again, he did not see the original."
(State of Michigan Department of State Police Original Incident
Report, Incident Number 076-1093-94, dated 5-24-94.)
She told me again about the computer and printer she'd given May's kids at
the time of the incident, and I, again, reminded her about the home-made "Thank You" card the kids sent back. Mumbling, she repeated that May
probably did steal her book.
Her voice picked up as she told me of selling her remaining collection of
books and ephemera to Wayne May for $30,000. Lois had often bragged about
the size of her collection, she considered the construction of a large
backyard shed at her last home, but thirty large? I asked her if she meant
$3000 and not $30,000, and she agreed at first.
Then, as if reading from a
check before her, she went back to $30,000, and mumbled something about
getting the check to a bank. She brought up her artifacts, I said I had a
couple of favors in the works for possible testing, and we ended the
conversation. For a guy who presented himself on paper as a candidate for
Medicaid and food stamps, May was macking!
[Note: Still legally blind, Lois
could have been holding a check for $30 or $3. Mooney had to sue for his
money from May. Another approach would be that May was acting on someone's
behalf and the money wasn't his. Perhaps May's new partner, Glenn Kimball,
bought the last and bulk of Lois' collection. If so, Kimball may be
violating copyright law by selling photocopies of certain rare books through
his internet bookstore, as many mss. in Lois' collection were copyrighted
photocopies from major universities with printed warnings against further
Some weeks later, I got a call about Mrs. Benedict and her artifacts from
Marshall Payn, a member of The Epigraphic Society and a mutual acquaintance.
He'd offered to pay her airfare from Michigan to Florida and put her up for
a couple of weeks. She agreed to come to Florida and asked a favor–would he
arrange to have her artifacts mailed to Florida, so she could see them
again. I'd spoken with him a few times in the past, usually about the "Michigan Relics" and Burrows Cave, and had even discussed the testing of
Mrs. Benedict's artifacts.
Something felt wrong.
Marshall informed me that he was in touch with someone who might be willing
and able to test the Michigan and Burrows items. He added a qualifier,
saying he wouldn't pass Mrs. Benedict's artifacts on without my permission,
were I to mail them to him. I then spoke of Lois' health and frail nature,
surprised at her agreeing to such a trip.
Marshall was sincere in his offer
to Mrs. Benedict, as he's been known to invest in many diffusionist projects
and bail certain groups out of financial straights over the years, but he
couldn't keep a certain uneasiness out of his voice, as he told of a chemist
who was bouncing back and forth from the States to British Columbia, and
that he'd only send the artifacts to this chemist, and not to Lois, were she
not to come to Florida and only call in her favor, that the artifacts be
returned to her.
Something was wrong.
It was the autumn of 1999 and we favored change, moving toward the new
millennium was on everyone's minds, and tomorrow seemed closer than ever.
Well, that's my reflection; I've no idea how Lois Benedict remembers our
last telephone conversation or even if she still lives. I called her about
the offered Florida vacation, we chatted for a bit, and we ended the
conversation casual, as if we'd speak again, soon, and often.
speak again, one day.
Her health wasn't good at the time and she admitted to me there would have
been no way for her to grab a flight out of Detroit without some serious
nursing and ambulatory assistance. I asked about the $30,000 check and the
status of her collection. She brought up her artifacts, got misty for a
moment, then said there was someone in Michigan who wanted to see them. My
suggestion that Wayne May was putting pressure on her to get the artifacts
back so he could buy them, may have been out of line. I don't think so.
Sure, Lois is regarded as a leading researcher of the Soper/Savage frauds
(the "Michigan Relics"), as well as a family and career woman. Although,
Lois is likewise regarded by some as an old, wacky broad.
"Dig ticket" from Lois Benedict's collection of "Michigan Relics,"
with mention of "North of Detroit" and the "Palmer Woods" area.
My many conversations with her about mundane matters made her seem like a
member of my family. In her day, she liked to date and have a fun night on
She's Catholic and possesses a quiet contempt for Mormons. We
talked about spoiled puppies and how to scrape off chicken fat for gravy, as
well as general diffusionist issues and how some groups of inscribed
artifacts (Michigan, Iowa, Ohio, and Burrows are easy examples) invariably
consist of (poorly executed) religious iconography.
She once taught at a
high-school I briefly attended in a suburb of Detroit, and though this was
more than ten years before I was there, I readily addressed her with a
respect one might afford an old high-school teacher, yet also with casual
Michigander honesty. I asked her again about Wayne May and what, if
anything, he had to do with her recent concern for her artifacts and my
continuing attempts (not the greatest; admitted) to get them tested.
mumbled off, told me again to do my best, and said she'd talk to me later.
It's much later and she still hasn't called.
In the 1999 October/November issue of The Ancient American, May reported
that spring rains had interfered with the Burrows Cave Project (May 1999b).
He and his group used the time to tour nearby towns, as well as visit Thelma
and Sherman McClain, to "view their collection of artifacts."
Burrows claimed the March 1997 auction was a "fantastic success," apparently
the McClains are still stuck with a number of Burrows' carved and inscribed
stones (Burrows 1997).]
May told of meeting a local resident who had
discovered a riverbed loaded with the same type of stone used in the vast
majority of items alleged to come from Burrows Cave, and published
photographs comparing blank stones to an inscribed Burrows Cave stone.
article introduces the owner of the property, who describes how Burrows
often visited the site but always asked for permission first. May concluded
he had identified the source of the "mudstones" and then rejected The Kids'
theory from AA #16 that the stones came from North Africa where they were
originally used as ballast by ships.
Hey, that's stepping forward and being
responsible with new information! Sure.
The stone used as an illustration for May's piece was the same stone Joseph
'Collin' touted in AA #17 (Joseph 'Collin' 1997a) as evidence that Burrows'
Cave could no longer be handily dismissed. Joseph 'Collin' relies on the
opinion of an Illinois lapidarist and gemologist who concluded the stone is
"probably from Olmec, Mexico, judging from its characteristic 'were-jaguar'
So, enquiring minds want to know; which is it? Is this
"finished" piece, an "evocative, black, pendent-like stone sculpture," which
is said to have come from Burrows Cave, originally from Mexico? Or was it
made in southern Illinois two thousand years ago? Or sometime in the 1980s?
It doesn't matter; The Ancient American was just getting started with their
menu of choices.
The December 1999 issue of The Ancient American made me very sad. It
featured a lead-story entitled, "An Ancient North African Treasure-Trove in
Southern Illinois (Joseph 'Collin' 1999)."
The cover announced "Hebrews in
1st Century Illinois," an idea which must have appealed to the magazine's
Mormon publisher, as well as many of its Mormon readers. Joe Smith (the
author of the Book of Mormon was murdered in Illinois in 1844, and Mormon
doctrine holds that ancient Hebrews sailed to the New World.
The story told
by Joseph 'Collin' combined theories of Al the Great by The Kids
(Schaffranke 'Kelly' 1997) and Cyclone Covey's speculation about King Juba
(Covey 1997; 1998), yet no credit is shared. And, most disturbingly, Joseph
'Collin' draws attention to various items alleged to have been removed from
Burrows Cave which he believes depict blacks who had undergone "ritual
scarification." Jews, blacks, and Illinois? Written by one of America's most
infamous neo-Nazis? In a publication put out by a Mormon?
Right. It's a
The next issues of The Ancient American featured a steady stream of articles
which either dealt with Burrows Cave or were written by those closely
associated with perpetuating the hoax.
[Note: Burrows 2000; Covey 2000a,
2000b, 2000c, 2000d; Kimball 2000; May 2000; May and Bennett 2000; Redcloud
2000; Scherz 2000.]
No real surprise here. Burrows' 'cave' and The Ancient
American have always had a close relationship. I'm thinking something a
little closer than the concept of "kissin' cousins," as Burrows may have
been one of the original investors who put up $5000 each (like Mooney) to
launch the magazine. Or maybe he paid with his carved and inscribed stones.
In early 2000, I took Mrs. Benedict's Michigan and Burrows items to have
them photographed by Malcolm Pearson. One of the first and most influential
investigators into American diffusionist theories, Pearson's photographs
were featured in The Ruins of Great Ireland in New England (by William B.
Goodwin, Boston: Meador Press, 1946).
He had owned Mystery Hill-America's
Stonehenge at one time and was instrumental in the founding of the Early
Sites Foundation (later, the Early Sites Research Society) and NEARA. His
classic photographs of New England enigmas like Dighton Rock and the Spirit
Pond rune-stones are essential archival examples of diffusionist studies.
Pearson didn't think much of the workmanship of the Michigan and Burrows
items he photographed. I gave him twenty bucks to cover the cost of the film
and a copy of the current The Ancient American. Pearson did a nice job with
the lighting and I got him to autograph my copy of the Goodwin book.
so I got over on that one.
Both sides of an inscribed stone from "Burrows Cave."
Photos by Malcolm D. Pearson, 2000.
The testing of Mrs. Benedict's Michigan and Burrows items remained
problematic. I struck up a correspondence with an associate professor in
chemistry at Harvard, for whom investigating fantastic archeology claims was
a hobby, and took him the items to examine.
It was another waste of time, as
the items were so blatantly fraudulent, most professionals wouldn't invest a
dime of time in testing. Well, that, and he only had a temporary, two-year
appointment to Harvard and lacked the clout and connections to get things
done. He said he once took his visiting mother to Widener Library, but as
she wasn't student or staff, and he was only a temp-prof, she was refused
Over the summer of 2000, I realized that I'd probably stay in the Boston
area for the foreseeable future, and began scouting around for new digs. By
Halloween, I'd moved into an apartment in Salem, and shortly afterwards had
mailed Mrs. Benedict's items to Neil Steede. I haven't seen Mrs. Benedict's
Michigan and Burrows items since November 2000 and am unsure of their
present whereabouts. It wasn't supposed to happen like that.
I had my first chat with Steede in 1990 after Barry Fell recommended I
contact him concerning some photographs of marked bricks from Comalcalco,
Mexico. Fell had interpreted a series of marks and a sketch of a man to be
Numidian for "Jesus, Protector" and the sketch to be that of Jesus (Fell
Oh, and another brick had marks which looked a little like Hebrew
letters atop a series of tally-notations, suggesting use as a calendar or
navigational device (Fell 1988b). My research into the Jesus Narrative and astro-myth (Flavin 1994b) was going full swing, so I telephoned Steede and
asked to purchase copies of photographs of the two marked bricks. I got a
long story about investors, copyrights, originals, dupes, and Fell's filing
Not too long after Fell passed away in 1994, Steede received the
photographs from Fell's estate, and made me copies.
[Note: After Fell, Steede is a little less confident the marks on the bricks at Comalcalco are
inscriptions, and now suggests the "calendar" notations might have been used
in a Native American game of some sort.]
In our five years of conversations prior to his 1999 passing, Bill McGlone
always had good things to say about Steede. A student of Alexander von
Wuthenau (Von Wuthenau 1975, p. 51), Neil worked on digs in Central and
South America, often at sites where he believed he detected evidence of
diffusion and some pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New worlds.
Though a Reformed Mormon (RLDS, now
"Community of Christ"), Steede doesn't
appear to be either practicing or a supporter of Mormon revisionist history.
Jim Whittall also thought highly of Neil and, before he died in late 1998,
handed over the reigns of the Early Sites Research Society (now called ESRS
West). Since his success with the NBC program (Cote 1996), Steede has
suffered substantial vision loss which qualifies him as legally blind.
Nowadays, it seems he spends more time lecturing than in the field. He was
often out of town when I called, but we stayed in touch on an irregular
I'd also spoken with Neil on a couple of occasions about getting Mrs.
Benedict's Michigan and Burrows items tested, but he didn't know of anyone
to suggest at the time. Then, one day, I got a call from him concerning a
chemist who was visiting Independence, MO (where Steede lives), and who
might be interested in testing the items.
I don't remember clearly, but I
believe it was the same fellow from British Columbia that Payn had in mind.
Neil said the chemist would be around for five days. I thought about it for
a couple of days (thereby wasting the chance to mail cheaply), then spent
twenty-one bucks to ship the items overnight. Dumb move.
When I called the next evening to see if he'd received the items, Neil said
that he arrived at the post office late, it was closed, and he would go pick
them up the next day. I didn't speak with Steede again for several months
and, even then, it was about other matters and Mrs. Benedict's items weren't
mentioned. I kept waiting for him to call, tell me about the testing, and
return the items.
Wish in one hand and do what in the other?
Over the last year, due in large part to the many appearances on various
crackpot talk-radio shows by Frank Joseph 'Collin', Wayne May, and Glenn
Kimball, with even the rare interview with Russ Burrows himself, the
Burrows' Cave hoax has reached a wider audience than ever before.
Apparently, radio-shows help sell books, magazines, and, among other things,
also promote upcoming appearances at meetings, lectures, conventions, etc.
In addition, due to the inherent nature of crackpot talk-radio, such
syndicated wacky programs as Art Bell's "Coast to Coast" show, Rob
McConnell's "The X-Zone," Laura Lee, Jeff Rense, and Peter Weissbach's "The
Quest," all assist in disseminating crap. It's been a marriage from The
Twilight Zone, this union of crooked, agenda-driven, extreme diffusionists
and crackpot radio-shows. They were made for each other.
Much of the recent hype about Burrows' Cave has originated with Kimball.
Another crackpot and, like Austin Powers, an international man of mystery,
as Kimball claims a Ph.D., says he taught at an Illinois university, cites a
personal epiphany in South America and a revealed calling for selling crap
books about fictional accounts of the childhood of Jesus, as well as any
other wacky book or publication about unorthodox, apocryphal, or religious
scam-theories he can make a buck on.
"My job is to raise the
consciousness of the world to the ancient texts."
An e-mail (Kimball 2001a)
from his internet bookstore announced:
"We are so excited we can't hardly stand ourselves. Wayne is leaving for the
cave site with the mining engineers tomorrow. They will resurvey the site
and pick the exact spot for the drill. On Aug. 29th they will drill a two
inch hole to the cavern opening. Then they will use that two inch drill
casing as a ruler for the heavy equipment to dig a six by six hole from the
side into the cavern.
They are using heavy mining
equipment and not your run of the mill backhoe etc. They estimate it
will take just a couple of days to get the hole opened. Then they will
air the cave out with giant fans. Then we will use artificial mining
oxygen masks to enter the site for a preliminary survey of the interior.
We should know by the second week in September if we have struck paydirt
or not. I just spoke to Art Bell's producer and they will be doing live
updates once we verify the site's value."
Clearly Kimball is easily excited. He claims he's one of Art Bell's most
popular guests and to have sold more books because of his appearances on "Coast to Coast" than any other guest.
Some of Kimball's appeal may derive from his attacks on others. Robert
Ghostwolf apparently crossed paths with Kimball before Burrows' Cave (I'm
sure lots of cat-fights take place along the wacky circuit of convention
appearances and radio-shows), but once Ghostwolf (admittedly of mixed
descent) got involved with the Burrows Cave hoax, Kimball lashed out with:
"He claims he will have his
'Indian buddies there on site for the cave opening. He knows darn well
that we have already invited the representatives of the Indian nations
long before he got involved. If he brings his closest relatives the
Italians have nothing to do with the site."
This is either a patently ethnic slur or a cryptic reference to the
background of an early "landowner" of Burrows Cave, a gangster named "Tony"
from Chicago and St. Louis, as claimed at one time by Burrows. It doesn't
matter. It's a slam and contributes to his image.
[Note: See Kimball 2001b
reference below for a quote by Kimball about Hubbard. Also, Burrows has
reported on the Ancient Lost Treasures/Burrows Cave ezboard forum that
Robert J. Franzone (a.k.a. Robert Ghostwolf) passed away Dec. 21, 2005.]
Kimball is at ease with the Burrows Cave hoax and seems to be good buds with
Wayne May, as they lecture and appear together in public often. His busy
schedule must have kept him from a wacky-topic 2001 event in Austria which
featured Burrows, Scherz, May, and Neil Steede. I knew about the conference
months in advance, though it recently came as a surprise to learn Mrs.
Benedict's Michigan and Burrows items were also featured.
I attended and spoke at the 2001 ISAC Annual Conference, met with Neil
Steede, and learned the items were on display in Austria.
We smoke the same
brand of cigarettes, Marlboro Menthol, and as we talked between lectures, I
regarded him as a kindred spirit in flavored solanacea addiction. When he
told me of the whereabouts of Mrs. Benedict's items (ignoring his earlier
promise to me not to do anything with or pass along the items without
informing me first), I was immediately angry.
Neil's a good-sized fellow and
if he wouldn't have been legally blind and at a disadvantage, I probably
would have reacted differently. I snubbed out one cigarette and lit another.
He told me of flying back and sitting next to Russ Burrows on the airplane.
After a few hours of silence, according to Steede, he turned to Burrows and
"So, how long does it take
you to make one of those artifacts?"
"About three minutes," Burrows answered.
Great gossip, but I was and remain
enraged that Mrs. Benedict's Michigan and Burrows items went to Austria
without my permission.
Steede hanging with Burrows and his Boys, not testing
Mrs. Benedict's items, and using them as lecture fodder at a wacky-con in
Austria is just plain selfish and wrong.
A stolen Soper-Savage artifacts and a engraved BC rock
from the Unsolved
Mysteries Exhibition Jun. 22-Nov. 4, 2001 in Vienna.
At the 2002 ISAC conference I again approached Steede about Mrs. Benedict's
artifacts, as I knew they'd been returned from Austria. He didn't answer
directly until the day before the conference ended. Finally, Steede said
that Marshall Payn had them. I sputtered a couple of questions, variations
of how and why, and he just lowered his eyes and suggested I needed "...to
speak with Marshall." Great.
I had to lean on some old rich guy in a
wheelchair who had been suffering from polio or some such disease his entire
life. Others had confidentially warned me about Steede and his lack of
trustworthiness when it came to money or any endeavors which involve money,
but I'd never heard so much as an unkind word said about Payn (except a
warning from McGlone that with his cash reserves he shouldn't be crossed).
As the thirsty gathered at the hotel bar after the keynote address (given by Payn), I decided to let the matter go for the time being and informed Payn
that I'd telephone him at his home in Florida in a couple of days. He smiled
and said he was looking forward to the call.
NEARA's "Across Before Columbus? Plus Ten: 1992-2002" conference took place
a week after ISAC and many of the same speakers attended both. The night
before the NEARA conference I picked Steede up at Logan airport and we
stopped for steak and cheese subs before I drove him to the Waltham hotel. I
told him that my telephone conversation the week before with Payn had barely
lasted a minute, as Payn denied having Mrs. Benedict's artifacts and
suggested I talk further with the person I gave them to, Neil Steede.
said "Damn him" a couple of times and mumbled something about working things
out. I was dealing with lying punks left and right. The good amateurs were
just as pathetic as the bad amateurs. Could it get worse? I'd been so
absorbed in Steede and the artifacts that I'd forgotten it was the night of
Oct. 31st, Halloween, and driving home to Salem was going to take much
longer than I planned.
[Note: Someday I'll find out what happened to Mrs.
Benedict's artifacts. As I have the "dig-ticket" she provided for the
Michigan Relics it may be assumed that whoever bought them from Steede
doesn't care about history, just collecting. I'm sad, now. Soon, I'll get
In a 2001 issue of The Ancient American, Wayne May announced that he's no
longer searching for "Burrows' Cave," as that name should belong to Burrows
and any endeavor Burrows is involved in (May 2001). So, May has renamed the
site he's digging as the "Tombs of Embarras," after the nearby Embarras
He also distances his magazine and Wolak's
(company number three?) from Hubbard and Robert Ghostwolf at the beginning
and end of the article. A "Ho Chunk Elder" is mentioned as scheduled to be
present when he enters the "tunnel system," to represent Native Americans.
Burrows Cave, whether known as
"Pharaoh's Cave," "Mystery Cave of Many
Faces," the "Lost Tomb of Alexander the Great," or the "Tombs of Embarras,"
remains a hoax.
The often perceived heresy of cultural diffusion, or models which suggest
transoceanic and inter-societal contact between the Old and New worlds
before Columbus, continues to inspire its champions. Pre-Columbiana: A
Journal of Long-Distance Contacts and the post-Fell ESOP both combine
credibility with controversy.
The diffusion model has received such popular
exposure as the cover-article in a recent The Atlantic Monthly (Stengel
2000) and with the odd suggestion by Smithsonian archaeologist, Dennis
Stanford, that Solutrean Europeans may have tip-toed across the North
Atlantic and inspired the Native American "Clovis" culture. The continuing
arguments put forth by Prof. Carl Johannessen about New World plants in an
early Old World context, as well as Neilsen's ongoing work on the Kensington
Rune Stone, are intellectually vibrant and challenging while showing promise
of good work and debate to come.
Burrows' Cave? The efforts of The Ancient
Talk-radio silliness, financially motivated fraud, outrageous
religious agendas, and amateur historical revisionism is what this is all
about. It's never been about history or science. It's about fools. And, I've
added to the foolishness by suffering the lies of Russell Burrows and his
associates. It's time for me to climb out of Burrows Cave.
[Note: A recent story in the Chicago Reader (Huebner 2002a) about
"The Waubansee Stone" featured Frank Joseph, editor of The Ancient American, who
"didn't actually view the Waubansee Stone till the early 1980s, when he
embarked on a career in 'cultural diffusionist' studies..." Right. Frank
Collin, neo-Nazi and pedophile, gets out of jail and becomes 'Frank Joseph'.
I wrote the Chicago Reader and expressed my disappointment (Flavin 2002).
The author's reply was pure wiggle (Huebner 2002b) and a columnist reasoned
"that when someone starts out life as a Nazi, there's nowhere to go but up
(Miner 2002)." Ouch.]
"So long as human nature
remains the same, it may be presumed that men will be ready to believe
what they wish to believe, and that no hoax will be too preposterous to
be without a following."
From "A Persistent Forgery," by F.
Kelsey, American Anthropologist, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1911, pp. 26-31; quoted on
p. 188 in Williams 1991.
As the twentieth anniversary of the Burrows Cave hoax passed without a
notice, skepticism remains a whisper in a room filled with loud-mouthed
believers and con-men. The continuation of the hoax and its real threat of
becoming an inextricable bit of contemporary American folklore (like Elvis
sightings), is due to the laziness of academics, professionals, and
officials who could have long ago exposed the fraud and demonstrated the
recent manufacture of the items. A cave? Go read Plato.
The only cave
Burrows discovered was in his mind.
It should begin and end with the thousands of items Burrows claims he
removed from a cave, but it doesn't. The items are modern and Burrows is a
liar. If scholars like Cyclone Covey and the late Joe Mahan see a validation
of their own diffusionist efforts in the Burrows' 'cave' items, it shouldn't
matter, as the items are modern and Burrows is a liar. If The Kids claim to
be able to read the various ancient scripts used on the Burrows' 'cave'
items as Etruscan or some form of Latin, it shouldn't matter, as the items
are modern and Burrows is a liar.
If May and Kimball want to join The Kids
and dig up backyards in southern Illinois looking for a fantastic cave, it
shouldn't matter, because there is no cave and Burrows is a liar. It
shouldn't matter, but it does.
Exploiting a common psychological need to believe in something other than
the consensual, Burrows and his Boys have made strange bedfellows of certain
cultural diffusionists, Mormons, Nazis, UFO-idiots, paranormal nuts, and
some fools who have difficulty hanging on to their money. The hoax takes
advantage of the steady growth of Christian fundamentalism and creationist
pseudoscience in America.
A significant byproduct of these movements (i.e.,
creationism and prayer in school, anti-abortion and anti-gay rights) has
been their alignment with such extreme nonconformist groups as
anti-government and militia organizations, historical revisionists, and
A typical comment found on various online message-boards after a
mention of Burrows Cave on a crackpot talk-radio show, would be:
"See, I always knew there was
something we weren't being told."
Belief in the
fantastic, or our "demon-haunted world," to quote the late Carl Sagan,
should be receding in contemporary culture, but it isn't. It seems to be
more popular than ever.
The failure to put an end to the Burrows Cave hoax must be shared by many
(as I can only handle so much). Though skepticism of pseudoarchaeological
claims is being taught at a few colleges, several fine books remain in-print
which deal with these topics, and the skeptic magazines sometime publish on
pseudoarchaeology (though it's often Old World), the standard "Every
newspaper publishes an astrology column, but few publish a column about
astronomy," holds true.
On television, radio, and in the print and electric
media, the appeal is for what might be possible, not for what never could
be. Of course, P. T. Barnum was right, but America should do its best to
protect its fools from the likes of Burrows.
Extraordinary claims usually require extraordinary proof, though in the case
of the Burrows' Cave hoax any proof would do, if such a thing was possible.
The items alleged to have been removed from Burrows' Cave are modern, there
is no cave, and Burrows is a liar.
Elvis must be somewhere having a good
Selected bibliography and references
AA -- The Ancient American Magazine
AIAR Newsletter -- American Institute for Archaeological Research Newsletter
ESOP -- Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers
ISAC Report -- Institute for the Study of Ancient Cultures Report
LMS Newsletter -- Louisiana Mounds Society Newsletter
MAES Newsletter -- Occasional Newsletter of The Mid-Atlantic Epigraphic
MES Journal -- Midwestern Epigraphic [Society] Journal
MES Newsletter -- Midwestern Epigraphic [Society] Newsletter
NEARA Journal -- New England Antiquities Research Association Journal.
Allison, Harold. 1994. Personal communication between Allison and Richard
Flavin, July, 1994. Allison, a noted Indiana photographer and journalist, as
well as being a long time friend of Jack Ward, expressed his revulsion at
being asked by Burrows and Ward at an arrowhead convention, to "lie" and
claim he'd seen "Burrows' Cave," so "Burrows and Ward could sell their
inscribed stones to a young man in a suit."
Bailey, Charles W. 1988.
"Forum: Burrows Cave Artifacts," ESOP, Vol. 17, p.
16; reprinted as "The Burrows Cave Artifacts," ESOP, Vol. 19, 1990, p. 99.
Barron, David P. 1997. "Letters to the Editor: Loved our cover photo!," AA,
Vol. 3, No. 17, March/April, p.26.
Barron, David P. 1998a. "Letters to the Editor: Burrows Cave
'a cocktail mix
of pebbles!'," AA, Vol. 3, No. 22, January/February, p. 8.
Barron, David P. 1998b. "Letters to the Editor: No Confidence in Burrows
Cave," AA, Vol. 3, No. 24, July, August, p. 33.
Barton, Paul. 1998a. "New Evidence for Ancient Afro-Americans," AA, Vol. 3,
No. 22, January/February, pp. 22-26.
Barton, Paul. 1998b. "Letters to the Editor: Prehistoric Blacks in America,"
AA, Vol. 3, No. 23, pp. 13 and 14.
Buchanan, Donal B. 1989a.
"Burrows Cave Artifacts," MAES Newletter, #2, May
1, p. 1.
Buchanan, Donal B. 1989b.
"Heads Up!," MAES Newsletter, #3, Nov. 15, p.1.
Buchanan, Donal B. 1990.
"Ancient World Conference, MAES Newsletter, #4,
Oct. 9, p. 1.
Buchanan, Donal B. 1991.
"The True Believer Syndrome," MAES Newsletter, #5,
June 23, p. 1.
Buchanan, Donal B. 1994.
"Robert Pyle to Speak at Mid-Atlantic Meeting," MAES Newsletter, #10, Oct., p. 1.
Buchanan, Donal A. 1995.
"Clinging to the Lie," MAES Newsletter, #11, April,
Buergin, Luc. 1998. Geheimakte Archäologie: unterdräckte Entdeckungen,
verschollene Schätze, bizarre Funde. München: Bettendorf'sche Verlagsanstalt
Bürgin, Luc and Dorthy L. Hayden. 1993. Correspondence initiated by Bürgin
for information about Burrows' Cave from Hayden's American Institute for
Archaeological Research, dated 13.06.93; two-page reply from Hayden to
Bürgin, dated June 24, 1993; follow-up letter by Bürgin, stating:
neither a supporter nor a debunker of Russell's claims and so I was a little
bit astonished about your recent letter. I sent Russell and Prof. Scherz a
copy of your letter just because I was so interested in their answers
concerning your arguments. That's all. Sorry if you hadn't agreed with
this," dated 13.08.93.
Available by request.
Burrows, Russell E. 1989a.
"Fraudulent Tablet (Letter to Fell)," ESOP, Vol.
Burrows, Russell. 1989b.
"Russell Burrows Answers," LMS Newsletter, No. 28,
pp. 1 and 2.
Burrows, Russell E. 1990a. The Discovery of Burrows Cave. Atlanta, IN: Seven
Burrows, Russell E. 1990b.
"Russell Burrows Writes-Barry Fell Responds
(Photocopy of a letter from Burrows to Fell, dated August 6, 1990)," ESOP,
Vol. 19, p. 97.
Burrows, Russell E. 1991a. Quoted in Notes Taken at Meeting of Burrows Cave
ad hoc Committee, 12 June 1991, Mahan,/Chapman/ISAC Collection at the Schwob
Memorial Library, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA; "John Ward at
present has 354 artifacts from the cave. He once had about 2000. He is
believed to have sold a number of them. A lady friend of Russ's (antique
dealer?) has 1000 which are 'safe' according to Russ."
Burrows, Russell E.. 1991b.
"Follow-Ups: Burrows Cave Correspondence," LMS
Newsletter, No. 43, November 15, pp. 2 and 3.
Burrows, Russell E. 1994.
"Extremely Insulting!," LMS Newsletter,
Unnumbered, March, p. 5.
Burrows, Russell E. 1995a.
"Ancient Pirate Treasure In Illinois?," AA, Vol.
2, No 11, October/November. pp. 40 and 41.
Burrows, Russell E. 1995b.
"Letters to the Editor: Burrows Of Burrows Cave,"
AA, Vol. 2, No 11, October/November, p. 43.
Burrows, (Brigadier General) Russell E. 1995c.
"The Black Hawk War," MES
Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 63-65.
Burrows, (General) Russell E. 1996a.
"Illinois State & Federal Laws and
Burrows Cave," AA, Vol. 3, No. 13, p. 19.
Burrows, Russel E. 1996b. E-mail fom Burrows to Richard Flavin quoting
Hubbard, dated November 5. Available on request.
Burrows, Russel E. 1996c. E-mail from Burrows to Richard Flavin, dated
November 20. Available on request.
Burrows, Russel E. 1996d. Personal correspondence from Burrows to Richard
Flavin, dated December 6. Available on request.
Burrows, Russell E. 1997. E-mail from Burrows to Richard Flavin, probably
forwarded to others, dated 97-03-16. After comments about Flavin being
"deranged" and "dropped on his head when a baby," Burrows writes:
also that this GREAT RICK FLAVIN has written about Frank Joseph and his
unfortunate past. A past which he has paid dearly for. Renmember [sic] as
well that the GREAT RICK FLAVIN has published what he considers the fact but
which is infact [sic], the very looney idea that Frank Joseph and I became
friends while I worked at Pontiac State Prison and Frank was an inmate. His
claim is that Frank and I dreamed up the cave idea there and at that time.
The GREAT RICK FLAVIN has a copy of my seperation [sic] papers from Illinois
State Service. He knows well that I left there well prior to Frank Joseph's
arrival. Remember also that the GREAT RICK FLAVIN made many foolish
statements in the past and be assured one and all that I will be sending all
of those to you. As soon as I can put all of the foolish, nay, crazy
ramblings of this supposed man onto a disc, I will forward that information
to each and every member and supporter. The included e-mail (Flavin 1997b)
was received AFTER my returning home from the refered [sic] to auction which
was a fantastic success."
Available on request.
Burrows, Russell. 1998a. "Re: Dick Flaverin is heard from again," posted to
the Ancient American forum, February 11. Available on request.
Burrows, Russell. 1998b.
"Letters to the Editor: Burrows debunks 'ancient
bronze sword'," AA, Vol. 3, No. 22, January/February, p.8.
Burrows, Russell. 1998c.
"Letters to the Editor: Wannabes on the Edge of
Science," AA, Vol. 3, No. 23, April/May, p. 14.
Burrows, Russell. 2000. "Burrows Cave is Opened!," AA, Vol. 5, No. 33, June,
Burrows, Russell and Fred Rydholm. 1992. The Mystery Cave of Many Faces.
Marquette, MI: Superior Heartland, Inc.
Burrows, Russell, et al (B.C.C. board). 1997.
"Letters to the Editor:
Permission Denied!," AA, Vol. 3, No. 17, March/April, p. 26.
Chandler, Dana, Bart Henson, and Norman Totten. 2001. Analysis of
Coins/Medallions from Burrows' Cave, Private Printing: Auburn, Alabama.
Coppens, Filip. 1994. "Letters to the Editor: Burrows Cave" AA, Vol. 1, No.
4, January/February, p.18.
Covey, Cyclone. 1975. Calalus: A Roman Jewish Colony in America from the
Time of Charlemagne Through Alfred the Great. New York: Vantage Press.
Cote, Bill. 1996. The Mysterious Origins of Man, B.C. Video, Inc., a video
documentary produced and directed by Cote, interviews with Michael Cremo,
Neil Steede, and others, narrated by Charlton Heston.
Covey, Cyclone. 1991.
"Follow-Ups: Burrows Cave Correspondence," LMS
Newsletter, No. 42, October 1, pp. 4 and 5.
Covey, Cyclone. 1992. "Preface" in The Mystery Cave of Many Faces(Burrows
and Rydholm 1992, pp. xvii - xxiv).
Covey, Cyclone. 1994.
"Reflection on Burrows Cave," ISAC Report, Vol. 8, No.
5, pp. 3-6.
Covey, Cyclone. 1997. "Letters to the Editor: Responding to Hubbard," AA,
Vol. 3, No. 18, May/June, p. 14.
Covey, Cyclone. 1998. "Authenticating Burrows Cave: A response to Alexander
P. MacGregor's article in Issue #21," AA, Vol. 3, No. 22, January/February,
pp. 10 and 11.
Covey, Cyclone. 2000a. "Pre-Columbian Crucible: The Birthplace of American
Civilization," AA, Vol. 5, No. 31, February, pp. 2 and 3, 10 and 11.
Covey, Cyclone. 2000b. "Letters to the Editor: Bring on the caveats!," AA,
Vol. 5, No. 31, February, p. 23.
Covey, Cyclone. 2000c. "Pre-Columbian Crucible: The Birthplace of American
Civilization - The Second of Three Parts," AA, Vol. 5, No. 32, April, pp.
Covey, Cyclone. 2000d. "Pre-Columbian Crucible: The Birthplace of American
Civilization - The Third of Three Parts," AA, Vol. 5, No. 33, June, pp.
Deal, David Allen. 1998.
"Letters to the Editor: 'That's religion, not
science'," AA, Vol. 3, No. 23, April/May, p. 13.
Dexter, Warren W. 1988. "Forum: Dear Editor," ESOP, Vol. 17, pp. 16 and 17.
Emerson, Thomas E. 1993.
"Burrows Cave (Reply letter from Emerson to Lois D.
Benedict, dated October 19, 1992)," ESOP, Vol. 22, p. 20.
Etzenhouser, Rudolf. 1910. Engravings of Prehistoric Specimens from
Michigan. U.S.A. (Detroit, MI?). Reprinted 1994, Columbus, GA: ISAC Press.
Fell, Barry. 1976. America B.C.: Ancient Settlers in the New World. New
York: Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co.
Fell, Barry. 1987. "Detecting Fraudulent Inscriptions," ESOP, Vol. 16, p.
Fell, Barry. 1988a. "A Christian North African Inscription from Comalcalco,"
ESOP, Vol. 17, pp. 283 and 284.
Fell, Barry. 1988b. "A Punic Calendar from Comalcalco," ESOP, Vol. 17, pp.
Fell, Barry. 1990a. "Russell Burrows Writes-Fell Responds (Reply to a letter
from Burrows to Fell, dated August 6, 1990), ESOP, Vol. 19, p. 97.
Fell, Barry. 1990b. "Epigraphy of the Burrows Cave Tablets," ESOP, Vol. 19,
p. 98 and 99.
Flavin, Richard D. 1992. "The Karanovo Zodiac," ESOP, Vol. 20 (dated 1991),
Flavin, Richard. 1994a. Affidavit concerning "Frank Joseph" and Frank
Collin, dated June, 11. Click here.
Flavin, Richard D. 1994b. "The Zodiacs: Maps of Heaven and History,"
unpublished paper, privately distributed in 1994, with various changes
through 1999. Click here.
Flavin, Richard. 1996a. WOJB's Morning Fire, hosted by Paul DeMain;
interview with Richard Flavin concerning Burrows' Cave, 1-24-96.
Flavin, Richard. 1996b. "A Nazi's Progress: Richard Flavin peers into the
changing face of Frank Joseph Collin," NewCity (a Chicago weekly), Vol. 11,
No. 425, August 15-21, p. 8.
Flavin, R. D. 1997a. "The Many Faces of Frank Collin," The Greenwich Village
Gazette (http://www.nycny.com), Feb. 21. Updated in 1999 as "Frank Collin:
From neo-Nazi to Hyper-Diffusionist and Witch," Flavin's Corner
Flavin, Richard. 1997b. E-mail to Midwest Auction, dated 97-03-15.
Sirs or Madams: My name is Richard Flavin and I may be reached at
xxx-xxxx-xxxx, or by e-mail, at the address shown. This auction is one of
impossibilities and you need to be advised of possible legal ramifications
from any potential sales. Please be advised that the items you are
attempting to sell are modern attempts at an imaginary prehistory for
America before Columbus. Your published qualification of 'no guarantee as to
authenticity' may not protect you from State and Federal consumer fraud
laws. Be advised–Illinois officials, museums, leading archaeologists, and
expert validation scientists have dismissed The Burrows' Frauds as very
recent efforts, probably all worked after 1976.
If you represent The
Burrows' Frauds as 'contemporary folk-art,' tax problems are
your biggest concern. If you in any way represent The Burrows'
Frauds as being even remotely pre-Columbian, please be advised,
I, and others, will see this mockery through the courts and
require you, the sellers, and the buyers, to settle with State
and Federal requirements for actions of Consumer Fraud. Simply
saying something may or may not be 'real' is not responsible.
The Burrows' Frauds represent an impossibility of ancient
confluence. These examples are merely the work of a crude
copyist of vague and obscure images. Please don't break the law
any further than it already has been broken. Regards, Rick."
Flavin, Richard. 2002.
"Letters to the Editor: Secret Identity," Chicago
Reader, Vol. 31, No. 16, Sect. 1, p.3. Unedited version:
"To the Editor:
Recently the Chicago Reader ran a story about a local enigmatic stone and
featured comments by "Frank Joseph," an author, public speaker, and editor
of THE ANCIENT AMERICAN magazine. "Joseph" is the pseudonym of Frank Collin,
the half-Jewish, ex-neo-Nazi, and convicted pederast, who achieved infamy
for, among other things, threatening to march in Skokie. Those who work with
"Joseph" (his publishers, radio-talk show hosts, and others) know of his
true identity and horrible past, but claim he's a changed man. Today
"Joseph" deals with such fantastic topics as Atlantis, UFOs, and specializes
in a revisionist history which seeks to minimize the accomplishments of
Native Americans and argues for a significant influence by Europeans and
other Old World people before Columbus. It's one thing for crackpots to
overlook Collin's past, because his interests coincide with their own, and
another for the Chicago Reader to use this sicko as an authority. It's a
shame his homecoming wasn't better publicized."
Flavin, Richard and Bill Strubbe. 1996. "Old Stones and New Meanings,"
Spirit of Change, Vol. 10, No. 39, September/October, pp. 16-18. Rewritten
as "Written In Stone," by Bill Strubbe and Rick Flavin, Historic Traveler,
February 1999, pp. 30-35.
Godlewski, Steven. 1993.
"Letters to the Editor: Burrows Cave," AA, Vol. 1,
No. 3, November/December, p. 28.
Gordon, Cyrus H. 1991.
"Follow-Ups: Burrows Cave Correspondence," LMS
Newsletter, No. 42, October 1, pp. 6 and 7.
Hansen, Evan. 1995. "Letters to the Editor: Watermelon and Green Cheese,"
AA, Vol. 2, No. 11, October/November, pp. 42 and 43.
Hart, Carl. 1993. "Letters to the Editor: Burrows Cave," AA, Vol. 1, No. 3,
November/December, p. 28.
Hayden, Dorothy L. 1992.
"The Burrows Cave Book," AIAR Newsletter, Vol. 8,
No.'s 5 & 6, pp. 25 and 26.
Hayden, Dorothy L. 1993.
"The Great Burrows Cave Scam," AIAR Newsletter,
Vol. 9, No. [Unknown], pp. 13-15.
Heck, Jeff. 2001. Personal correspondence between Heck and Richard Flavin.
Available by request.
Hourigan, Virginia. 1987.
"Advertisement: Photos From 'Pharaoh's Cave', Illinois," NEARA Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3, Winter, inside back-cover.
Huebner, Jeff. 2002a. "The Riddle of the Rock," Chicago Reader, Vol. 31, No.
14, Sect. 1, pp. 1 and 16-18.
Huebner, Jeff. 2002b. "Letters to the Editor: Jeff Huebner replies," Chicago
Reader, Vol. 31, No. 16, Sect. 1, p.3. Huebner writes: "While I find his
past indefensible, I can defend his right to espouse ideas about North
American prehistory, as unpopular and far-fetched as they may be."
Hunt, Jean. 1989.
"Artifacts Revealed," LMS Newsletter, No. 25, July 15,
Hunt, Jean. 1992. "Letter
to the Editor, ESOP 21," LMS Newsletter, No. 51,
September 1, pp. 14 and 15; also in ESOP, Vol. 21, 1992, pp. 20 and 21.
Hunt, Jean. 1993. "Book
Reviews: Rock Art Pieces from Burrows Cave in Southern Illinois," LMS Newsletter, No. 54, January 1, pp. 8 and 9.
Joseph 'Collin', Frank. 1993.
"A Most Controversial Site," AA, Vol. 1, No.
2, September/October, p. 3.
Joseph 'Collin', Frank. 1994a.
"Strong Evidence and Weak Opposition," AA,
Vol. 1, No. 5, March/April, p. 5.
Joseph 'Collin', Frank. 1994b. Personal correspondence between Collin and
Richard Flavin, dated April 14, 1994. Available on request
Joseph 'Collin', Frank. 1994c. Personal correspondence between Collin and
Richard Flavin, dated June 15, 1994; unsigned. Available on request.
Joseph 'Collin', Frank. 1997a.
"Is Burrows Cave for real?," AA, Vol. 3. No.
16, March/April, pp. 11 and 12.
Joseph 'Collin', Frank. 1997b. "Re: Posting number 2 for this date," AA
online forum, June 23; "All I can share with our readers at this point is
that it is far greater than I ever imagined and just could not believe my
eyes. Of course, a special issue is presently being prepared to disclose
what will probably be the final, most significant evidence establishing the
site's credibility beyond question." Available on request.
Joseph 'Collin', Frank. 1999.
"An Ancient North African Treasure-Trove in
Southern Illinois, AA, Vol. 4, No. 30, December, pp. 2-4, 6 and 7.
Joseph 'Collin', Frank. 2001. "The Barnes Review devotes Entire issue to
Cultural Diffusuin," AA, Vol. 6, No. 42, November/December, p. 25.
Kano, Kazumune V. 1994. Letter from Collin's lawyer to Richard Flavin, dated
June, 23, 1994. Available on request.
Kimball, Glenn. 2000. "Giants of the Royal Incas," AA, Vol. 5, No. 34,
August/September, pp. 36-38.
Kimball, Glenn. 2001a. E-mail to Kimball's Ancient Manuscripts list, "Glenn
Kimball Update on the cave opening in Illinois," dated Thursday, 23 August
2001. Available on request.
Kimball, Glenn. 2001b. E-mail to Kimball's Ancient Manuscripts list, "A
Message From Glenn Kimball,: dated Wednesday, December 05, 2001. Quote
"That also goes for
Harry Hubbard. He is a local treasure hunter in Southern
Illinois who thinks that all sites are his. He has his own site
that he is excavating. Why he would be concerned with our site
is beyond reason. He has nothing to do with our site. His
childish critique betrays his character. He merits no further
mention. What would he say if we followed him around and
published the owners of the ground upon which he is digging He
would scream bloody murder. I don't worry about me, but his lack
of character could very well hurt the innocent property owners.
If he wants a fistfight, I could use ten seconds of exercise. It
wouldn't be my first time bouncing a bully. This man not only
has no manners, his information is seriously flawed. I have
watched this gold sickness affect some otherwise fine people. If
any of these men had come to contribute advice or legitimate
help we would have listened. The fact that they aren't getting
the headlines and are throwing fits all around the country is
disgraceful. If there is quantifiable damage inflicted by these
men we will suit them. You must all understand that I will never
get a coin from the site. My gold is in the film. Some very
famous people have bombarded Wayne of late. If you listen to Art
Bell you would recognize their names. However, these people
don't have anything to do with the site either. Wayne has
suggested to them all that they should call me. Linda M. Howe
has attempted to get exclusive interviews with Wayne. Wayne told
her to call me. She refused to call me. I can only conclude that
she wants a story for herself and has no interest in
understanding the site itself. This is a competitive business.
However, I don't publish stories about crop circles so they
shouldn't need to publish articles about caves in Illinois."
Kreisle, Bill and Marilyn. 1995.
"In Search of Hard Evidence: Ancient Stone
Maps," AA, Vol. 2, No. 11, October/November, pp. 2-7.
Lodge, George W. 1997. "The Business of Discovery," AA, Vol. 3, No. 16,
January/February, p. 16.
Lurio, Eric. 1994. "Letters to the Editor: Burrows Cave" AA, Vol. 1, No. 4,
MacGregor, Alexander P., Jr. 1997.
"The 'Lost Tomb' of Alexander the Great
and Other Problems," NEARA Journal, Vol. 31, No. 1, Summer, pp. 51-54;
reprinted in AA, Vol. 3., No. 21, November/December, pp. 29-31.
Mahan, Joseph B. 1983. The Secret: America in World History Before Columbus.
Columbus, GA: ISAC Press.
Mahan, Joseph B. 1992. "Historical and Ethnological Context of Burrows
Cave," in The Mystery Cave of Many Faces (Burrows and Rydholm 1992), pp.
Mahan, Joseph B. 1994. "President's Notes," ISAC Report, Vol. 8, No. 4,
July/August, p. 1.
Mahan, Joseph B. 1995. "An Expostulation," ISAC Report, Vol. 9, No. 2,
March/April, pp. 2 and 3.
Martin, Bill. 1976. "The American Reich," Crawdaddy, August, pp. 43-48.
Martin, T. B. and Richard Flavin. 1995.
"Twisting History: The lies of The
Ancient American," News From Indian Country, Vol. 9, No. 2, Late January,
pp. 6 and 7; reprinted in Ethnic Newswatch, January 1995.
May, Wayne N. 1997. "Publisher's statement: Why a Special Report on Mystery
Cave," AA, Vol. 3, No. 16, January/February, pp. 25-27.
May, Wayne N. 1998. "New Tomb Discovery in Southern Illinois," AA, Vol. 4,
No. 25, September/October, p. 17.
May, Wayne. 1999a. "Christ in North America?," AA, Vol. 4, No. 26,
January/February, pp. 2-4, 6, 7, 34-39. On p. 34, May writes "I have known
Mr. Burrows since 1993, and I have compiled a photographic library of some
of his items, which I number over 2,000 such stones. I personally examined
about half of them, and have concluded they are authentic artifacts." Later,
May continues with, "Mr. Burrows telephoned me two years ago to say that he
had purposely withheld some inscribed stones from sale because of the
imagery they featured: namely, identifiably Christian scenes, mostly Old
Testament. He was uncomfortable with these items, because he feared critics
would use such obvious themes to further debunk his discovery."
May, Wayne. 1999b. "'Mudstone' Source for Burrows Cave Found," AA, Vol. 4,
No. 29, October/November, pp. 37 and 39.
May, Wayne. 2000. "An Update from Illinois on Burrows Cave Site," AA, Vol.
5, No. 32, April, p. 17.
May, Wayne. 2001. "Update on Southern Illinois Site," AA, Vol. 6, No. 42,
November/December, pp. 38 and 39.
May, Wayne N. and Joshua M. Bennett. 2000.
"North America's Pale Prophet,"
AA, Vol. 5, No. 36, December, pp. 36-39.
May, Wayne and Russell Burrows. 1994.
"An Ancient American Exclusive:
Russell Burrows speaks out on the Mystery Cave," AA, Vol. 1, No. 4,
January/February, pp. 30-33.
May, Wayne N. and Harry Rybnikar 'Hubbard'. 1997a. "Interview with Harry
Hubbard, the Man in search of a Lost Tomb," AA, Vol. 3, No. 16,
January/February, pp. 28-33.
May, Wayne N. and Paul Schaffranke
'Kelly', 1997b. "Translator of the
tablets: Interview with Paul Schaffranke," AA, Vol. 3, No. 16,
January/February, pp. 38-41.
McGlone, William R. 1996. Cover letter with enclosures: McGlone, Leonard,
and Gillespie 1995; Hansen 1995, Burrows 1995b, Smith 1996, and "Belief in
Action: A Challenge to Believers," an original article by McGlone, June (no
day given). Available by request.
McGlone, William R, et al; Phillip M. Leonard, James L. Guthrie, Rollin W.
Gillespie, and James P. Whittall, Jr. 1993. Sutton, MA: Early Sites Research
McGlone, William R., Phillip M. Leonard, Jr., and Rollin W. Gillespie. 1995.
"Watermelon, Green Cheese and Smoke: The Power of Belief," AA, Vol. 2, No.
10, July/August, pp. 26-29.
Miller, Sue Oiler. 1984.
"Artifacts predate Christ: Archaeological find
unearthed near here, Olney Daily Mail, Friday, July 27; reprinted in MES
Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 5, December, 18, 1995, pp. 9 and 10.
Miner, Michael. 2002. "Hot Type: News Bites," Chicago Reader, Vol. 31, No.
16, Sect. 1, pp. 4 and 5. After mention of a "spirited letter to the editor
(Flavin 2002)," and discussing a past assignment involving Collin, Miner
"My view is that when someone starts out life as a Nazi, there's
nowhere to go but up. If today Joseph is peddling the wacky theory that the Waubansee Stone -- the mysterious carved boulder that was the subject of
Jeff Huebner's January 4 Reader cover story -- was sculpted by visiting
Phoenicians 3,000 years ago, that's a lot less odious than the racial
theories Collin pronounced back in the 70s. But Flavin sees a line from then
to now. On his website, www.flavinscorner.com, he asserts, "The current
rhetoric of Frank Collin is familiar to any reader knowledgeable of his
past, as when Collin writes of an 'Aztec holocaust,' or discusses
'misegenation,' and 'racial identity.'"
Flavin tells me, "In fact, some of
his magazine articles and books are actually being marketed in some skinhead
catalogs." Flavin, who describes himself as a "struggling novelist," lived
in Chicago until 1994, when he moved east. He's a fantastic-archaeology buff
himself but takes it far less seriously than Joseph: "If a couple of Romans
did come over here, who cares?" As a writer, he's turned Frank Joseph into a
cottage industry. He tells me he's had at him in the Greenwich Village
Gazette and New City and the CD-ROM database Ethnic Newswatch, as well as
his own Web site. I reached Joseph by phone and inquired about his unusual
path through life. "I have nothing to say about that," he responded."
reader, but a Chicago reader, it seems.
Monahan, Scott. 1985. History on the Rocks, TransVision Corp., a video
documentary produced, written, and directed by Monahan. Online transcript
Mooney, Vincent J, Jr. 1995. On a video-tape of selected ISAC speakers on
April 22, edited and privately distributed by Rybnikar 'Hubbard'. This is
probably the "ISAC Excerpts Presentation: Classic Spring '95 ISAC
conference" video-tape advertised on the back of AA #16.
Mooney, Vincent J., Jr. 1998. Photocopy of correspondence, dated May 1,
between Mooney and his lawyer regarding Case No.: 98SC000440, State of
Wisconsin Circuit Court at Dunn County, "Vincent J. Mooney Jr vs Wayne May."
Available on request.
Mosely, Beverley H. 1993a.
"Burrows Cave Art," LMS Newsletter, No. 56, March
1, pp. 1-3.
Mosely, Beverly H. 1993b.
"From the President of the Midwestern Epigraphic Society," MES Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, p.2.
Mosely, Beverly H. 1993b.
"Recognizing the Quality of Burrows Cave Art," MES
Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, p.3.
Neff, George. 1997. "Letters to the Editor: Long Time, No See," AA, Vol. 3,
No. 17, March/April, p. 26.
Neugebauer, O. 1951. "The Study of Wretched Subjects," Isis, Vol. 42, June.
Reprinted in Astronomy and History Selected Essays, New York:
Springer-Verlag, 1983, p.3.
Payn, Marshall. 1990. "Meatball Mines," ESOP, Vol. 19, p. 96.
Petraitis, Paul. 1994. "Letters to the Editor: Burrows Cave" AA, Vol. 1, No.
4, January/February, p.18.
Pyle, Robert L. 1996. Personal correspondence between Pyle and Richard
Flavin, dated September 16. Available by request.
Raskin, Marilyn and Lodge, G. W. 1997. E-mail exchange between Raskin, legal
council to The Greenwich Village Gazette, and Lodge. A cease and desist
request was made by Raskin and Lodge replied, "You are the first respondent
to correctly identify Dick Flavir as our Mystery Guest!" A prize was
promised, but never sent. Available on request.
Redcloud, Merlin. 2000. "Wisconsin River rock Art," AA, Vol. 5, No. 34,
August/September, pp. 2 and 3.
Roales, Paul A. 1999. "Letters to the Editor:
'Enjoyed this issue'," AA,
Vol. 4, No. 30, December, p. 8.
Rybnikar 'Hubbard', Horatio. 1994. Personal correspondence between Hubbard
and Richard Flavin, dated December 16. Available on request.
Rybnikar 'Hubbard', Horatio. 1996, E-mail between AlexHelios@aol.com and
Richard Flavin, dated November 28. Available on request.
Rybnikar 'Hubbard', Horatio. 1997a.
"The greatest discovery in the history
of archaeology: A New History for a New Century," AA, Vol. 3, No. 16,
January/February, pp. 2-11.
Rybnikar 'Hubbard', Horatio. 1997b.
"John Ward: Curator of the Secret," AA,
Vol. 3, No. 16, January/February, pp. 34 and 35.
Rybnikar 'Hubbard', Horatio. 1997c.
"Doctor of Decipherment, Warren Cook,"
AA, Vol. 3, No. 16, January/February, pp. 36 and 37.
Rybnikar 'Hubbard', Horatio. 1997d.
"Pay no attention to that man behind the
Curtain!," AA, Vol. 3, No. 16, January/February, pp. 44-47.
Schaffranke 'Kelly', Paul. 1997.
"Why Alexander's Tomb is in Illinois," AA,
Vol. 3, No. 16, pp. 48-55.
Scherz, James P. and Russell E. Burrows. 1992. Rock Art Pieces from Burrows
Cave in Southern Illinois, Vol. 1. Privately printed.
Scherz, James P. 1994. "The Kingman Coins," AA, Vol. 1, No. 7, pp. 32-38.
Scherz, James P. 1997. "Letters to the Editor: The Burrows Cave Blues," AA,
Vol. 3, No. 17, March/April, pp. 23 and 24.
Scherz, James P. 2000. "The Stone Face at Mummy Mountain," AA, Vol. 5, No.
32, pp. 1, 2, and 6-11.
Skupin, Michael. 1991a. "Follow-Ups: Burrows Cave Correspondence," in LMS
Newsletter, No. 42, October 1, pp. 5 and 6.
Skupin, Michael. 1991b. "Follow-Ups: Burrows Cave Correspondence,"LMS
Newsletter, No. 43, November 15, p. 2.
Skupin, Michael. 1992.
"Cave Man," LMS Newsletter, No. 52, October 1, p. 7;
reprinted in ESOP, Vol. 21, 1992, pp. 26 and 27.
Skupin, Michael. 1994.
"Beyond Malarkey: The Ancient American Takes a Wrong Turn," LMS Newsletter, Unnumbered, January, p. 10.
Smith, Wes. 1996. "'Snowball's chance' in Egypt that Illinois site is
Cleopatra's tomb," Chicago Tribune, Sunday, April 14, Section 1, p. 7.
Stengel, Marc K. 2000. "The Diffusionists Have Landed," The Atlantic
Monthly, January, pp. 35-48.
Tiffany, John. 2001. "Mystery Cave Could Prove Ancient Vistors Were Here,"
The Barnes Review, online here.
Tracey, Andy. 1997. "Letters to the Editor: Doing business with Gangsters,"
AA, Vol. 3, No. 18, May/June, p. 13.
Travis, Gar. 2000. "Letters to the Editor: Fake Gold
'Coins'?," AA, Vol. 5,
No. 35, October, p. 7.
Uncredited. 1999. "Find of the Century Revealed?," AA, Vol. 4, No. 28,
June/July, p. 29. Later incorporated into May 2001, with the significant
change of the name of Ralph Wolak's company from Fox Publications to
Von Wuthenau, Alexander. 1975. Unexpected Faces in Ancient America 1500 B.C.
-- A.D. 1500: The Historical Testimony of Pre-Columbian Artists, New York:
Ward, John A. 1984. Ancient Archives Among The Cornstalks. Vincennes, IN:
Ward, John A. 1985. A Study of the Origin of Artifacts Found in a Cave by
Russell Burrows in a Remote Area of lllinois. Vincennes, IN: Privately
printed; later expanded version c.1990.
Ward, John A. 1990. The People of Burrows Cave: Who they were, where they
came from and when. Vincennes, IN: Burrows Cave Research Center.
White, John J., III. 1997.
"Letters to the Editor: Sharing a foxhole at
Burrows Cave," AA, Vol. 3, No. 17, March/April, pp. 24 and 25.
White, John J., III. 1998a.
"Letters to the Editor: A $100 to $1000
Question," AA, Vol. 3, No. 23, April/May, p. 13.
White, John J., III. 1998b.
"The Moundbuilder Myth: What Did Squire and
Davis Actually Say?," AA, Vol. 3, No. 23, April/May, pp. 16-18.
White, John J., III. 1999a.
"Ancient Serpents of Southern Illinois," AA,
Vol. 4, No. 26, January/February, pp. 22 and 23.
White, John J., III. 1999b.
"Mystic Symbol and Jesus: Another Piece to the
Burrows Cave Puzzle," AA, Vol. 4, No. 30, December, pp. 18-24.
White, John J., III and Beverley H. Moseley, Jr. 1993.
"Burrows Cave: Fraud
or Find of The Century?," AA, Vol. 1, No. 2, September/October, pp. 4-15;
rewritten and later published as "Burrows Cave, Find of the Century! Do
Stone Portraits found in Illinois document Visitors from the Ancient
World?," AA, Vol. 5, No. 33, June 2000, pp. 2-4 and 6-8.
White, John J., III and Beverley H. Moseley, Jr. 1994.
"Was the Voyage of
Hanno's Story told at Burrow's Cave Campfire? [sic]," AA, Vol. 1, No. 7,
September/October, pp. 14 and 15.
Whittall, James P., Jr. 1990.
"Burrows Cave - A Chronology of Events," Myth
Makers: Epigraphic Illusion in America, edited by J. P. Whittall, Jr.
Rowley, MA: Early Sites Research Society; Whittall drawings reproduced
uncredited as "It Came from Burrows Cave (36 line drawings © Early Sites
Research Society 1990), ESOP, Vol. 19, 1990, pp. 100-105.
Whittall, James P. 1995.
"Letters to the Editor: Enough Said," AA, Vol. 2,
No. 9, p. 29.
Whittall, James P., Jr. 1997.
"Letters to the Editor: Still no cave," AA,
Vol. 3, No. 18, May/June, p. 12.
Whittall, James P. and William R. McGlone. 1991.
"Put Up or Shut Up," LMS
Newsletter, No. 41, August 15, p. 3.
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American Prehistory. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.