by Elson Concepción Pérez
current U.S. President
military action against Venezuela
sanctioning governments and companies
with ties to the
Bolivarian Republic and Cuba...
More than 200 years have passed since James Monroe became the
fifth president of the United States. Unlike Donald Trump, he had
been a soldier, lawyer, senator, governor and even Secretary of
country's 45th President, a multimillionaire
inexperienced in politics, has done nothing more than repeat
what was said and done by the inventor of the "America for
What is common in what happened in 1823 and what is happening today
is that Monroe's philosophy is being dusted off by Trump, to making
a reality of the notion that the nations of Latin America are
the latest threat
to Venezuela of a possible military intervention
the recent coup
in Bolivia under the auspices of the Organization of
American States (OAS)
the tightening of
the blockade of Cuba
in the internal affairs of countries in the region, where
democratic governments have set the standards for
development and sovereignty,
...do not come as a
"Here in the Western
Hemisphere we are committed to maintaining our independence from
the intrusion of expansionist foreign powers," Trump stated at
the United Nations General Assembly in New York in 2018.
"It has been the
formal policy of our country, since President James Monroe, that
we reject interference by foreign nations in this hemisphere and
in our own affairs," he added cynically.
In February 2018,
then-Secretary of State for the Trump administration, Rex
"the Monroe Doctrine
is as relevant today as it was on the day it was written."
On that same date,
another member of the President's group of hawks, John Bolton,
said in an
article in The Hill, that
Russian interference in Latin America could inspire Trump to
This is how this first term of office is going, for a President who
intends to be re-elected next November.
This is a state in which, in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt
established that if a European country threatened the rights or
property of U.S. citizens or companies in a Latin American nation,
the government was obliged to intervene in the affairs of that
country to remedy the situation.
"In these cases, we
must consider what leaders of the U.S. empire have understood
and understand today, regarding the rights or properties of U.S.
citizens or companies."
Helms-Burton Act made their
Let us not forget the long list of U.S. interventions in Latin
American nations, to make sure their colonial status was not
threatened, including invasions, coups and blockades, and other
While, at the time,
Washington denied its role in overthrowing governments, documents
declassified years later by their own institutions reveal the truth.
The U.S. website Bloomberg recently noted that the United
States continues to consider the military option to overthrow
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.
February 21 article, an official of
the Trump administration was quoted as saying,
Trump is frustrated that pressure is building too slowly on
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro and is still considering
military options in the country, including a naval blockade."
Invoking Monroe and
his "doctrine," Trump issued threatening warnings to companies
that continue to do business with Venezuela, including,
Repsol of Spain
the U.S. oil
The article continues
citing the unnamed official,
continues to pursue what he called the Trump doctrine to foster
democratic governments throughout the Western Hemisphere, akin
to the Monroe Doctrine, which warned against European
colonization efforts in the Americas two centuries ago," adding
that "Venezuela, Cuba and Nicaragua remain impediments" to this
Not much has changed in
U.S.-backed coups in Latin America
Caribbean over the last 70 years.
US-backed Coups in Latin America and the Caribbean 1948-2019:
November 24, 1948, President Rómulo Gallegos was deposed
Coup against President Hugo Chavez fails on April 11, 2002
In May, General Alfredo Stroessner led a coup against
President Federico Chaves and installed a bloody
In June, coup against Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz
Dominican Republic 1963
In September, President John Bosch overthrown
On March 31, a coup against President João Goulart, followed
by 21 years of dictatorship
Argentina 1966 and 1976
In June of 1966, President Arturo Illia overthrown by a coup
In 1976 another coup took place, this time against President
María Estela Martínez de Perón
1971 and 2019
On August 21, 1971, Hugo Banzer Suárez led a coup
Coup against re-elected President Evo Morales on November
Juan Maria Bordaberry, with the support of the CIA,
established a de facto government
Military coup against Salvador Allende, led by Augusto
Pinochet with full support of the CIA
October 15, President Carlos Humberto Romero overthrown,
causing a civil war that lasted 12 years and left at least
70,000 dead and thousands more missing.
December 20, direct intervention by more than 20,000 U.S.
soldiers to overthrow the President and massacre the
On April 5, President Alberto Fujimori carried out a
"self-coup" in his country, with the support of the Armed
On February 29, President Jean-Bertrand Aristide forced to
leave the country
In June, coup staged against President Manuel Zelaya