B. Other Gods
In addition to the four primary deities and the Seven who decreed fate, there were hundreds of others. They all belong to the Anunnaki and Igigi and most of them were called the Nephilim in the Bible and The Watchers in Enoch.

One of the most beloved deities was the shepherd god Dumuzi (the biblical Tammuz).

Ningal - Ningal - Ningal - the consort of Nanna, the mother of Inanna and Utu.

  • The Phoenicians called her Nikkal

  • Nanche Nanshe Nash

  • The daughter of Enki

  • one of "the pure goddesses" Goddess of Morals and Ethics

Nanche was also the goddess of water and fertility, her symbol was a vessel of water with a fish in it, which signifies the gravid womb.

"Interpreter of Dreams," the Babylonian title of the goddess who gave her priests the ability to interpret (Oneiromancy) and prophesy from other men's dreams. The priests acquired this ability after undergoing an initiation ceremony of descent into her "pit," a symbolic experience of death and resurrection.

Her cult centre is Sirara near Lagash.

Nabu - Nabu - Nabu - He is regarded as the son of Marduk.

Ancient Sumerian-Babylonian god of knowledge and writing, scribe of the gods.

The God Nebo as mentioned in the Bible

Shamu - Tashmetum - The Sumerian name is unknown.

She is the wife of Nabu the patron god of the scribes

Acadian / Babylonian goddess, and Her name, which derives from the Acadian Shamu means something like "the granting of requests".

With Nabu, She is often invoked in late Babylonian and late Assyrian prayers and ritual texts as a merciful mediator, protector from evil and goddess of love and potency, and seen as a traditional wife and marital consort, a Goddess and young Queen.

Together with Nabu they were worshipped in Borsippa.

Ennugi - Ennugi - Ennugi - canal- controller of the Anunnaki. The god of irrigation and inspector of canals in Mesopotamian mythology

Sarpanitum - Beltia - Sarpanit  - Sarpanitum, also known as Beltia, is an ancient Sumerian-Babylonian goddess, the consort of Marduk.

Cara - Cara - Shara - Anu and Inanna's son. He despairs and will not attack Anzu after Anzu has stolen the Tablets of Destinies from Enlil.

Mummu - Mummu - Mummu
An ancient Sumerian-Babylonian craftsman-god, and personification of technical skill. He was the vizier of Abzu and Tiamat, He is very fond of Abzu and colludes with him to disperse the younger gods when they disturb Tiamat, even after Tiamat rejects the plan. Enki found out about his plan, enspelled him and tied him up. When Abzu was killed by Enki, he bound Mummu into his service.

Nissaba - Nisaba - Nisaba
The Sumerian goddess of grain, writing and wisdom. She is the daughter of the sky-god Anu. Her breast nourishes the fields. Her womb gives birth to the vegetation and grain. She has abundant locks of hair. She is also a goddess of writing and learned knowledge. She performs the purification ceremony on Ninurta after he has slain Anzu and is given his additional names and shrines.

Gula - Bau - Baba
The Sumerian goddess of healing. Her husband is Ninurta. The dog is her symbolic animal. She is also a mother goddess and a goddess of healing. Baba is the daughter of the sky god Anu and consort of the fertility god Ningirsu. People often called her 'mother Baba' (see also the Sumerian poem A tigi for Bau to Gudea).

The Sumerian tutelary goddess of the city of Lagash, some 70 kilometers north of Ur, and patroness of the king.

Kakka - Kakka - Kakka
The messenger of the Sumerian god An and Anu's vizier

He brought the gods' food to Ereshkigal.

He was sent to Kurnugi to deliver Ereshkigal the message that Anu wishes to deliver a gift to her via one of her messengers. An sends him to round up Lahmu and Lahamu to send off Marduk for his battle with Tiamat and rally them to his side.

Qingu - Qingu - Kingu
- Tiamat's battle leader. He is promoted and enhanced to a leading position from among the ranks. Tiamat places the Tablet of Destinies into his possession, giving him the Anu-power, such that his word is law and effects reality. He gives his army fire-quenching breath and paralyzing venom. His battle strategy initially confuses Marduk. He is defeated by Marduk and counted among the dead gods.

Ashnan - The Sumerian goddess of grain, daughter of Enlil. She was assigned to the fertile land of Sumer by Enki. She is a powerful deity, supporting the people.

Nidaba - The goddess of writing and the patron deity of the edubba (palace archives).

Geshtu-e - 'ear', god whose blood and intelligence are used by Mami to create man, possibly the same as the God We.

Siduri - the barmaid, a manifestation of Ishtar who dwells at the lip of the sea, beyond which is the Land of Life, where Uta-Napishtim lives. She speaks with Gilgamesh. She wears a veil.

Gushkin-banda - creator of god and man, goldsmith god.

Sharru - god of submission

Nin-ildu - the carpenter god. He carries the pure axe of the sun.

Lahar - The Sumerian god of cattle and particularly of sheep. He was created by Enlil.

Dumuzi - Dumuzi - Tammuz
The son of Enki

First spouse to Ishtar, the lover of her youth.

He successfully courted and married Inanna. Following the consummation of this marriage, he was given divine powers over the fertility of plants and animals, especially over grain. Upon her rescue from the dead, he was pursued by galla demons, which he eluded for a time with the aid of Utu. Eventually he was caught and slain; however, he was partially freed from his stay in the underworld by the actions of his sister Geshtinanna. Now he resides there only half of the year, while she lives there the other half year; this represents seasonal change (see Inanna and Geshtinanna). He is also known as Tammuz.

He has a palace in Kur, and is due a visit by those entering Kur.

In life, he was the shepherd king of Uruk (Dumuzid), see later chapter 11 about the Sumerian King list.

He is the Sumerian form of Tammuz. A god of vegetation and fertility, and also of the underworld. He is called 'the Shepherd' and 'lord of the sheepfolds'. As the companion of Gizzida 'to all eternity' he stands at the gate of heaven. According to the Sumerian King-List Gilgamesh was descended from 'Dumuzi a shepherd'.


Dumuzi was originally a mortal ruler whose marriage to Inanna ensured the fertility of the land and the fecundity of the womb. This marriage, however, according to a myth whose denouncement has only recently come to light, ended in stark tragedy when the goddess, offended by her husband's unfeeling behavior toward her, decreed that he be carried off to the netherworld for six months of each year-hence the barren, sterile months of the hot summer.


At the autumnal equinox, which marked the beginning of the Sumerian new year, Dumuzi returned to the earth. His reunion with his wife caused all animal and plant life to be revitalized and made fertile once again. He is a vegetation god. He went into the underworld and was recovered through the intervention of Ishtar. He is sometimes the guardian of heaven's gates and sometimes a god of the underworld. He guards the Gate of Anu with Gizzida.

Dumuzid and Enkimdu. A conflict story similar to Cain and Abel is found in Sumerian literature. In this tale the shepherd-god Dumuzi vies with the farmer-god Enkimdu for the favors of the goddess Inanna. Dumuzi quarrels with Enkimdu and wins the prize of Inanna's attention. Both the biblical and Sumerian stories reflect the early conflict between shepherds and farmers over use of the precious arable land (see also the original Sumerian tablet Dumuzid and Geshtinanna and Dumuzid's dreams).

Ninsun - Her name means "queen of the wild cow", Gilgamesh's mother and Lugalbanda's mate. She is wise, 'knows everything' and interprets Gilgamesh's dreams. She offers incense and drink to Utu and questions his decision to send Gilgamesh against Humbaba. When doing so, she wears a circlet on her head and an ornament on her breast. She adopts Enkidu prior to the quest against Humbaba.

In the Gilgamesh epic she appears as a counselor of her son and interprets dreams.

Nusku - A Sumerian god of light and fire, and the messenger of Enlil, his father. He sets fire to the steppes, and is called upon to destroy witches and demons with his fire. The lamp is his attribute.

Uttu - The Sumerian spider goddess of weaving and of clothing. She is a daughter of Enki and Nindurra (Ninkura, daughter of Nintu and Enki).

See the story of Enki and Ninhursag

Aia - Utu's consort

Geshtinanna - Gestinanna - Belili - the wife of Ninjiczida.

Daughter of Enki, Sister of Dumuzi

The dying Dumuzi, tortured by nightmares, brought the dreams to his sister for interpretation. Geshtinanna realized her brother was under attack by demons. She tells him this and advises him to flee. Dumuzi flees, swearing Geshtinanna to secrecy as to where he is going into hiding. The demons attacked Geshtinanna to force her to reveal her brother's whereabouts, but she remained silent. The demons, however, soon found Dumuzi, hiding in the form of a gazelle in his sister's sheepfold. He was carried off to the underworld by them; Geshtinanna then set out to rescue him. They were eventually reunited after many adventures. The goddess then persuaded the underworld divinities to grant Dumuzi half her own life; thus each was allowed to live on earth six months of each year. Her time in the underworld and her periodic emergence from it are linked with her new divine authority over the autumn vines and wine.

Geshtinanna is also associated with growth, but where her brother rules over the spring harvested grain, she rules over the autumn harvested vines (see also the original Sumerian story called Dumuzid and Geshtinanna.

Nin-gishzida - Nin-gizzida - The daughter of Enki

Underworld Goddess Due gifts upon death (see also the Sumerian tablet called Ningishzida's journey to the Nether world.

Ninkasi - goddess of brewing?.



C. Netherworld Gods

Most of them also belonged to the Anunnaki, the Gods of the Netherworld (the Gods that were send to Earth, the empire of the death.

Most of them were also "The Watchers" in the book of Enoch and the Nephilim in the Bible.

The place beneath Heavens was also called the Underworld, the Netherworld, Kur and Kurnugi, it is notable that the meaning of the Gods of the Netherworld is "The Gods who stayed on Earth" and , mostly, never returned to Heaven again.

Heaven must be seen as the place "home-planet" where they originally came from or, when they were born on Earth, their parents had came from.

The Sebitti are the seven warrior gods led by Nergal.

They were :

  • Nergal : Consort of Ereshkigal, Lord of the Nether World.

  • Ereshkigal : Queen of the Nether World, She who Wails.

  • Gugulana (The Bull of Heaven): first consort of Ereshkigal.

  • Namtar : Due gifts upon death.

  • Hubishag : Due gifts upon death.

  • Ningishzida : Due gifts upon death.

  • Huwawa: Guardian of the cedar of the heart in the the "Land of the living"

Anu gave them fearsome and lethal destinies and put them under Erra's (Nergal's) command.

They prefer to exercise there skills instead of letting Erra stay in the cities with his diseases. As for the underworld Kur or Kurnugi (Sumerian for 'land of no return'). The mines in Africa.

It is presided over by Anu to Ereshkigal and Nergal.

Within the house of Irkalla (Nergal), the house of darkness, the house of Ashes, no one ever exits. "They live on dust, their food is mud; their clothes are like birds' clothes, a garment of wings, and they see no light, living in blackness." It is full of dust and mighty kings serve others food.

In Ereshkigal's court, heroes and priests reside, as well as Sumuqan and Belit-tseri.

The Scorpion-people guard the gates in the mountain to the underworld which Utu/Shamash uses to enter and exit.

There are seven gates, through which one must pass. At each gate, an adornment or article of clothing must be removed.

The gates are named: Nedu, (En)kishar, Endashurimma, (E)nuralla, Endukuga/Nerubanda, Endushuba/Eundukuga, and Ennugigi. Beyond the gates are twelve double doors, wherein it is dark. Siduri waits there by the waters of death, beyond which, is the Land of the Living, where Uta-Napishtim and his wife dwell. Shamash and Uta-napishtim's boatman, Urshanabi, can cross the waters.

Egalginga, the everlasting palace, is a place where Ishtar was held.

Nergal - Nergal - Nergal
The son of Enlil. He is also called Erra

As Erra he is a hunter god, a god of war and plague. He is submissive to Enki.

- 'lord who prowls by night') -, the Unsparing, god of the underworld, husband of Ereshkigal, lover of Mami. He is an evil god who brings war, pestilence, fever and devastation.

Nergal is represented as a god dressed in a long open-fronted robe, often with one leg bared and advanced, his foot placed upon a raised support or trampling a man. He usually carries a scimitar and a single or double-headed lion scepter, which, as independent motifs, served to symbolize him.

He can open the doorposts to the underworld to allow the passage of a soul. He achieved his post by refusing to stand before an address of Namtar. When Ereshkigal called him to be punished, he dragged her off of her throne by the hair, and threatened to decapitate her. She offered him the position as her consort and he accepted. He is an evil aspect of Utu /Shamash. He allows Enkidu's spirit to visit Gilgamesh at the behest of Enki.

He is sometimes the son of Enki. Prior to his first journey to the underworld, he builds a chair of fine wood under Enki's instruction to give to Ereshkigal as a gift from Anu. He is advised not to take part of the food, drink and entertainment offered there. He is tempted by Ereshkigal and eventually succumbs, sleeping with her for seven days. He then takes his leave, angering her. The gatekeeper lets him out and he climbs the stairway to heaven. He hides from Namtar in heaven, but is discovered and returns to the underworld to marry Ereshkigal.

He commands the Sebitti, seven warriors who are also the Pleiades, they aid in his killing of noisy, over-populous people and animals. He rallies them when he feels the urge for war, and calls Ishum to light the way. He regards Marduk as having become negligent and prepares to attack his people in Babylon. He challenges Marduk in E-sagila in Shuanna /Babylon. Marduk responds that he already killed most of the people in the flood and would not do so again. He also states that he could not run the flood without getting off of his throne and letting control slip. Erra volunteers to take his seat and control things. Marduk takes his vacation and Erra sets about trying to destroy Babylon. Ishum intervenes on Babylon's behalf and persuades Erra to stop, but not before he promises that the other gods will acknowledge themselves as Erra's servants (see the Babylonian tablets called Erra and Ishum and Nergal and Ereshkigal.

His attributes are the club and the sickle.

Since Nergal was worshipped at the temple called E-meslam (or Meslam House) at Kutu in Babylonia, he was also sometimes known under the name of Meslamta-ea, 'he who comes forth from the Meslam'.

NERGAL is the same as the Greek god HADES.

Ereshkigal - Ereshkigal - Allatu

The daughter of An and Nammu, twin sister of Enki.

- the supreme goddess of the underworld, Nergal is her consort, together with him she rules the underworld When angered, her face grows livid and her lips grow black.

She doesn't know why Ishtar would visit her, but she allows her in, according to the ancient rites. She instructs Namtar to release his diseases upon Ishtar. When 'His appearance is bright' tries to get her to swear an oath, she curses him. She has Namtar release Ishtar in exchange for Dumuzi.

Anu sends Kakka to her with a message and then sends Nergal to give her a throne upon which she is to sit and give judgment. She offers Nergal food, drink, a foot bath, and entices him with her body. Eventually he succumbs and they sleep with each other for seven days. She is enraged when he wishes to leave. She sends Namtar to heaven to request that Anu, Enlil, and Enki send Nergal to her as one of the few favors she has ever had. If they do not, she will raise the dead and they will eat and outnumber the living. Nergal is brought back.

In some versions of the myth, Nergal takes control of Namtar's attendant demons and grabs Ereshkigal by the hair. In this position she proposes marriage to him. In both versions they are married.

in the prelude to "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Nether world". She has a palace there and is due a visit by those entering Kur (see also the original Sumerian table called Ereshkigal.

Gugulana (The Bull of Heaven) - Created by Anu to kill Gilgamesh at Ishtar's behest. At its snorting, a hole opened up and 200 men fell into it. When it fights Enkidu and Gilgamesh, it throws spittle and excrement at them. It is killed and set as an offering to Utu / Shamash.


The Bull of Heaven, was Ereshkigal's first husband. After Gilgamesh spurned Inanna, she sends him to terrorize Erech (see also the original Sumerian tablet called Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven.

Namtar - Namtar - Namtara
Namtar - "Fate", the demon responsible for death. Namtar has no hands or feet and does not eat or drink. Namtar is the Fate-Cutter, Ereshkigal's messenger and vizier, the herald of death.

He commands sixty diseases, which are grouped by the part of the body which they affect. It is fate, destiny in its evil aspect, pictured as a demon of the underworld. In addition to spreading disease, Namtar acted as the herald or messenger and chief minister of Ereshkigal, the queen of the Sumerian underworld, and the god Nergal.

Nergal in his guise as the god Irra, and Namtar were believed to cause all diseases in mortals.

He takes Ishtar back out of the Underworld at Ereshkigal's command. He acts as her messenger to Anu.

Gizzida - Ningizzia - Ninjiczida

- a guardian of the gate of heaven; a god of the underworld
- the chief gatekeeper the scribe of Kur

The name means "Trusty timber". Son of Ninazu, consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu.

A fertility god, addressed as 'Lord of the Tree of Life'. Sometimes he is a serpent with a human head, but later he was a god of healing and magic. He is the "companion" of Tammuz with whom he stood at the gate of heaven.

His symbol was the horned snake known as Basmu in Acadian, it was sixty leages long and had multiple mouths and tongues.

His main cult centers were located in: Gishbanda, between Lagash and Ur.

Ninjiczida is in my opinion Satan or Satana from the Bible, the horned snake.

Hubishag - the god of dawn Dimpemekug - due gifts, no palace.

Huwawa - Humbaba - Humbaba
Humbaba (Huwawa) - this monster was appointed by Enlil to guard the cedar forest, which is in fact one large tree, the home of the gods, and terrify mankind. 'His shout is the storm-flood, his mouth, fire, his breath is death.' He has seven cloaks with which to arm himself. There is a gate and a path in the cedar mountain for Humbaba to walk on.

Guardian of the cedar of the heart in the the "Land of the living", Huwawa has dragon's teeth, a lion's face, a roar like rushing flood water, huge clawed feet and a thick mane. He lived there in a cedar house.

He appears to have attacked Gilgamesh, Enkidu and company when they felled that cedar. They then come upon Huwawa and Gilgamesh distracts him with flattery, then puts a nose ring on him and binds his arms. Huwawa grovels to Gilgamesh and Enkidu and Gilgamesh almost releases him. Enkidu argues against it and when Huwawa protests, he decapitates Huwawa (see the original Sumerian tablet called Gilgamesh and Huwawa.

The Sumerians had many other deities as well, most of which appear to have been minor.



D. Demi-Gods, Monsters and Demons

The definition of Monsters and Demons, they were creatures who belonged to the "first" (deformed beings) and "second" creation of the Gods and some of them were the children of the Gods and Humanity (Giants) (see also the original Babylonian tablet called Seven Evil Spirits.

It is notable that most of them were the children of the Gods and the daughters of Men, the Giants of Genesis 6.

Gn:6:4: There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.

In the Bible they are called Anakim, Anak, Anakites, Arba and Rephaites.


1. Demi-Gods
The definition of a Demi God is that they all are mortal but they lived much longer then Men. (mostly 1,000 to 50,000 years.

As I mentioned already in chapter 1 through 6 (the timetable of the Bible) "The Earth Fathers" the first 10 Generations as mentioned in Gn:5 (from Adam to Noah) can in my opinion also be seen as Demi Gods because of their ages and they stood close to their "creators", most of them were worshipped as Gods too.

Adapa Uan - The first of the seven antediluvian sages who were sent by Enki to deliver the arts of civilization to mankind. He was from Eridu. He offered food an water to the gods in Eridu. He went out to catch fish for the temple of Enki and was caught in a storm. He broke the South Wind's wing and was called to be punished. Enki advised him to say that he behaved that way on account of Dumuzi's and Gizzida's (Satan's) absence from the country.

Those gods, who tended Anu's gate, spoke in his favor to Anu. He was offered the bread and water of eternal life, but Enki advised against his taking it, lest he end his life on earth.

Adapa / Uan is the same as Adam in the Bible.

Nin-ti - Lady of the "rib"

The seventh creation of Ninhursag to cure the last diseases of Enki when he was punished for eating the seven magical plants.

Nin-ti is the same as Eva in the Bible.

Kabta - In Sumerian mythology, Kabta is the god of bricks, he is the god who lays foundations and builds houses.

Kabta is possibly the same as Nimrod in the Bible.

we can read about him :

Gn:10:8: And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. Gn:10:9: He was a mighty hunter before the Lord: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord. Gn:10:10: And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

See also the story in The Writings of Abraham.

Kalkal - Enlil's doorkeeper in Nippur.

Shullat - Utu's servant.

Hanish - the weather god's servant.

Urshambi - boatman to Uta-Napishtim

In Sumerian mythology, Nin-agal is the god of smiths. He chews copper and makes tools. Nin-agal is the same as Tubalcain in the Bible.

We can read about him :

Gn:4:22: And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.

See also the story in The Writings of Abraham.

Enkimdu - In Sumerian mythology, Enkimdu was the farmer god. Enkimdu is the same as Abel or Jabal in the Bible.

We can read about him :

Gn:4:20: And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle.

See also the story in The Writings of Abraham.

Lugalbanda - a warrior-king and, with Ninsun, the progenitor of Gilgamesh.

The third king of the post-diluvium dynasty of Uruk, a god and shepherd, and hero of a cycle of Sumerian poems like Lugulbanda, father of Gilgamesh and Lugulbanda and the mountain cave.

Lugalbanda in his own right was a god-king of the city of Uruk, and according to the Sumerian Kings List he ruled the city for no fewer than 1,200 years.

At the time of this adventure, nevertheless, he seems to have been a young officer in Enmerkar´s army commanding a division of Uruk´s troops.

He begs Utu, "I greet you! Let me be ill no longer! Hero, Ningal's son, I greet you! Let me be ill no longer! Utu" (so Lugalbanda was mortal !)

The son of the warrior-king Lugalbanda and the wise goddess Ninsun, probably a priest of Kullab (part of Uruk), and fifth king of Uruk after the flood. He was famous as a great builder and as a judge of the dead.

The Epic of Gilgamesh (see chapter 7) was preserved on clay tablets which were deciphered in the last century. It contains the adventures of the great King of Uruk (southern Babylonia) in his fruitless search for immortality and of his friendship with Enkidu, the wild man from the hills.

Gilgamesh built the walls of the city Uruk, and the Eanna (house of Anu) temple complex there, dedicated to Ishtar. He is two-thirds divine and one-third human. He is tall and a peerless warrior. He is the king and shepherd of the people of Uruk, but he was very wild, which upset his people, so they called out to Anu. Anu told Aruru to make a peer for Gilgamesh, so that they could fight and be kept occupied, so she created the wild-man Enkidu. Enkidu terrorizes the countryside, and a Stalker, advised by his father, informs Gilgamesh.


They bring a love- priestess to bait Enkidu. She sleeps with him, and educates him about civilization, Gilgamesh and the city. Gilgamesh dreams about Enkidu and is anxious to meet him. Enkidu comes into the city Gilgamesh is on his way to deflower the brides in the city's "bride-house" and the two fight. They are evenly matched and become friends. Gilgamesh decides to strengthen his reputation by taking on Humbaba, Enlil's guardian of the forest. Enkidu accompanies Gilgamesh and they spend much time in preparation. Eventually they find the monster and defeat him. Ishtar offers to become Gilgamesh's lover, but Gilgamesh insults her, saying that she has had many lovers and has not been faithful to them. Ishtar asks Anu to send the Bull of Heaven to punish Gilgamesh, and he does.


Gilgamesh and Enkidu defeat the creature, but Enkidu falls ill and dies, presumably because the gods are unhappy that he helped kill Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven. Gilgamesh morns Enkidu and decides to visit Uta-Napishtim, the only human who does not die. He goes to the mountains of Mashu and passes by the guardian Scorpion-demons into the darkness.

It becomes light as he enters the Garden of the Gods and he finds Siduri the Barmaid, to whom he relates his quest. She sends him to cross the waters of death and he confronts the boatman, Urshanabi. They cross and Gilgamesh speaks with Utnapishtim. Utnapishtim recounts the tale of the flood and challenges Gilgamesh to remain awake for six days and seven nights. He fails, but Utnapishtim's wife urges him to reveal to Gilgamesh a rejuvenate plant. Gilgamesh takes it, but looses it to a serpent before returning to Uruk.

Another tablet of the Babylonian Gilgamesh story exist (Gilgamesh and the Netherworld), which is similar to the Sumerian version of the tale. Enkidu volunteers to enter the underworld to recover Gilgamesh's pukku and mikku (drum and throwing stick). Gilgamesh warns him of the proper etiquette for the underworld, lest Enkidu be kept there. Enkidu prepares to enter the underworld, and is dressed, scented and bade good-bye. The Earth seizes him and Gilgamesh weeps. He pleads for Enkidu's sake to Enlil, Sin, and finally to Ea. Ea tells Nergal to let Enkidu's ghost escape the underworld and tell Gilgamesh about it. He tells Gilgamesh of the dead which he has seen there, of those who are cared for and those who aren't, indicating the sort of judgment and ritual associated with the afterlife and death.

See also the Sumerian tablets called Gilgamesh and Aga and The death of Gilgamesh.

Most of the poems of this epic were already written down in the first centuries of the second millennium BC, but probably existed in much the same form many centuries earlier. The final recension, and most complete edition, comes from the seventh century library of Ashurbanipal, antiquary and last great king of the Assyrian empire.

He is the precursor of Heracles and other folk heroes.

The god Anu instructed the goddess Aruru to bring forth valiant Enkidu - an equal to Gilgamesh in all respects because Gilgamesh was very wild and often upset his people in Uruk.

Enkidu was wild in appearance and nature, Enkidu was birthed among the animals on the steppes.

He fed with the gazelles, drank with the wild beasts, and thwarted the attempts of hunters to disturb the creatures.

A young hunter, vexed by Enkidu, was told by his father to go to Uruk and tell Gilgamesh of this powerful wild-man. Doing so, Gilgamesh gave the young hunter a "harlot-lass", who was to "lay bare her ripeness" and seduce Enkidu at his watering-place. For six days and seven nights Enkidu and the harlot cavorted, after which Enkidu found that the wild beasts no longer welcome him. However, he "now had wisdom, broader understanding."

The harlot convinced now-lonely Enkidu to accompany her to ram parted Uruk and challenge Gilgamesh, whose tyrannical disposition has been described to Enkidu. Before leaving, however, the harlot teaches Enkidu the ways of modern man, and he becomes a hero to the country people- watching over the cattle and scaring off the lions. Enkidu then goes to Uruk and confronts Gilgamesh. They clash like mighty bulls, shaking the very wall of Uruk. The fight goes on for hours, with Enkidu emerging as the nominal victor. After this battle, Enkidu and Gilgamesh become inseparable friends and joint heroes of Uruk, with Gilgamesh no longer abusing his position of authority.

Ziusudra - Atrahasis - Uta-Napishtim
In the Sumerian poems he is a wise king and priest of Shuruppak; in the Acadian sources he is a wise citizen of Shuruppak.

He is the son of Ubara-Tutu (see later the Sumerian king list), and his name is usually translated as "He Who Saw Life".

Enlil had grown tired of the noise that the mass of humanity was making, and after a series of disasters failed to eliminate the problem, he had Enki release the floodgates to drown them out. Since Enki had a hand in creating man, he wanted to preserve his creation, warned Atrahasis, and had him build a boat, with which he weathered the flood.

He is the protégé of the god Enki, by whose connivance he survives the flood, with his family and with 'the seed of all living creatures'.

After Enki advises Enlil on better means to control the human population, (predators, famine, and plague), Enlil makes Utnapishtim and his wife immortal, like the gods.

According to the Sumerians he lives in Dilmun where the sun rises. He is the main character of the Flood story in the eleventh tablet of the Gilgamesh epic. In an different version of this epic (such as the Atrachasis myth for instance) he is named Atrachasis, "the exceptional wise one". Old Babylonian Uta-Napishtim, Sumerian Ziusudra. He shows many similarities with the much more recent biblical Noah.

Ziusudra is the same as NOAH in the Bible.

Etana - the human taken to the sky by an eagle.

The thirteenth god-king of the Sumerian dynasty ruling the city of Kish. He was appointed by Anu himself.

Ishtar and the Igigi searched for a king for Kish. Enlil found a throne for Etana and they declared him the king.

Etana had no son and prayed daily to Shamash, the sun-god, to grant him a child. Shamash directed him to an eagle caught in a pit, where it had been trapped by a serpent, having eaten the young of the snake. Etana freed the eagle who, in gratitude, carried the king on his back to heaven. Upon his arrival in heaven, Etana was brought to the throne of Ishtar, where he begged the goddess for a son, since his queen was barren. She gave him the plant of birth which he had to eat together with his wife. Little else is known of this story, but the plant was probably successful because we know from history that Etana had a son and his name was Balih.


2. Demons and Monsters
The most important were :

Scorpion Men
Aqrabuamelu (girtablilu) - scorpion-man, the guardians of the gates of the underworld. Their "terror is awesome" and their "glance is death".

In Babylonian mythology scorpion men were the children of Tiamat, the dragon mother of the universe. They were giants whose heads touched the sky.

They possessed the head, arms, and torso of a man; but below the waist they had the tails of scorpions. Deadly warriors, they could fight either with their scorpion tails or their bows and arrows which never missed their targets. They were the sacred guardians of the sun god Utu/Shamash.

In the morning they opened the gates of the Mountain of the East and Shamash ascended into the sky. At night they shut the gates of the Mountain of the West as Shamash descended into the underworld. Gilgamesh, the great Babylonian hero, was aided by a scorpion man in his quest for immortality.

The Seven Evil Demons
Raging storms, evil gods are they, Ruthless demons, who in heaven's vault were created, are they, Workers of evil are they, They lift up the head to evil, every day to evil Destruction to work.

  1. Of these seven the first is the South wind...

  2. The second is a dragon, whose mouth is opened... That none can measure.

  3. The third is a grim leopard, which carries off the young ...

  4. The fourth is a terrible Shibbu ...

  5. The fifth is a furious Wolf, who knoweth not to flee,

  6. The sixth is a rampant ... which marches against god and king.

  7. The seventh is a storm, an evil wind, which takes vengeance, Pazuzu

A winged demon, feared by the people of ancient Mesopotamia It is a creature with a deformed head, the wings of an eagle, the sharp claws of a lion on its hands and feet, and the tail of a scorpion. This demon is the personification of the south-east storm wind, which brings diseases. The Mesopotamians believed that Pazuzu lived in the desert.

Zu - a demonic being with lion paws and face and eagle talons and wings, half man and half bird. It was born on the mountain Hehe. Its beak is like a saw, its hide as eleven coats of mail. It was very powerful.

The bird is also referred to as Imdugud or Anzu. Zu is a divine storm-bird and the personification of the southern wind and the thunder clouds.


Enlil appointed him to guard his bath chamber. He stole the "Tablets of Destiny" from Enlil and hid them on a mountaintop. Anu ordered the other gods to retrieve those tables, but all were afraid of this demon. According to one text, Marduk killed the bird, but in another text it died through the arrows of the god Ninurta.

Sataran - The patron god of the Sumerian city Der in ancient Mesopotamia. He is a divine judge and healer. In the latter capacity the snake god Nirah is his messenger.

Nirah - An ancient Sumerian snake-deity, and the divine messenger of Sataran.

Birdu - (means 'pimple') an underworld god. Enlil used him as a messenger to Ninurta

Nedu  - the guardian of the first gate of the underworld.

Sumuqan - the cattle god, he resides in the underworld, in Ereshkigal's court.

Irra - plague god, underling of Nergal

The Sumerian god of the underworld. He is "lord of all mes" (the powers on which civilization and society are based on). His wife is Ninmesarra, "mistress of all humans

Martu - Amurru - Martu
The Sumerian god of the steppes. Also a storm god who brings destruction to settlements. He is the son of Anu and his wife is Belit-Tseri (see also the original Sumerian tablet called Marriage of Martu.

Belit-Tseri - tablet-scribe of the underworld. She kneels before Ereshkigal.

Lamashtu - a dread female demon also known as 'she who erases'.

Zaltu - "strife", goddess created by Enki to complement Ishtar.