by
Christopher Knight
and
Alan Butler
January 01, 2010
from
GrahamHancock Website
It is strange where research can lead you...
More than a decade has
passed since we joined forces to try and find out if there was any
reality to a claim that highly accurate units of length had been in
used during the British Neolithic.
We found that these
supposedly primitive people were using a highly developed science
that connected them to the rhythms of the Earth.
This led us on to realize that the science used by these Neolithic
people did not die out as we first assumed.
In our most recent book,
Before the Pyramids, we have uncovered rocksolid evidence
that
the powersthatbe in
Washington DC in,
...are aware of, and
secretly celebrating this ancient system of science.
But our biggest personal challenge has been to face up to the
consequences of our own findings:
because they have
brought us to the point where we have found compelling evidence
that our planet and its environment has been carefully designed
for us.
Stranger still there
appears to be a message built into the very fabric of the solar
system itself.
This was not a finding that we had looked for, or even cared for. We
are very pragmatic people working in an area of ancient research
that is specialized and very sober.
Here was an idea that was
apparently outrageous  but apparently inescapable.
In early 2009 we had decided to revisit all of out findings that had
resulted in three joint books plus one still in draft manuscript
form (now published). We were troubled because, despite one of us
being an agnostic and the other an atheist, we could not escape the
conclusion that we were looking at a message from what we called
the UCA (Unknown Creative Agency) that had designed our solar
system and all life on Earth.
Then in late November 2009 we were contacted by
David Cumming,
an expert in AI (artificial intelligence) who had studied our
evidence in great detail and independently come to the same
conclusion.
He claimed that it formed
an equation that a very clear message from 'the creator'.
That equation has been refined to:
We will describe the mathematics at the end of this article, but the
important point is this:
'Hlf.π' is the specification of the SETI Communications frequency for
extraterrestrial messages based on a galactic aspect of the hydrogen
atom.
This shouts,
"Pay attention  this
is a message".
Ω are the numerals of the
base ten counting system.
This states:
"tenfingered humans
I am talking to you".
The lefthand side of the
equation equal's the righthand side, which is the speed of light in
a vacuum measured in Thoms per second (Earth/Moon/Sun harmonic
units).
This says,
"the message is from
'the creator'" (because the speed of light is the most significant
physical reality in the universe).
Is this credible?
The facts behind it certainly are. But we thought we should go back
to retrace some of our key findings over the years to help you
decide.
The origin of
the Megalithic Yard (MY)
The starting point of our joint research was simply to consider
whether
Alexander Thom had been right or wrong in his
identification of a prehistoric unit he called the Megalithic Yard
(MY).
He was a professor of
engineering at Oxford University who surveyed British and French
Megalithic sites over the course of half a century until he died in
1985.
Thom's approach was
entirely different to that adopted by any archaeologist. Looking at
the scale and obvious planning involved in
megalithic sites Thom had
been forced to conclude that the planners and builders must have
been highly skilled engineers  just like himself.
He therefore carefully
analyzed what remained of each Megalithic site and then tried to
imagine what it was the builders had set out to achieve.
Once he had a picture in
his mind of what he thought their plan had been, he went away to
create his own solution to the assumed problem. Having drawn up his
own design he then returned to compare the site layout to his own
blueprint.
He deduced that the
builders had all been working to a common set of units based his
Megalithic Yard that was 2.722 +/ 0.002 feet (829.7 +/ 0.5
mm).
Thom was viewed as an unwelcome outsider by nearly all
archaeologists and even today most believe, quite erroneously, that
he has been proved largely wrong.
Our starting hypothesis was that, if the Megalithic Yard were real,
then it is highly probable that its apparent accuracy can best be
explained by it being derived from nature rather than an invented
unit.
If we could identify a
natural origin, then Thom was probably right  if we couldn't, the
debate will continue because it is impossible to prove a negative.
It did not take to long for us to realize that there is only one
aspect of nature that delivers up an near perfect means of creating
measures. And that is the revolving of the Earth on its axis 
something it does every 86,164 seconds.
This provides the
potential for creating a unit of time, which can then be used to
make units of length, weight and capacity  and potentially
everything else from frequency to temperature.
The most obvious way to observe the turning of the Earth is to watch
the stars, which appear to pass overhead once for each rotation.
They also move across the sky in an annual rotation due to the
Earth's orbit of the Sun.
Megalithic astronomers
could not help but notice that there where 366 of the daily star
movements to one annual one.
To create a repeatable linear unit from the turning of the Earth the
only tools one needs is a length of rope, a few poles, a ball of
clay and a piece of string.
We knew that ancient peoples from all across time have liked to
create patterns where the same values work at upwards and downwards.
And we had good reason to believe that early had used a 366 day
calendar and a 366 degree circle.
These astronomers knew
that there are 366 star rises (any star such as Sirius) over one
circle of the Sun, so it was logical to divide horizon into 366
parts to measure the time in 1/366^{th} part of a day.
They measured time in the same way that all clocks did until recent
times  with a pendulum. A handheld ball of clay on a string is a
perfect instrument. When stationary it is a plumb line to gauge
verticals and when swinging its beats measure time with great
accuracy.
The only factors that
have any significant effect on the beat are the length of the
pendulum from fulcrum to the centerline of the weight and the mass
of the Earth (gravity).
The energy put into the swing by the user
has no effect  if the swing is made more vigorous it just swings
faster in a wider arc but the rate of beat remains exactly the same.
A basic pendulum is a very accurate tool to measure time
Our first and most obvious assumption was that the Megalithic people
had divided the horizon up into 366 equal parts and then used a
pendulum length that beat 366 times.
A frame 1/366^{th} of the horizon angled to time a star.
This proved to be spot on. A pendulum that beat 366 times during one
366^{th} of the Earth's turn was, much to our joy and amazement, half a
Megalithic Yard in length!
A circle scribed by such a pendulum would
have a diameter of one Megalithic Yard.
Archie Roy,
emeritus professor of astronomy at Glasgow University (and a friend
of the late Alexander Thom) joined us to give a public demonstration
of how the Megalithic Yard is a product of measured observational
astronomy.
We later refined the timing method, having realized that the
Megalithic astronomers had improved their own accuracy by using the
movement of the planet Venus at certain times rather than a star.
Gordon Freeman, a
distinguished professor of chemical physics and a muchpublished
amateur archaeologist specializing in the Megalithic structures, was
impressed with this saying:
"Tying the MY to
Venus path arcsecond is a major discovery. I'm an admirer of
Thom, but was neutral about the MY. Now I'm a convert".
Alexander Thom had
been right all along because the chances of this technique producing
a perfect fit for his unit could not be a coincidence.
But there was more  much
more to this system. Given that the builders of these Megalithic
sites some 5,000 years ago used a 366degree circle caused us to
look at the Earth itself.
Taking the polar
circumference as the text book 40,000,000 meters we turned it into
Megalithic units (2.722 +/ 0.002 feet or 829.7 +/ 0.5 mm) and found was this:

Earth's polar
circumference = 40,000,000 meters

1 Megalithic
degree (1/366^{th}) = 109290 meters

1 Megalithic
minute of arc (1/60^{th}) = 1822 meters

1 Megalithic
second of arc (1/6^{th}) = 303.6 meters
Now, 303.6 meters for a
second of arc may look a little boring but it is 366 Megalithic
Yards. The actual figure is 829.5 mm, which is nicely with Alexander
Thom's definition of 829.7 +/ 0.5 mm.
We now call this beautifully geodetic unit from the 366 system a
'Thom' (Th) to differentiate it from the arguably very slightly less
accurate Megalithic Yard.
The Megalithic second of arc appears to have been adopted by the
Minoan culture of Create some 4,000 years ago.
The palaces of Crete were
carefully surveyed by Canadian archaeologist, J. W. Graham
who identified a standard unit he called 'the Minoan foot', which
was 30.36cm. It follows that 1,000 of these feet make precisely one
Megalithic second of arc.
A decimalized version of
what was already an ancient measure.
Even earlier the Egyptian culture had adopted units driven by the
same thinking. They took the Megalithic Yard and made it the
circumference of a circle.
The diameter of that
circle was called a royal cubit and the hypotenuse of a square from
that diameter was called a
remen.
Artifact based
evidence
When we wrote Civilization One we stated that the people who
created the Megalithic Yard must have built very large circles and
divided the circumference into 366 parts to be sure that they were
viewing 1/366th part of the night sky.
We suggested that they
may well have understood a quick method to do this by making a
circle with a diameter 233 units (any length would do if they didn't
already have a Megalithic Yard).
They then knew that they
would have a circle of 732 units  which is twice 366, so they could
take every other pole on the circumference. This is a 99.999%
accurate means of using pi in a practical manner.
For all engineering
purposes this means perfect.
Several years later we found that structures even older than the
Megalithic structures demonstrated the use of the 233/732 circles 
exactly as we had predicted.
These are
henges  large
circular mounds such as the group near Thornborough in North
Yorkshire, England.
They where built around
3500 BC, well before the Megalithic builders began their stonework
phase. What is more they were using the Megalithic Yard, or the
'Thom' as we now call the geodetically refined value of the same
length.
At Thornborough there are
three interlinked henges that are 233 Thoms across and 732 Thoms
around their outer perimeter. These structures about with units and
ratios being 366 Megalithic Rods between the centers of the first
two and 360 between the second.
The trio, which are also
exactly 3 Megalithic seconds of arc apart by latitude, have also
been identified as being laid out as a copy of the stars of Orion's
Belt  exactly like the Giza pyramids.
The difference is that
these are a thousand years older. We also explain in 'Before the
Pyramids' how Khufu's pyramid builders came to this location in
England to get instructions on how to plan this star pattern on the
ground!
The Thornborough henges, a perfect copy of the stars of Orion's
Belt. A to B is 366 Megalithic rods, B to C is 360 Megalithic rods
and the true north/south latitudinal distance (in Red) is 3
Megalithic seconds of arc.
Weights and
Measures
Having established that the people of the British Neolithic had
units of lengths and time, we wondered if they had other units such
as capacity and weight.
We knew (or so we
thought) that the Metric system was devised by the French in the
late 18th century when they used a pendulum that beat at the rate of
one second to create a unit they called the meter (meaning to beat
out time).
They later made a very
small adjustment so that their meter was one 10,000,000,th of the
distance from the equator to the north pole.
To create a unit of
capacity they took a 1/10^{th} part of the meter (10cm) and
made a cube. Filled with distilled water, this cube's capacity was
called a liter and its weight was designated a kilogram.
We applied the same logic to the Megalithic Yard, (which Alexander
Thom said was divided into 40 Megalithic Inches).
So we calculated what a 4
Megalithic Inch cube would contain. The answer is one pint  to an
accuracy of one part in 5,000 as defined by the British government
in 1601.
And when carefully filled
with any unpolished grain, such as barley, it weighed just one
Imperial pound.
This was odd in the extreme but it appears that (unknown to history)
Imperial units were indeed based on cubes because by doubling the
sides of the cube to 8 Megalithic Inches holds one Imperial gallon
and doubling again produced a unit equivalent to a bushel, which was
used as a dry weight until recent times.
Next, we found some truly bizarre connections.
We thought for
thoroughness that we ought to consider the volumes of spheres with
Megalithic dimensions in addition to the cubes and a 6 Megalithic
Inch sphere held a liter and a 1.5 MY wide sphere of water weighs a
metric tonne.
The level of accuracy was
not spot on, but at a level of 99% fit we were surprised to put it
mildly.
We are used to modern measurements that are ad hock but the 366
system works in depth.
Take just two examples:
1. Earth mass
One Megalithic degree (366^{th}) slice of the Earth = 360 x 10^{20}
pounds
One Megalithic minute slice of the Earth = 6 x 10^{20} pounds
One Megalithic second slice of the Earth = 10^{20} pounds
2. Temperature (hypothetical scale)
Water freezes @ 0 degrees
Water boils @ 366 degrees
Absolute zero @ 1,000 degrees
The Sumerian
Meter
It is well known that the Sumerian culture had a 360degree circle
and a 360day year.
They knew perfectly well
that this was wrong and that are 366 star turns in a complete year,
but it made their system of numerical notation and they built in
compensations. They also invented the hour, the minute and the
second  or at least they are the earliest people to be known to
have used it.
(In fact we now know that
the second of time was in use in the British Isles at least 2,500
years before the Sumerians adopted it.
The Mesopotamian cultures, at various times, used a range of linear
measurements, depending on the item being measured but there is a
general consensus that a linear unit known as the 'kush' or 'barley
cubit' was the main unit of length for during Sumerian times.
The kush was made up of 180 'se' meaning 'barley seed' and was
equivalent to 49.94 cm and the often used doublekush which
Professor Livio Stecchini stated that he believed should be
99.88 cm. It follows that this doublekush was made up of 360 se,
just as their year had 360 days and their circle 360 degrees.
It is no coincidence that the double kush is almost identical to the
modern metre because they were both based on a pendulum that swings
at the rate of once a second.
The Sumerians and later cultures of the region around the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers used a sexadecimal counting system of base 10s and
60s.
Their divisions of time
were very neat indeed:
Year = 360 days
Month = 360 hours
Day = 360 gesh (a gesh was 4 minutes of 240 seconds)
Each of the Sumerian
hours represented 1 degree of the Moon's journey around the Earth
and every degree of the Moon's journey was split again, by 60 to
give minutes of arc and by 60 again to give seconds of arc.
Today we use seconds to measure many things, including the speed of
light, which is 299,792,458 meters per second.
If we change that to kush
per second we get the amazingly round figure of 600,000,000  which
is a beautiful sexadecimal value. (99.95% accuracy).
The Jefferson Paradox
Thomas Jefferson, one of the founding fathers of the United
States was an amazing polymath.
He set out to create a
new system of units for his fledgling country, which  apart from
the dollar  were never adopted.
He started by looking at
what means nature provided for producing a repeatable unit and, like
us, he quickly identified the spinning of the Earth. Furthermore he
used a pendulum that beat at the rate of once per second as his
starting point  completely unaware of its ancient origins.
He recorded the following
statement:
"A pendulum,
vibrating freely, in small and equal arcs, may be so adjusted in
its length, as, by its vibrations, to make this division of the
earth's motion into 86,400 equal parts, called seconds of mean
time.
Such a pendulum,
then, becomes itself a measure of determinate length, to which
all others may be referred to as a standard."
Jefferson also carefully
looked at the units of measure from Europe  and he was surprised to
find that they were not in the least haphazard as generally thought.
He wrote:
"This seems to have
been so combined as to render it indifferent whether a thing
were dealt out by weight or measure; for the dry gallon of
wheat, and the liquid one of wine, were of the same weight; and
the avoirdupois pound of wheat, and the troy pound of wine, were
of the same measure."
"Another remarkable correspondence is that between weights and
measures. For 1000 ounces avoirdupois of pure water fill a cubic
foot, with mathematical exactness."
He was bemused by the
obvious science that lay hidden behind old measure:
"What circumstances
of the times, or purposes of barter or commerce, called for this
combination of weights and measures, with the subjects to be
exchanged or purchased, are not now to be ascertained.
But a triple set of
exact proportional representing weights, measures, and the
things to be weighed and measured, and a relation so integral
between weights and solid measures, must have been the result of
design and scientific calculation, and not a mere coincidence of
hazard."
Jefferson concluded that
some very ancient but long forgotten science was behind these
unexpected correspondence.
He concluded:
"
but the harmony
here developed in the system of weights and measures
from very
high antiquity".
When Thomas Jefferson had
finished creating his own new system of measures his use of the
pendulum and the second of time had connected his directly back into
the system from prehistory.
Though he could not know
it the following is true:
1,000 Jefferson Feet
= 360 Megalithic Yards
366 Jefferson Furlongs = 1 Megalithic degree of arc of the Earth
3662 Jefferson Furlongs = The exact circumference of the Earth
This is a casewinning
piece of evidence.
Megalithic Yard deniers or those who wish to casually dismiss the
366 system as all being a strange set of coincidences have to
explain away the 'Jefferson paradox'.
Why are the ancient
measure (still described in text books as ad hock) connected in the
way Jefferson described and how could his 'new' system harmonize
perfectly with a system employed 5,000 years earlier some 6,000
kilometers away to the east?
The Sun and
the Moon
Have you ever wondered how marvelous total eclipses are?
It is a very strange quirk of fate indeed that the disc of the Moon
should seem, from an Earthly perspective, to be exactly the same
size as the Sun. Whilst we casually take it for granted that the two
main bodies seen in Earth's skies look the same size, it is actually
something of a miracle.
Most people are fully
aware that the Moon is tiny compared to the Sun but that it is much,
much closer to us causing them to appear as equal discs.
To be precise the Moon is
400 times smaller than the star at the centre of our solar system,
yet it is also just one 400th of the distance between the Earth and
the Sun.
The odds against this optical allusion happening at all are simply
huge  but how bizarre that both values are the same, perfectly
round umber. Experts are deeply puzzled by the phenomenon.
Isaac Asimov, the
respected scientist and sciencefiction guru, described this perfect
visual alignment as being:
"The most unlikely
coincidence imaginable".
This perfect fit of the
lunar and solar discs is a very human perspective because it only
works from the viewpoint of someone standing on the Earth's surface.
And it only works at this
point in time because it was very different in the past and it will
change again as
the Moon moves away from the Earth.
The magic of the Moon's movements above our heads goes to even more
astonishing levels. By some absolutely incomprehensible quirk of
nature, the Moon also manages to very precisely imitate the
movements of the Sun.
It imitates the perceived
annual movements of the Sun each month.
The full Moon is at its highest and brightest at midwinter,
mirroring the Sun at midsummer and at lowest and weakest at
midsummer when the Sun is at its highest and brightest.
The strangeness of the Moon continues when one considers its
structure.
It is either hollow or made up of extremely low density
material at its centre.
It has its great centers of mass distributed
in various place at relatively low points just below its surface. This is odd in the
extreme.
Its origin is also mysterious. The material that forms the Moon came
from the surface of the Earth, but there is no satisfactory
explanation for how this happened.
The socalled
doublewhack theory seems unlikely in the extreme.
Applying the Megalithic 366 system of geometry and Thoms to the Moon
and the Sun, produces an astonishing result:
Polar circumference
of the Moon = 13,162,900 Thoms
One Megalithic degree (1/366th) = 35,964 Thoms
One Megalithic minute (1/60th) = 600 Thoms
One Megalithic second (1/6th) = 100 Thoms
The Sun produces:
Polar circumference
of the Sun = 5,271,967,000 Thoms
One Megalithic degree (1/366th) = 14,404,281 Thoms
One Megalithic minute (1/60th) = 240,071 Thoms
One Megalithic second (1/6th) = 40,011 Thoms
Given it is impossible to
establish an exact circumference for the Sun's surface, this result
can be considered to be 40,000  as one would expect given that the
Sun is 400 times the diameter of the Moon.
How peculiar that the Sun and the Moon comply to the same system
that defines the Earth so well?
It is almost as though we are looking at the blueprint of the solar
system.
The rhythm of
the solar system
The fact that the 366 system worked so perfectly for the Earth, Sun
and Moon caused us to look at every other planet and moon in the
solar system. Nothing.
None of our neighbors
came close to fitting the system. We even tried using each planet's
own 'spin to orbit' value, rather than the Earth's 366  but this
also drew a blank.
There seems to be
something very special about our planet and our Moon's relationship
with the Sun.
We stated to look closely at every aspect we could and the following
values fell out:
366
The number of complete rotations of the Earth in a year
The number of MY (Thoms) in a Megalithic second of arc on the
Earth
The percentage size of the Earth compared to the Moon
100
The number of Thoms (MY) in a lunar Megalithic second of arc
The number of times the Earth rotates faster than the Moon
400
The Sun is larger than the Moon
The number of kilometers the Moon turns on its axis in a day
The number of times the Moon is closer to the Earth than the
Sun
10,000
The number of times faster that light travels in a vacuum
compared to Earth's speed of orbit around the Sun
The number of Earth turns in an orbit of the Sun x the number
of Earth turns in one lunar orbit of the Earth
The exact number of times that the time difference between a
sidereal and solar day fits into one orbit of the Moon.
40,000
The number of kilometers to Earth's polar circumference
The number of Thoms (MY) in a solar second of arc
1,000,000
The number of times faster that light travels in a vacuum
compared to the Moon's speed of orbit around the Earth
109.25
The number of Earth diameters to the Sun's
The number of solar diameters across the maximum diameter of
the Earth's orbit around the Sun
27.322
The number times the Earth turns in one turn of the Moon
The percentage size of the Moon to the Earth
The number of Megalithic seconds of time it takes the Moon to
pass across one Megalithic second of arc in the sky.
The message
Are we looking at "God's" blueprint?
These integer numbers
could not possible fall out of the EarthMoonSun relationship by
accident when every other solar system body appears to have no rules
whatsoever.
The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI),
originally set up by NASA, spends a vast amount of energy searching
for radio messages from a nonhuman origin based on the belief that
we are probably not alone.
SETI has been criticized
by a number of physicists who argue that radio is not a viable means
of communicating across the vast amounts of space and time involved
in the universe.
Some have suggested that
a message is more likely to come by means of large physical objects.
Consider these words by Professor Christopher Rose and Dr
Gregory Wright:
"Rather than
transmitting radio messages, extraterrestrial civilizations
would find it far more efficient to send us a 'message in a
bottle', some kind of physical message inscribed on matter.
And it could be
waiting for us in our own backyard".
Could
the Moon have been constructed as a
message by integrating ratios and values of both the Sun and
the Moon?
The problem is that all
of these values only work now  at this point in time  which means
that the message sender intended for it to be discovered right at
this point in time.
Did they know that humans
would have developed the intelligence to read the message at this
point?
It all sounds very weird  especially to us  because we are hardnosed
pragmatists, and certainly not wishful thinking believers in exotic
ideas. Until now that is, because evidence should not be ignored
just because it is not what you expected to see.
Could humans have been 'seeded' on a planet that would sustain us?
It is a fact that the Moon has been a very accurate 'incubator' to
nurture life at all of its stages of development.
If the Earth did not have
our unique Moon there would be no humans. That is certain.
Which brings us to David Cumming's idea that all of this can
be expressed as an 'equation' that formally identifies that there is
a message.
The Equation
The equation describes a relationship between the hydrogen fine
transition line, the ratio between the circumference and diameter of
a circle, and the speed of light in a vacuum.
Cumming first realized the importance of the equation when he
recognized the equation produced the number 361,449  a very
accurate value for the speed of light expressed in the Thom units
(MY) of an ancient Stone Age measurement system.
Firstly, why is the top line of the equation, Hlf.π, significant?
SETI (the Search for
ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) searches on a frequency equal to the
frequency of the hydrogen line multiplied by Pi (Hlf.π). This
frequency was suggested by Pyotr Makovetsky, for various
reasons, as the best potential transmission frequency that should be
searched for signs of ETI, and this frequency was adopted by SETI.
The search frequency
equals 1420.405751 MHz multiplied by 3.141592653 (Pi is chosen to 10
significant figures to match Hlf) equals 4462.336272.
If you check what
frequencies members of the SETI alliance are listening on currently,
you'll find that Makovetsky's frequency features in many of the
lists SETI researchers are using.
Secondly, why is the value of Omega significant? This is the number
0.0123456789  all the characters of the base 10 number system.
Cumming states the
message originator would know that this is a very likely number
system for any life form to use. At the same time, using all the
consecutive characters of any number system at all, in a message, is
a very direct sign that this is a message, an ordered intelligent
communication and not, he says, a random occurrence.
Take π/Ω and work this out.
Our value for π is
3.141592653 (10 significant figures are used for Pi, as this is what
we're using for Ω), divided by the Ω value of 0.0123456790 (using
more significant figures won't affect the calculation), this gives
us the result of 254.4690072.
The result of the
calculation is actually a value in Thoms (Th), namely 254
milliThoms, or more conveniently expressed as 0.2544690049 Ths.
Standard physics says that the frequency of a wave, multiplied by
the wavelength of that wave, is equal to the speed of the wave. In
the case of the equation, when you divide out π/Ω, the answer must
be equal to the wavelength of the hydrogen line, because the
hydrogen line frequency multiplied by the hydrogen line wavelength
must equal the speed of light.
When we look at the overall equation, we know in advance that the
equation will give the value for the speed of light very accurately
because what we're doing is multiplying the frequency of the
hydrogen line by the wavelength of the hydrogen line.
But remember, we've
divided π (3.141592653) by Ω (0.0123456790) to get a result for the
hydrogen line wavelength expressed in Thoms, so the fact that we get
a highly accurate answer appears to be nothing short of a miracle.
The speed of light calculated using the equation is 1420,405,751
cycles per sec (frequency (Hz)) multiplied by 0.2544690072 Thoms
(wavelength).
This works out at
361,449,241.3 Thoms/sec. This equals 299,804,073.2 meters/sec. This
result for the speed of light is 99.996% correct.
Cumming claims that the application of the
razor of Occam, we
are left with the simple conclusion that the Earth, Sun, and Moon
must have been Created to accord with the Equation of Creation.
Ancient
knowledge
One question that needs to be asked is,
'how did the people
of the British Neolithic come to know all about the 366 system
and the 'magic' of the Sun, Moon and Earth?
Presumably they were
told...
The Sumerians, who did
leave written records say they were told by 'strange outsiders' who
taught them the secrets of astronomy and science.
But amongst the many surprises we have endured over the last few
years, it is one we came across in early 2009 that stumped us.
As we
explain in
Before the Pyramids, there can be no doubt that the
founding fathers of the USA secretly designed
Washington DC using
Megalithic seconds of arc for every detail of the City plan.
It is still happening.
The Pentagon is a perfect and inspirational exposition of Stone Age
knowledge  using the 366 system and the Thom with as much
perfection as Stonehenge or Thornborough.
And this was driven by the 33rd degree of the
Ancient Scottish Rite
of Freemasonry. Presidents and people unknown have been driven to
build a city using 'God's' own values  a city fit for
god's great purpose.
We believe that something very special is about to happen and the
world needs to know what it is...
New Dawn Magazine 2013 Version
Was Our Solar System Designed to...
Produce Humans?
by Christopher Knight and Alan Butler
New Dawn
Special Issue 13
May 2013
from
NewDawnMagazine Website
More than a decade has passed since we joined forces to try and find
out if there was any reality to a claim that highly accurate units
of length had been in used during the British Neolithic.
We found that these
supposedly primitive people were using a highly developed science
that connected them to the rhythms of the Earth.
But our biggest personal challenge has been to face up to the
consequences of our own findings because they have brought us to the
point where we have found compelling evidence that our planet and
its environment has been carefully designed for us.
Stranger still, there
appears to be a message built into the very fabric of the solar
system itself.
This was not a finding that we had looked for or even care for. We
are very pragmatic people working in an area of ancient research
that is specialized and very sober.
In early 2009 we decided to revisit all of our findings that had
resulted in three joint books plus one still in draft manuscript
form (now published).
We were troubled because
despite one of us being an agnostic and an atheist, we could not
escape the conclusion we were looking at a message from what we
called the UCA (Unknown Creative Agency) that had designed our solar
system and all life on Earth.
Then in late November 2009 we were contacted by David Cumming, an
expert in
AI (artificial intelligence) who had studied our evidence
in great detail and independently come to the same conclusion.
He
claimed that it formed an equation with a very clear message from
the creator.
The equation and the
mathematics of our discoveries is discussed later in this article.
The Origin of
the Megalithic Yard (MY)
A basic pendulum is a very accurate tool to measure time.
A
basic pendulum
is a very accurate tool to measure time.
The starting point of our joint research was simply to consider
whether
Alexander Thom had been right or wrong in his
identification of a prehistoric unit he called the Megalithic
Yard (MY).
He was a professor of
engineering at Oxford University who surveyed hundreds of Megalithic
sites over the course of half a century to 1985.
Thom concluded the
planners and builders must have been highly skilled engineers. He
deduced the builders had all been working to a common set of units
based on the Megalithic Yard that was 2.722 +/ 0.002 feet (829.7
+/ 0.5 mm).
Thom was viewed as an
unwelcome outsider by nearly all archaeologists.
Our starting hypothesis was that if the Megalithic Yard were real,
then it is highly probable that its apparent accuracy can best be
explained as being derived from nature.
If we could identify a
natural origin, then Thom was probably right.
It did not take too long for us to realize there is only one aspect
of nature that delivers up a near perfect means of creating measures
 the revolving of the Earth on its axis.
This provides the
potential for creating a unit of time that can then be used to make
units of length, weight and capacity  and potentially everything
else from frequency to temperature.
The most obvious way to observe the turning of the Earth is to watch
the stars, which appear to pass overhead once for each rotation.
They also move across the
sky in an annual rotation due to the Earth's orbit of the Sun.
Megalithic astronomers could not help but notice there where 366 of
the daily star movements to one annual one.
We know that ancient peoples from across time liked to create
patterns where the same values work upwards and downwards. And we
had good reason to believe that early stargazers had used a 366 day
calendar and a 366 degree circle.
These astronomers knew
there are 366 star rises (any star such as Sirius) over one circle
of the Sun, so it was logical to divide the horizon into 366 parts
to measure time in 1/366^{th} part of a day.
They measured time in the same way that all clocks did until recent
times  with a pendulum.
A handheld ball of clay
on a string is a perfect instrument. When stationary it is a plumb
line to gauge verticals and when swinging its beats measure time
with great accuracy.
The only factors that
have any significant effect on the beat are the length of the
pendulum from fulcrum to the centerline of the weight and the mass
of the Earth (gravity).
The energy put into the
swing by the user has no effect  if the swing is made more vigorous
it just swings faster in a wider arc but the rate of beat remains
exactly the same.
Our first and most obvious assumption was that Megalithic people had
divided the horizon up into 366 equal parts and then used a pendulum
length that beat 366 times.
A frame 1/366th of the horizon angled to time a star.
A
frame 1/366^{th} of the horizon angled to time a star.
We found that a pendulum that beat 366 times during one 366^{th}
of the Earth's turn was, much to our joy and amazement, half a
Megalithic Yard in length!
A circle scribed by such a pendulum would
have a diameter of one Megalithic Yard.
Archie Roy,
emeritus professor of astronomy at Glasgow University (and a friend
of the late Alexander Thom) joined us to give a public demonstration
of how the Megalithic Yard is a product of measured observational
astronomy.
We later refined the timing method, having realized that the
Megalithic astronomers had improved their own accuracy by using the
movement of the planet Venus at certain times rather than a star.
Gordon Freeman, a
distinguished professor of chemical physics and a muchpublished
amateur archaeologist specializing in the Megalithic structures, was
impressed with this saying:
"Tying the MY to
Venus path arcsecond is a major discovery. I'm an admirer of
Thom, but was neutral about the MY. Now I'm a convert."
Alexander Thom had
been right all along because the chances of this technique producing
a perfect fit for his unit could not be a coincidence.
But there was more  much
more to this system. Given that the builders of these Megalithic
sites some 5,000 years ago used a 366 degree circle caused us to
look at the Earth itself.
Taking the polar
circumference as the textbook 40,000,000 meters, we turned it into
Megalithic units and found this:
Earth's polar
circumference = 40,000,000 meters
1 Megalithic degree (1/366^{th}) = 109,290 meters
1 Megalithic minute of arc (1/60^{th}) = 1,822 meters
1 Megalithic second of arc (1/6^{th}) = 303.6 meters
Now, 303.6 meters for a second of arc may look a little boring
but it is exactly 366 Megalithic Yards!
The Megalithic second of
arc appears to have been adopted later by the
Minoan culture of
Create some 4,000 years ago.
The palaces of Crete were
carefully surveyed by Canadian archaeologist J.W. Graham who
identified a standard unit he called "the Minoan foot" of 30.36cm.
It follows that 1,000 of these feet make precisely one Megalithic
second of arc.
Even earlier, the ancient Egyptian culture had adopted units driven
by the same thinking. They took the Megalithic Yard and made it the
circumference of a circle.
The diameter of that
circle was called a royal cubit and the hypotenuse of a square from
that diameter was called a
remen.
Artifact Based
Evidence
When we wrote
Civilization One, we stated that the people who
created the Megalithic Yard (MY) must have built very large
circles and divided the circumference into 366 parts to be sure they
were viewing 1/366th part of the night sky.
We suggested they may
well have understood a quick method to do this by making a circle
with a diameter 233 units (any length would do if they didn't
already have a Megalithic Yard).
They then knew they would
have a circle of 732 units  which is twice 366, so they could take
every other pole on the circumference. This is a 99.999% accurate
means of using Pi in a practical manner.
For all engineering
purposes, this means is perfect.
The
Thornborough henges, a perfect copy of the stars of Orion's
Belt.
A to B is 366 Megalithic rods, B to C is 360 Megalithic rods
and the true north/south latitudinal distance (black line) is 3
Megalithic seconds of arc.
The Thornborough henges,
a perfect copy of the stars of Orions Belt.
A to B is 366 Megalithic rods, B to C is 360 Megalithic rods
and the true north/south latitudinal distance (black line)
is 3 Megalithic seconds of arc.
Several years later we found that structures even older than
Megalithic monuments demonstrated the use of the 233/732 circles 
exactly as we had predicted.
These are henges  large
circular mounds such as the group near Thornborough in North
Yorkshire, England. They were built around 3500 BCE, well before the
Megalithic builders began their stonework phase.
What is more, they were
using the Megalithic Yard. At Thornborough there are three
interlinked henges that are 233 MY across and 732 MY around their
outer perimeter.
These structures are
measurable with units and ratios being 366 Megalithic Rods between
the centers of the first two and 360 between the second.
The trio, which are also
exactly 3 Megalithic seconds of arc apart by latitude, have also
been identified as being laid out as a copy of the stars of
Orion's
Belt  exactly like
the Giza pyramids.
The difference is that
these are a thousand years older.
We explain in our book Before the
Pyramids how Khufu's pyramid builders came to this location in
England to get instructions on how to plan this star pattern on the
ground!
Weights and
Measures
Having established that the people of the British Neolithic had
units of lengths and time, we wondered if they had other units such
as capacity and weight.
We knew (or so we
thought) that the Metric system was devised by the French in the
late 18^{th} century when they used a pendulum that beat at
the rate of one second to create a unit they called the meter
(meaning to beat out time).
They later made a very
small adjustment so their meter was one 10,000,000^{th} of
the distance from the equator to the north pole. To create a unit of
capacity they took a 1/10^{th} part of the meter (10cm) and
made a cube.
Filled with distilled
water, this cube's capacity was called a liter and its weight was
designated a kilogram.
We applied the same logic to the Megalithic Yard, (which has 40
Megalithic Inches). We calculated what a 4 Megalithic Inch cube
would contain. The answer is one pint  to an accuracy of one part
in 5,000 as defined by the British government in 1601.
And when
carefully filled with any unpolished grain, such as barley, it
weighed just one Imperial pound.
This was odd in the extreme but it appears that (unknown to history)
Imperial units were indeed based on cubes because by doubling the
sides of the cube to 8 Megalithic Inches holds one Imperial gallon
and doubling again produced a unit equivalent to a bushel, which was
used as a dry weight until recent times.
Next, we found some truly bizarre connections.
We thought for
thoroughness that we ought to consider the volumes of spheres with
Megalithic dimensions in addition to the cubes:
a 6 Megalithic Inch
sphere held a liter and a 1.5 MY wide sphere of water weighs a
metric tonne.
The level of accuracy was not spot on, but at a level
of 99% we were surprised to put it mildly.
We are used to modern measurements that are ad hoc, but the 366
system works in depth.
Take just two examples:
1. Earth mass
One Megalithic degree (366^{th}) slice of the Earth = 360 x 10^{20}
pounds
One Megalithic minute slice of the Earth = 6 x 10^{20}
pounds
One Megalithic second slice of the Earth = 10^{20}
pounds
2. Temperature (hypothetical scale)
Water freezes @ 0 degrees
Water boils @ 366 degrees
Absolute zero @  1,000 degrees
The Jefferson
Paradox
Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United
States, was an amazing polymath.
He set out to create a
new system of units which were never adopted. He started by looking
at what means nature provided for producing a repeatable unit and,
like us, he quickly identified the spinning of the Earth and he used
a pendulum that beat at the rate of once per second as his starting
point.
Thomas Jefferson had unknowingly connected back into the system from
prehistory.
The following is true:
1,000 Jefferson Feet
= 360 Megalithic Yards
366 Jefferson Furlongs = 1 Megalithic degree of arc of the Earth
3662 Jefferson Furlongs = The exact circumference of the Earth
This is a casewinning
piece of evidence!
The Sun and
the Moon
It is strange that the disc of the Moon should appear to be exactly
the same size as the Sun.
The Moon is obviously
tiny compared to the Sun, and is much closer to Earth, but they
still appear as equal discs. To be precise,
the Moon is 400 times
smaller than the Sun but is 400 times closer to the Earth. Strange!
The odds against this happening at all are huge  but how bizarre
that both values are the same, round number.
Isaac Asimov, the
respected scientist and sciencefiction guru, described this perfect
visual alignment as being,
"the most unlikely
coincidence imaginable."
This perfect fit only
works at this point in time because it was very different in the
distant past and it will change again.
The
strangeness of the Moon continues because it is either
hollow or
made up of extremely low density material. It centers of mass are
just below its surface. Odd!
Applying the Megalithic 366 system of geometry and MYs to the Moon
and the Sun produces an astonishing result:
One Megalithic second
on Moon = 100 Megalithic Yards
One Megalithic second on Sun = 40,000 Megalithic Yards
It is almost as though we
are looking at the blueprint of the solar system.
The Rhythm of
the Solar System
Looking closely at every aspect, the following values also stand
out:
366
The number of complete rotations of the Earth in a year
The number of MY in a Megalithic second of arc on the Earth
The percentage size of the Earth compared to the Moon
100
The number of MY in a lunar Megalithic second of arc
The number of times the Earth rotates faster than the Moon
400
The Sun is larger than the Moon
The number of kilometers the Moon turns on its axis in a day
The number of times the Moon is closer to the Earth than the Sun
10,000
The number of times faster that light travels in a vacuum
compared to Earth's speed of orbit around the Sun
The number of Earth turns in an orbit of the Sun x the number of
Earth turns in one lunar orbit of the Earth
40,000
The number of kilometers to Earth's polar circumference
The number of MY in a solar second of arc
1,000,000
The number of times faster that light travels in a vacuum
compared to the Moon's speed of orbit around the Earth
109.25
The number of Earth diameters to the Sun's
The number of solar diameters across the maximum diameter of the
Earth's orbit around the Sun
27.322
The number times the Earth turns in one turn of the Moon
The percentage size of the Moon to the Earth
The Message
Are we looking at 'God's' blueprint?
These integer numbers could not
possible fall out of the Earth  Moon  Sun relationship by accident
when every other solar system body appears to have no rules
whatsoever.
The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), originally set
up by NASA, spends a vast amount of energy searching for radio
messages from a nonhuman origin based on the belief that we are
probably not alone.
Professor Christopher Rose and Dr.
Gregory
Wright have suggested:
"Rather than transmitting radio messages, extraterrestrial
civilizations would find it far more efficient to send us a 'message
in a bottle', some kind of physical message inscribed on matter.
And
it could be waiting for us in our own backyard."
The Moon is an 'incubator' to nurture life. No Moon would mean no
humans...
Which brings us to
David Cumming's idea that all of this can
be expressed as an 'equation' that formally identifies there is a
message.
The Equation
The equation describes a relationship between the hydrogen fine
transition line, the ratio between the circumference and diameter of
a circle, and the speed of light in a vacuum.
The top line of the equation,
"Hlf.π" is the hydrogen line  a
universal value used as the search frequency by
SETI (the Search for
ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence).
Omega is the number 0.0123456789  all the characters of the base 10
number system. Standard physics says that the frequency of a wave,
multiplied by the wavelength of that wave, is equal to the speed of
the wave.
In the case of the
equation, when you divide out π/Ω, the answer must be equal to the
wavelength of the hydrogen line, because the hydrogen line frequency
multiplied by the hydrogen line wavelength must equal the speed of
light.
When we look at the overall equation, we know in advance that the
equation will give the value for the speed of light very accurately
because what we're doing is multiplying the frequency of the
hydrogen line by the wavelength of the hydrogen line.
But remember, we've
divided
π (3.141592653) by Ω (0.0123456790) to get a result for the
hydrogen line wavelength expressed in MYs, so the fact that we get a
highly accurate answer appears to be nothing short of a miracle.
The speed of light calculated using the equation is 1420,405,751
cycles per sec (frequency [Hz]) multiplied by 0.2544690072 MY
(wavelength).
This works out at 361,449,241.3 MY per second  the
speed of light in Stone Age units!
Amongst the many surprises of the last few years, there is one we
came across in early 2009 that stumped us.
As we explain in
Before the Pyramids, there can be no doubt that the founding
fathers of the USA secretly designed
Washington DC using Megalithic
seconds of arc for every detail of the City plan. It is still
happening.
The Pentagon is a perfect
and inspirational exposition of Stone Age knowledge  using the 366
system with as much perfection as Stonehenge or Thornborough.
And this was driven by the 33rd degree of the
Ancient Scottish Rite
of Freemasonry.
Presidents and people unknown have been driven to
build a city using "God's" own values  a city fit for god's
'great
purpose.'

Do
the powers that be
in the USA already understand this message?

Are they preparing to respond?

Is there a new "dawn" ahead?
