By Way of Illustration
If we picture the Earth at that stage of its development to be a sort of gigantic vertical washing-machine doing its “Spincycle, with its solidifying crust as the wall of the washing-machine’s tub - or its gravitational “shell”, if you like - we can imagine how the heavy molten matter and elements would be thrown up against the inside of the solidified crust, in very much the same way that the wet clothes in the washer-tub are plastered around its drum-wall - by centrifugal force! This would leave an empty space or hollow core around the central or vertical axis of the tub, just as we discover upon opening it, although the centrifugal force would be virtually none existent along the whole central axis of rotation of both the tub and the Earth! This effect is demonstrably true of any naturally (or mechanically) rotating body of matter. Also, since the mass of the tub’s contents would no longer be in the centre of the tub, the location of the centre of gravity would be moved away from the central area, and instead of being a single focal point, the gravitational locus would now form a circular configuration or field.

A typical example of this effect would be the vortex created when one removes the plug from a wash-basin or bath full of water. The centrifugal effect comes into play very swiftly and the centre of the vortex is left open and clear of water. The same phenomenon is also seen in any revolving storm, such as a hurricane, cyclone, or a spinning tornado, where the centre of the vortex is the open “eye”.

And the same rule is true of all naturally-revolving objects throughout the universe, whether nebulae or galaxies (or even black-holes ), where the main central bulk of the object has not yet compacted into a solid mass. It appears that, wherever this particular clash of natural physical forces occurs, the phenomenon of rotation is always the natural outcome, and with such a rotation comes centrifugal (or centripetal) force, and this invariably produces a central vortex-tube or core-aperture of some kind!

The centre of gravitational force in such a vortex would be somewhere in the walls of its tube – not down the open centre of the tube’s axis, which would be gravity free. (Hence Dorothy’s home being lifted up the “eye” of the whirlwind in “The Wizard of Oz”! There was no gravity inside the vortex to hold it down!) Get the picture? (If not - get the video and see for yourself!)

Another (rather messy) Example
The same effect as that found inside the spinning washing-machine would apply if we were to fill a child’s educational “Globe of the World” with piping-hot, sloppy mashed-potato or milky porridge, then spin it at high speed for a while until it cooled off. Upon opening it up, we would (hopefully) find the mushy mashed potato or porridge now tightly compacted around the inside of the globe, with its thickest deposit plastered around the inside of the equatorial region of the globe and a sizeable empty space in the centre. We would probably also be surprised to discover that, at the polar ends of the globe’s axis, there would be only a very thin deposit - if, in fact, any at all! (You can test this for yourself - but don’t sue me for a new World Globe!) This same effect, incidentally, can also be observed in any DIY concrete-mixer, as many of us may have perhaps already discovered to our cost – especially if we forgot to sluice the drum out with water and left its contents to set overnight! Agreed?

The reason why there is little or no matter deposited at the poles of the toy Globe’s axis is the same as that applicable to our “Spin-Cycled” washing-machine tub - and it is my contention (along with that of many others more knowledgeable than I), that this same phenomenon could equally well, and quite logically, apply to the Earth and the other planets, (even the stars, too) due precisely to the same set of circumstances, physical laws and mechanics being brought into play! Unfortunately many scholars who draw diagrams of hollow planets forget to take into account this added effect of the centrifugal force caused by the planet’s rotation, so their diagrams are not entirely accurate.

Incidentally, I should make some mention of the known fact that it is this same centrifugal force which causes the Earth to bulge outward to some extent at the equator, and to flatten somewhat at the poles. In short, its exterior is more of a horizontally oblate shape. This means that the Earth’s crustal shell is markedly thicker around the equator than it is at the axial poles. Thus the interior of a hollow rotating Earth would not be so much spherical as vertically oblate in shape.

But apart from this added centrifugal force acting upon its interior, and making objects or people around the inner equator a shade heavier, the general overall effect, gravity-wise, would be fundamentally similar to that in a non-rotating planet. Any gravity-free zone at the axial centre would, of course, be similarly vertically oblate.

Still Have Any Doubts?
I would suggest to anyone who may have any reservations about this “internal-centrifuge” concept that they really ought to go and fully load up their washing-machine, do the washing, then carefully observe the Spin-Cycle and its subsequent effect upon the articles washed. The laundry items, (which represent the accreted cosmic material or magma inside the developing planet), are flung outwards against the rotating drum, and the centre remains open and clear. The fact that the rotating-drum of the washing-machine is a cylinder, whilst the Earth is a sphere, really makes little difference.

Obviously, if the machine continued to operate on “Spin Dry” indefinitely (as is the case with our Earth), the washed items (or magma) would eventually solidify around the sides, just as would happen to the mashed potato in our child’s World Globe experiment, or the hard-setting mixture of cement, sand and gravel, in the concrete-mixer. But the centre, in all three cases - as with our hypothetical Hollow Earth - would always remain hollow to some greater or lesser degree! However. Don’t forget to make mental allowances for the actual downward pull of our Earth’s gravity, in these experiments. (Unfortunately, you and I cannot try them out in the free-fall “zero-G” of a space orbit!)

If nothing else, this exercise (beside getting some of the washing done, ruining a perfectly good toy Globe, or gunking up a concrete-mixer), should give any “Doubting Thomases” good cause to reflect upon the implications of this combination of simple and observable physical laws when applied to such a situation on so vast a scale as the formation of a planet! However, I believe that I’ve laboured this particular point far enough for the moment, so I will leave it there for the time being and move on to those other very closely-associated phenomena of our Hollow Earth theory - the “Holes at the Poles” and the “Central Sun”!

The Holes at The Poles
Most accounts and descriptions of these entrances to the Earth’s interior include huge holes, apertures, or suchlike anomalies at either or both polar caps. These have been “reported” and hinted at in some of the more dubious accounts of otherwise reputable polar explorers and adventurers as being anything between 100 and 1400 miles in diameter! Among the notable people who are claimed to have encountered these strange phenomena is the renowned American, Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, who flew all over the northern polar icecap in 1947, and over Antarctica in 1956, on aerial exploratory expeditions. His astonishing reported accounts of the strange phenomena he met with, are a matter of uncertainty, but I refer my reader to the many accounts of his alleged findings in works by other authors.

Other famous explorers who encountered similar (but more verifiable) baffling anomalies in the vicinity of the North Pole include Dr. Frederick Cook, in 1908, and Rear Admiral Peary, in 1909. And long before any of these, the famous Norwegian polar explorer, Fridtjof Nansen, had some extremely eerie experiences during his Arctic expedition in search of the North Pole in 1885-86.

Many other explorers have had the same sort of uncanny experiences at the poles since, but I will again have to refer the reader to the multitudinous accounts, on the Internet and elsewhere, of their astonishing discoveries, in order to save myself having to write down page after repetitive page of these very similar amazing and often quite incredible reports. However, first things first! I think I should explain a few salient background points about the poles before going any further!

Some Background
In his famous book: “The Hollow Earth”, Dr. R. W. Bernard, B.A., M.A., PhD. went into some considerable detail about the widely-held belief in the Earth being hollow, and he was able to unearth some intriguing data to support his own support for this belief. I will quote a few notable extracts from his engrossing work. First, he deals with the scientific assumption that the Earth is a solid body by saying this - and I quote:

“The belief in the Earth having a fiery center probably arose from the fact that the deeper one penetrates into the Earth, the warmer it gets. But it is a far-fetched assumption to suppose that this increase in temperature continues until the center of the Earth. There is no evidence to support this view. It is more probable that the increase of temperature continues only until we reach the level where volcanic lava and earthquakes originate, probably due to the existence of much radioactive substances there. But after we pass through this layer of maximum heat, there is no reason why it should not get cooler and cooler as we get nearer and nearer to the Earth’s center.

“The total surface of the Earth is 197 million square miles and its estimated weight is six sextillion tons. If the Earth was a solid sphere, its weight would be much greater. this is one of the scientific evidences that the Earth has a hollow interior. The author believes that the truest conception of the structure of the Earth is based on the idea that when it was in a molten state during its formation, centrifugal force caused the heavier substances to be thrown outward, toward its periphery, in the form of rocks and metals to form its outer crust, leaving its interior hollow, with openings at the poles, where centrifugal force was less (or none existent) and where there was a lesser tendency to throw materials outward, which was greater at the equator, causing the bulging of the earth in this region. It has been estimated that as a result of the Earth’s rotation on its axis during its formative state, polar depressions and openings thus formed would measure about 1,400 miles in diameter.

“Also we shall present below evidence to indicate that some of the original fire and incandescent (possibly atomic) materials (may have) remained in the center of the Earth to form a central sun, much smaller, of course, than our sun, (in fact quite miniscule by comparison) but capable of emitting light and supporting plant growth. We shall also see that the Aurora Borealis or streaming lights that illuminate the Arctic sky at night come from this central sun whose rays shine through the polar opening.


“Thus, if the Earth was originally a ball of fire and molten metal, some of this fire remained in its center, while centrifugal force as a result of its rotation on its axis caused its solid matter to be thrown toward the surface, forming a solid crust and leaving its interior hollow, with a fiery ball in its center, forming the central sun, which provides illumination (and heat!) for plant, animal and human life”.
(Parenthetical comments and emphases are mine. GF)

Bernard goes on to mention that the first person to present this theory of a hollow earth with holes at its poles was an American philosopher, William Reed, author of the book: “Phantom of the Poles”, which was published in 1906. A book which provides the first compilation of scientific knowledge, based on the reports of Arctic explorers, supporting the theory of a hollow earth with polar openings. Reed apparently estimated the crust of the Earth to be around 800 miles thick at the equator, and that its hollow interior is 6,400 miles in diameter. Reed summarized his revolutionary theory thus – and again I quote:

“The earth is hollow. The poles, so long sought, are phantoms. There are openings at the northern and southern extremities. In the interior there are vast continents, oceans, mountains and rivers. Vegetable and animal life are evident in this New World, and it is probably peopled by races unknown to dwellers on the Earth’s surface”.

He also pointed out that the Earth is not a true sphere, but is flattened at the poles, or rather it begins to flatten out as one approaches the hypothetical North or South Pole - which really do not exist because the openings to its hollow interior occur there. Hence the (imaginary) Poles are really positioned in mid-air, in the centers of these polar openings, and are not actually on the surface, as would-be discoverers of the Poles suppose. He goes on to add that the Poles cannot be discovered because the Earth is hollow at its Pole points, “which exist in mid-air, due to the existence there of the polar openings leading into its interior”. Then Reed goes on to stress that, when explorers believed they had reached the Poles, they were actually misled by the eccentric behavior of the compass in high latitudes, both north and south. He claims that this was what happened in the case of Peary and Cook, neither of whom really reached the North Pole. Let us just take a few moments off and examine this particular problem in greater depth.

Problems with Compasses
According to all the evidence I have discovered thus far, virtually all the great polar explorers experienced serious problems with their magnetic compasses once they had passed the 80º to 85º latitudes, and found that their compass-needles performed all sorts of erratic swings, dips and rises. As we have noted, this happened to both Peary and Cook, and caused them to miss the North Pole completely, just as it did to many others, before them and since.

Admiral Byrd’s aerial expedition certainly had problems with their instruments, as he noted in his log how both his magnetic and gyroscopic compasses began to “gyrate and wobble” so much that they were “unable to hold our heading by instrumentation”. However, being fairly high up in an aircraft, he managed to take bearings with a sun-compass, and this told him he was approaching the pole. (But I shall have to return later to Byrd’s polar flight, since it proved to be such a totally amazing one!)

A famous Russian polar explorer, Snegirev, told how the magnetic pole “made some kind of tricky curve” making it “inconvenient to travel by compass alone. The arrow would point northward, then it would veer to the west, and then almost reluctantly it would return to its former position”. Dr. Raymond writes in his book: “The Hollow Earth”, how this weird action of the compass had “been observed by many Arctic explorers, who, after reaching high latitudes near to 90 degrees, were dumbfounded by the inexplicable action of the compass and its tendency to point vertically upward”. He then goes on to add, by way of explanation, that:

“They were then inside the polar opening and the compass pointed to the North Magnetic Pole which was along the rim of the opening”!

(Emphases are again mine. GF.)

Ray Palmer, American author and editor of several sensational magazines connected with mysterious phenomena, mentioned in an editorial article entitled “The North Pole - Russian Style”, in which he described,

“remarkable discoveries made by Russian Arctic explorers, which confirm the theory of a hollow earth and polar openings, as do the observations of Arctic explorers to which we shall refer below”.

I cannot quote his article in full here, but I will quote an extract from it which is pertinent in this age of daily over-flights of the pole by commercial and military aircraft. It says this:

“One of the things we have been most insistent about is that no one has yet been to the North Pole, all claims to having done so being false, because the Pole is not a ‘point’ and cannot be ‘reached’ in the accepted sense of the word. We have successfully challenged those military and civilian pilots who have claimed that they fly ‘daily’ over the north Pole. In the case of the military flyer, we have pointed out the maneuver which is standard, which automatically makes it impossible for him to fly beyond the Pole by flying straight across it.

(That is across the polar opening, instead of going into it - Author.)

"Because of navigating difficulties stemming from compasses of all kinds”.


“A ‘lost’ flyer (whose compass doesn’t work as it should) regains his bearings by making a turn in any direction, until his compasses again resume function. In the case of commercial airlines, whose advertised boast is that they fly twice daily over the Pole, they are simply stretching the truth.....

(They simply cross over the magnetic rim of the polar opening, where the compass registers the highest degree north, but do not actually reach the North Pole, which is the central point of the polar opening inside this rim - Author.)”
(The emphases placed on parts of the foregoing extracts, incidentally, are my own – GF.)

However - A Word of Caution
I should point out that, according to reported past geological surveys in the Arctic Ocean, the ocean was said to deepen considerably as the 85-degree latitude was approached. Nansen himself sounded it at that latitude and found it to be over 2,000 fathoms (12,000 feet), and he noted that it continued to deepen as he ventured further. (The latest official bathymetric depth-figure for the estimated North Pole ocean-bed position is 13,600 feet).

However, I must also add that more recent bathymetric oceanographic charts of the Arctic sea-bed show two large and parallel ridges enclosing the polar abyssal plain, where the North Pole is believed to be. (Though no one can really be certain, even today, because of persistent magnetic-compass aberrations). These are the Lomonosov Ridge and the Nansen Cordillera (also known as the Gakkel Ridge on some maps), which are 400 or 500 km apart, and would thus seem to considerably limit the largest size or diameter of any possible polar-hole to a maximum of less than 400 kilometers or so, rather than the earlier claims for holes over 1000 kilometers or more across!

(Personally, after studying data and computer-images based upon satellite Earth-topography radar scans, I think that the “polar hole” (if it exists at all) may prove to be less than 100 km in diameter.)

As a matter of special interest; I only recently stumbled upon an Internet report concerning a Swedish polar research expedition which departed upon 12 July, 1996, in the ice-breaker, Oden, to study climatic and environmental developments around the innermost circumpolar regions of the Arctic. Oden was to be accompanied by the German research-vessel, Polarstern. These two ships had cooperated very successfully before, during the 1991 IAOE (International Arctic Ocean Research Expedition), when they claimed to have actually reached the North Pole - by water! I was particularly interested to learn that one of their geological objectives was to study the Arctic Polar Basin sea-bed by using remote-sensing apparatus and to deep core-drill parts of it and the surrounding Lomonosov Ridge and Nansen Cordillera. I have yet to locate the ultimate findings of this expedition, but will include them in these notes if and when they eventually come to hand! They should make interesting reading!

...And a Few Words of Optimism, too!
But, we should not lose sight of the fact that some of these polar depths could very well have been “guesstimates” or “fudged” figures, due simply to the patently obvious impossibility of taking an oceanic-survey vessel right around, let alone through, the central, solidly-frozen Arctic ice-pack, and even nuclear submarines would still be dependent upon magnetic-compass bearings for their precise positions!

Perhaps, if the same sort of satellite-mounted, Martian orbiting laser-altimeter (or MOLA) - such as was used to map the depths, heights and general topography of the Martian surface - could be employed to try and resolve this and many other strange mysteries of our own terrestrial ocean-depths - such as the notorious Bermuda Triangle (for explanation of vanished ships and planes), the south western Pacific Ocean (for traces of the lost continent of Mu), the Indian Ocean (for evidences of Lemuria), and the Antarctic continent (for some signs of a possible southern polar-hole, and perhaps even of a lost Atlantis there, beneath the huge icecap), we just might begin to learn a lot more about our own planet, and, also in this way, a lot more about the actual internal structure of the other terrestrial planets, also!

It is my own humble opinion that there is still a vast amount of exploration and discovery left to be done both upon and inside our own planet, which would involve infinitely less cost in money, time, and effort than that which is currently being expended on the apparently fruitless exploration of space! (Of which more later.) Not that I have the slightest objection to our exploring our neighboring planets, of course, but I think we should find out all we can about our own still very mysterious and enigmatic planet first!

Some Relevant Points to Consider.....
Before passing on to other interesting aspects of this “Hollow Earth” concept, let me point out that the North Pole is frequently covered by cloud and/or fog, and thus, from high-altitude jet planes and earth-orbiting satellites, any such phenomena as a large hole in the ice (if not in the underlying ocean) might be concealed from view for a great part of the time - although, given the presence of a bright central “sun” within the earth, it would probably not appear as a dark hole, but rather one which would emit light. (Perhaps some sort of a shining patch?)
During the daytime, one could well envisage that the external sunlight on the surrounding ice and the brightness of any inner luminary might well cancel each other out, especially since the sun’s rays reflect back quite brilliantly off the ice and water during the six-month Arctic summer, when the cloud-blanket would often be very patchy or even totally absent in some areas, from time to time.

The Aurora?
During the Arctic spring, and autumn, another phenomenon can often be observed at either pole; this is the auroral spectacle known as the “ "Northern or Southern Lights(click image right to watch video) - the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis, respectively. Science has explained these vertical and beautiful curtain-like effects as being “caused by charged particles from the Sun striking rarefied gases high in the ionosphere and illuminating them” - in much the same way as an electrical charge illuminates the gas in a neon tube. However, if we think about an internalsunshining out through apertures in the Earth’s crust at the poles, might we not expect to observe something very similar on suitable, comparatively cloud-free nights - much like the effect of a battery of diffused searchlight-beams shining upwards from the icecap? Hmmm…Possibly!

Another official explanation seems to be that the aurora are actually due to solar protons and electrons being drawn down toward the Earth’s magnetic poles and changing color in relation to “the altitudes at which these collisions occur and on the wavelengths of the particles involved”. However, what if the situation were to be reversed, and the particles were being discharged upwards instead, by the “inner sun” (also perhaps a moderately radioactive body) through the polar apertures? Would we not expect to observe a very similar phenomenon? Again, possibly. Orthodox science would probably reject such an idea as totally preposterous - but is it such a ridiculous idea?

Well, after much careful thought, I reluctantly have to admit that this idea is a bit of a stretch, and find that I have to agree with the scientific explanation that such auroral phenomena are most likely caused by cosmic and solar particles impinging upon, and being “braked” by the earth’s ionosphere causing photonic excitation which makes them fluoresce, and then possibly being subsequently burned up in the stratosphere. The discharge of great amounts of light upwards from “polar holes” in both the Arctic and the Antarctic would surely have been remarked upon by many polar aircraft pilots long before this! Thus the “upward-shining” theory clearly isn’t true.

It’s also well worth remembering that the North Magnetic Pole is reckoned by geological science to be located in northern Canada, near Bathurst Island, at about latitude 78º North - which is some 750 kilometers south of the geographical North Pole, whilst the South Magnetic Pole is claimed to be off the coast of Wilkes Land, at latitude 64º South, which is over 2700 kilometers north of the geographic South Pole, and apparently, these magnetic poles are inclined to change their positions from year to year!

One would surely expect the magnetic poles to be located upon a magnetic axis running through the north-south middle of the Earth, just as the true polar axis does - if the Earth truly is a gigantic spherical magnet - which it is generally assumed to be, and which I always thought it was? However, I have since learned that the magnetosphere - which includes the Van Allen Belts - is really more in the shape of a very fat “doughnut” that girdles around the main bulk of the Earth, but leaves the polar regions more or less open to solar EMF fluxes.

So why then do we find this strange anomaly, which indicates that the magnetic axis of the Earth does not run through its actual geocentric point, but instead runs out from 90ºN to 64ºS, and is thus angled away and aberrated from the north-south geographic polar axis by a whopping 36 degrees?

I hasten to add that I myself can offer no concrete answer to this riddle, beyond the possibility of heavier concentrations of copper or iron ore being present in the Earth’s crust in these regions, and thus playing some major part in the mystery - but I’d be extremely interested to hear what the geological fraternity have to say about it! One could be forgiven for thinking that perhaps the magnetic and geographical poles might have no actual physical bearing upon each other at all!

Whatever. I have yet to be convinced that the auroral phenomena actually does focus directly upon either magnetic pole - in which case, the true reason for the auroral effects may be related to the Earth’s own magnetosphere in the way I suggested earlier, and are simply related to solar and cosmic particles fluorescing in the ionosphere.

I recall very clearly seeing the Aurora Borealis many times myself, as a boy in northern Britain, and it always appeared to be towards true north to me, and according to the Pole Star, Polaris. Otherwise I would have had to look somewhat away to one side, toward the north-north-west! (I should perhaps add that I was a Boy Scout at the time, so I was possessed of an excellently-developed sense of direction!)

Another possibility regarding this “Earth Magnetism” is that it may very well prove to be only a sub-surface, localized phenomenon which is confined entirely to the crustal lithosphere of the Earth - a phenomenon which may be applicable to the other terrestrial-type planets also - and that it may be of no particularly vital importance to our planet’s mechanics or “well-being” - apart from providing a useful “orienting-guide” for such migratory animals as caribou, musk-oxen and reindeer, as well as birds, which can all apparently utilize the natural earth-magnetic force via some sensory-faculty that we humans seem to have lost - or, in our case, via mechanisms like the magnetic-compass.

However, some new information may yet be forthcoming about all of this, in due course, which might radically change current scientific thinking about the Earth’s so-called “Magnetic Poles”!

A Late Update on Geo-Magnetism
Further to my comments above regarding “Earth-Magnetism”. I discovered a fairly recent report from the Geological Survey of Canada (within whose territory the North Magnetic Pole is located), which indicates that the Earth’s geomagnetism, as manifested in the Magnetic Poles, is now believed to be produced by electrical currents that originate in the super-heated magma of the Earth’s (assumed) liquid outer core, or even in the large subterranean “seas or lakes” of molten magma - which I personally believe, would most likely be principally concentrated beneath the tectonic plate-edges, in between the deeper crustal layers. This flow of electrical currents is believed to be in a constant state of flux, and thus implies that the magnetic field which they produce is also continually changing.

This phenomenon has been born out by a study of reported locations of the North Magnetic Pole harking back to 1829. Subsequent locations of the magnetic pole in 1831, 1903, 1945, 1962, 1973, 1984 and 1994, have shown that, over this period of 165 years, the North Magnetic Pole has “wandered” along a somewhat weaving path from the Boothia Peninsula (70ºN) to the Noice Peninsula (77ºN), some 1100 kilometers northward, roughly along the 105º line of longitude, and continues to move northwards, at a steadily accelerating rate, from an earlier 10 kilometers per year, now up to 15 kilometers per year!

One might perhaps be forgiven for expecting that there would have also been a similar shifting of the South Magnetic Pole towards the south, but thus far, the opposite seems to be true, with a much slower migration of the South Magnetic Pole northward of about only 200 km along the 140º line of longitude! It’s precisely because of this constant shifting of the magnetic poles, and their consequential dubious value as precise charting-loci when using a magnetic-compass, that I am inclined to suspect that the estimated position of the true North Pole could easily have varied quite considerably since the time of the earlier explorers - a margin of error which might conceivably still persist in many currently-charted calculations of the Pole’s actual position!

Latest News on IAOE Findings
Since writing the above “Latest Update”, I have learned some preliminary results of the 1996 International Arctic Ocean Expedition. No less than 29 sedimentary piston-cores were extracted from the Lomnosov Ridge between the latitudes of 85º N to 89º N, and, at the time of the new report in May, 1997, these were still being evaluated. A comprehensive computerized, visual geological-model of the Arctic Basin should soon be forthcoming of both the Lomonosov Ridge and the adjacent Arctic Basin.

Nonetheless, this highly-detailed research seems to indicate that the possible existence of a hole in the seabed at the North Pole is now, (alas) rather less likely! Otherwise, despite any alleged official security “Cover-Up Conspiracies”, I feel sure such a discovery would have been “leaked” by now, and would long since have become headline-news in the world-media.

However, after some deep consideration of this “Polar Holeidea, I feel that whilst there might conceivably be an axial aperture at each pole, if we accept the notion that a “shell” planet’s centre of gravity would take the form of a spherical gravitational field around midway through the thickness of the Earth’s shell, then it is logically to be expected that over the millennia, the sediment from the polar oceans, or airborne dust and other general detritus, will have long ago filled up these holes, either partially or entirely.

This is simply because the gravitational-zone halfway through the rocky shell, will have created an invisiblefloorof electromagnetic force which would prevent any of this sediment from falling through into the inner earth. This would also work the other way round, too, since exactly the same effect would apply within the planetary shell as outside it. Thus any holes would be filled in with firmly stable “plugs” on either side!

Because of this simple “spherical centre of gravity” phenomenon, it would be virtually impossible to detect the locations of any holes in the Earth’s shell, using any of the side-scan radar, laser, or other ground-penetrating scanning methods currently in use.

Also, there is no logically sound reason to think that the axial poles would be the only locations for such apertures. They could have occurred in many other places around the globe for a variety of reasons, including extremely forceful penetration by bolides and meteors traveling at vast speeds. Even a gravitational force-field can’t stop everything!

This leaves us with a lot more room for speculation as to where such concealed holes could lie hidden, and might even permit some speculation about notorious areas of sea and land where many inexplicable disappearances have occurred, especially of large objects, such as ships and aircraft, or even ancient buildings and cities! Think of the Bermuda Triangle, and of cities like Atlantis! Nor is it entirely inconceivable that the “plugs” of such apertures might sometimes be rendered penetrable by powerful hi-tech means, such as a directional antigravity beam, operated from the interior. For those who believe in such things, these apertures could even be the means of ingress and egress for UFOs, to and from the interior We simply have no way of guessing at the degree of technology such an ancient and isolated race might have reached. All we can do, in our present ignorance of real clues regarding such fantastic matters, is speculate and theorize.

However, let’s always bear in mind that even the wildest imaginative speculation and theorizing has frequently led mankind to making astonishing scientific discoveries in the past, so we should continue to pursue this objective zealously and relentlessly.

The only possible glimmer of hope for those who still seriously believe in the existence of open polar holes, twinkles dimly in the very faint chance of some kind of official and extremely-tight “Security Lid” having been clamped down upon any true findings of this nature by the US-led New World Order hierarchy; as would appear may have have happened in connection with several other important scientific discoveries which have attracted NWO covert attention, and have subsequently been suppressed and classified as Red Label “Top-Secret”! “Pro Bono Publici” - as the American CIA, FBI, and other Military Intelligence agencies would probably describe such clamp-downs!

One really can’t ignore such undercover and clandestine activities as those which occasionally come to light, relating to hush-hush operations such as “Roswell”,Area 51”, Dulce, Cheyenne Mountain, and other alleged Government “Conspiracies, Cover-Ups, and Secret Facilities”, not just in the USA, but also in Europe, Russia, China, and even in Australia, too! Ever heard of Pine Gap? (And who knows - maybe even “Stargate” actually lives inside its own secret hollowed-out mountain?!)

Should We Tell The People?”
There seems to be little doubt that a great deal of sensitive information is being kept from the public all around the world, in order to prevent massive public outcries, uprisings, and even panic among the population. We have all seen those “Armageddon-type” movies (usually American) where some great and unstoppable catastrophe or other threatens to destroy the world, and the scientists and politicians struggle to keep the awful fact secret because of the predictable chaotic consequences such news would have upon the populace at large.

Perhaps they are actually prophetic! However, if concrete proof did (or does) exist that there is another race within the Earth’s interior, possessed of technology far in advance of our own, and of which “surveillance-UFOs” are merely an example - how do you think the “New World Order” chieftains would react - particularly in view of their apparently obsessive penchant for secrecy and covert operations, agendas and activities?

It is a sad commentary on the times in which we live today that the duly-elected politicians of most countries in the developed world, seem to feel it is their bounden duty to keep such vital matters covertly hidden from the public, rather than the opposite! They follow the old, tried and tested axiom that “Knowledge is Power”, and, after all, “Power” is the very life-blood and real purpose of politics! And I don’t need to remind my readers of what Power does to politicians! However, I fear I’m digressing!

Getting back to Cases….
I apologize if I’ve been forced a tad “Off Course” for a while by the Magnetic-Poles and Polar Holes issue, plus the IAOE seabed and seamount survey-results, but I am duty-bound to lay all the scientifically-proven facts before my readers (disappointing as they may, alas, very often be), as well as the much more exciting (but largely speculative) concepts of internal worlds and underground cities hidden deep within our planet.

The Central Sun
Now I will return to our original “Hollow Earth” discussion, as promised, and, having spoken about the Polar Holes, let us now consider the Central Sun, which is thought by many alternative-science writers to illuminate the “interior earth” - or “Agharta” - as it is more widely referred to by some of the more enlightened souls who claim to be “In-The-Know” concerning such mysteries!

As we have already noted in previous pages, the “washing-machine”-style centrifugal action of the Earth’s spin could have pushed all the heavier elements of cosmic matter it contained outward toward the solidifying crust of the forming planet. However, the lighter gaseous elements, such as hydrogen or helium, etcetera, would have remained floating in the vicinity of the axial-hub region (previously mentioned under the heading “By Way of Illustration” on an earlier page) close to the region of zero-gravity, and thus would not have been affected by the centrifuging-effect of Earth’s rotation.
Thus, as a consequence (although I described the center then as being virtually empty and clear of cosmic material), such extremely light elements as neon, hydrogen, helium, and so forth, would most likely tend to aggregate together around the central locus of the hollow region. There they would be held locked in place as a gaseous globe in a completely gravity-free zone by either the Earth’s own gravitational effect, or by seeking the furthest place away from it. The rest would, in all probability, be a miniature re-enactment of the Sun’s own birth from gaseous elements at the centre of a coalescing mass of cosmic dust and other space debris. The gases would then heat up under their own gravitational compression, thus causing atomic action and interaction, which would in turn, trigger off a sustained nuclear fusion reaction such as we see on an infinitely more gigantic scale, in our own Sun.

In essence, for the purposes of this exercise, we can reasonably imagine that the Central Sun of the internal earth would function in very much the same way as the Sun itself, but on a greatly miniaturized scale, both in terms of heat, light, overall radioactivity and solar output. This point is an extremely important one to consider, with regard to its assumed proximity to the inner surface of the thick solid shell of the planet. The radiation of both heat and light from this tiny “sun” (especially ultraviolet, actinic, and nuclear) would have to be at a sufficiently low level as to permit lifeforms to develop and flourish in safety, without being subjected to harmful levels of atomic or ultraviolet radiation. (Although it mightn’t be entirely too unreasonable to hypothesize that the inner-earth inhabitants may perhaps, have developed a natural capacity to cope with higher levels of radiation than we can, here on the surface – though I seriously doubt it).

However, since this whole concept is purely speculative (nobody in the 20th century having been there and come back to tell us about - with the possibly dubious exception of Rear-Admiral Richard Byrd, of course!) - we can only assume that any radiations from an interior “sun” would have to be perfectly within safe-limits for humans, since so many accounts claim that the occupants of the Hollow Earth originally fled there in order to avoid catastrophic events that affected the outer surface of the planet, including massive solar-flares – and, more than likely, periodically recurrent depletions of the ozone-layer!

( Quite frankly, I don’t subscribe to the alleged cause of the current ozone-layer holes being due to the over-use of aerosol-sprays. Surely we would need to pump out literally billions of liters of the actual undiluted fluorocarbon propellant to cause such enormously deleterious effects upon the ozone-layer?)

Or Perhaps Another Light Source?
But there is another possible means of illuminating the “Inner Earth” – or any of the suspected enormous caverns which are believed to exist deep in the Earth’s crust. This alternative is natural phosphorescence which occurs in many places – even the sea ! I have seen for myself huge areas of this oceanic phosphorescence during the long sea-voyage from the UK to Australia on board an ocean-going liner.

It’s astonishing how much one can see from the uppermost deck of a large passenger-ship, and particularly after dark, when I was able to see these eerie but quite brilliantly shining phenomena for myself. Someone told me that it was thought to be caused by a specific type of plankton which secreted this glowworm-like phosphorescence. However, I’ve since learned that the same effect is frequently encountered in deep and otherwise pitch-dark cavern systems. Some of this is actually bioluminescence, which is a cold green-blue light found in many living organisms, including plankton, algae, and of course, fireflies and glow-worms which inhabit dark caves in vast numbers. In living creatures it is due to the secretion of a substance known as luciferin, but there are also other naturally occurring causes for luminescence in nature and physics.

It is the nature of atoms to emit photons when they are excited, and we see this in many forms of natural radiation, including polar auroral light displays. Without going to any great lengths in explaining all this in a high-flown scientific way, let it suffice to say that, when such an emission of photons occurs immediately the atoms are excited by an energy-source, this is called fluorescence. But when this glow of light or illumination persists for some length of time following the cessation of the stimulation, it is then referred to as phosphorescence. An electric current passed through a gas is a common method of creating luminescence, and we see this all around us in fluorescent-light tubes. It is fast-moving electrons which produce the bright pictures on a television screen, when they strike the coating of phosphorus on the inner surface of the picture-tube. Thus it isn’t hard to imagine a scenario in which the very atoms of the atmosphere itself might be made to glow inside a hollow planet or a vast cavern, by means of some perfectly natural electrical-excitation phenomena which may occur there.

The odd thing is that, despite the far-fetchedness of the whole concept, there are many aspects of it which make perfectly sound and logical scientific sense. Take for example, the circumstances which would follow a gigantic meteor strike in the Pacific Ocean - such as that which some claim to have destroyed the ancient civilization of Mu - or perhaps a sudden polar tilt of the Earth itself - both of which would send enormous tidal waves as high as mountains sweeping around the globe.

Given the powerful centrifugal effect of Earth’s rotation, which we have considered earlier, and the fact that its effects would be virtually zero along the polar axis, it isn’t hard to figure out that these highly destructive tidal-wave effects would barely affect the polar regions - if at all. So even if there were polar openings into this Inner Earth, the tidal waves would not come crashing in through them. Nor would a polar-shift affect such an inner world to anything like the same extent as that on the exterior of the thick crust.

Certainly there would be some sort of upheaval of oceanic water - but since the interior sea is claimed in some circles to be only one-fourth the size of the landmass (virtually the opposite of our external surface ratio of four-fifths ocean to one-fifth land) it would not create anything like the havoc that would be wreaked upon the outer surface.

Incidentally, whilst on the subject of such catastrophes as 1000-foot tidal waves, or comet-strike dust-cloud “blackouts” lasting for decades, wouldn’t it be handy if the creatures of the outer crust, both men and animals, were freely able to seek refuge within the interior of the Earth! This is another possibility that I shall be examining more closely at a later stage of this hypothesis!

Admiral Byrd and “The Land Beyond the Poles
Referring back briefly to this issue of polar openings, before I leave it for the present. It’s always possible that there might conceivably be a secret agenda of some sort (probably of the “Government Cover-up Conspiracy” kind) to keep their existence a carefully-guarded secret from the general population, whilst the government-agencies concerned acquire and exploit the advanced technology of any such advanced race as may dwell inside the Earth, for their own nefarious “Defense” purposes.

If this were to turn out be the case, it might perhaps explain the curious “will’o’ the whisp” virtually-mythical log-diaries of Rear-Admiral Richard Byrd, in which he is reported to have claimed to have actually visited the land beyond the Poles (i.e; entered a polar hole into a green, warm land beyond) and been escorted in by “strange, disc-shaped type of aircraft” bearing oddly-familiar “swastika” markings, to a landing-place, from whence he and his radio-man were escorted, via a “moving-platform without wheels” by several tall, blond men into a highly-futuristic and wonderful “Buck Rogers”-type city. There, as Byrd is alleged to have written, he met the seemingly ageless patriarchal Master of this inner world (apparently called “Arianni”.*)

The Master’s bodyguard, whom Byrd is said to have claimed in his account, spoke English with a Nordic or German accent, then guided him and his colleague, Howie, into a guest apartment, where they were left alone for a short while. Then two of their “wondrous-looking hosts” allegedly came and escorted Byrd, on his own, down below ground in some kind of silently-operating open elevator - informing him that he was being taken to have an audience with the Master. The lift stopped and Byrd was now ushered into a great, palatial room, the luxuriant and wondrous beauty of which “defied his powers of description”.

*(Note: The crafts’ insignia, the blond super-beings, and the very name of their inner world “Arianni,” leaves the reader in little doubt as to the “Pure Germano-Nordic Aryan” nature of this race! GF.)

Here, as Byrd is alleged to have said, he was greeted warmly and entertained politely by this individual, who then conversed with him at length about all the pointless wars and other stupid destructive activities of the external race, and their foolish technological weaponry developments, like the atomic bomb, which he insisted would lead to ultimate disaster for humanity. “It was at that alarming time we sent our flying-machines, the “flugelrads” *, to your surface world to investigate what your race had done” the Master told Byrd. The “Master” then went on to add that he had already been in touch with the great leaders of the outer world to warn them of the terrible peril in which they were placing the Earth, but they appear to have chosen to ignore him.

Byrd had been especially chosen to witness and attest to the fact that the inner world of the Arianni really did exist, and that their culture and science was many thousands of years beyond those of the surface-race. The Master was now giving Byrd this final warning message to deliver personally to his nation’s leaders, to alert them to this approaching disaster:

“Your race has now reached the point of no return, for there are those among you who would destroy your very world rather than relinquish their power...” he was told. “there is a great storm gathering in your world, a black fury that will not spend itself for many years.... the dark ages that will come now for your race will cover the Earth like a pall, but I believe that some of your race will live through the storm. We see at a great distance a new world stirring from the ruins of your race....when that time arrives, we shall we shall come forward again to help you revive your culture and your race!”

After this astounding audience, Byrd rejoined his equally-stunned companion, Howie, and they were taken back by the two blond supermen, via the moving-platform, to their plane, where they found its engines already idling. They boarded, and as soon as the cargo-door was closed, the aircraft was immediately lifted by an unseen force to an altitude of 2700 feet, where two of the strange, circular-winged aircraft guided them, with their plane’s controls mysteriously locked, on a return flight through the entrance-aperture by means of some unknown power or force-field, - “at a very rapid rate”, as Byrd allegedly wrote. Once outside, the “flugelrads” took their leave, with this final parting message over the plane’s radio: “We are leaving you now, Admiral, your controls are free. Auf Wiedersehen!” From there onward, Byrd and his companion, the radio-man, Howie, (of whom, alas, we find no further mention in Byrd’s mysterious diaries), flew back without incident over Arctic snow and ice to their base-camp at the edge of the north polar icecap.

On March 11th, 1947, Byrd attended a staff meeting at the Pentagon, where he is said to have stated in full the whole of his amazing discovery and experience. Everything was duly recorded and the President was advised. Byrd was then detained for several hours, and was subsequently interviewed very closely by Top Security officers and physically checked over by a Government medical team. Following this drawn-out ordeal, he found himself placed under strict control by the National Security Provisions of the USA, and was ordered, rather incredibly, to “remain silent in regard to all that I had learned, on the behalf of Humanity”! The reports allege that he was strongly reminded that he was a military man and that he must obey orders.

According to all available accounts, Byrd faithfully concealed his discovery for nine long years until December, 1956, when ill-health finally overtook him, and he resolved to reveal his long-kept secret, so securely hidden away in his private diaries and log-book. During the intervening years, since his return from the inner-earth, he had continued to conduct and supervise aerial polar-surveys over both the Arctic and the Antarctic, despite the staggering secret knowledge that he nursed in his heart. We don’t know if he ever re-discovered the entrance to the inner world, since he never mentioned it again. But he was showered with honors and acclaim by a grateful nation for his many courageous known flights of exploration. Byrd’s last polar flight - this time over the Antarctic - was in January, 1956, when he had been appointed senior US Government Officer in Charge of US Antarctic Affairs. He died early in March, 1957, and was buried with full military honors in Arlington Military Cemetery.

The Big Question!
I suppose that what we have to ask ourselves is this. Could an eminently sound and rational military officer of such high standing in US official circles - including in the White House itself - as well as in the hearts of the American people - really have simply dreamt up or fabricated such an amazingly incredible scenario as this? Would he really have risked writing it down, in such minute detail, in his carefully-noted secret diary, even if he had invented it all?

And, if it was all merely the “fantasy of a twisted mind”, as some skeptics have remarked, what possible personal gain or kudos could he have hoped to achieve from it, in view of the fact that he was already revered and venerated, almost as a god-like hero, by the President and the population of his own country?

Alas, Rear-Admiral Richard E. Byrd has taken that particular secret - if secret there still was - to his grave with him - as have those who were his Pentagon superiors and interviewers back in 1947. All we have today are his reported “secret diaries”, allegedly discovered after his death, to offer in evidence - as well as thousands upon thousands of alleged “sightings” of the mysteriousFlugelrads”* (or UFOs) described therein! * (“Radial-Flyers or Wheel-Wings” in English. GF)

Thus ends the enigmatic and challenging mystery of Byrd’s discovery of what he himself described as “The Land Beyond the Poles”. Or does it? To quote Byrd’s own words:

“Just as the long night of the Arctic ends, the brilliant sunshine of Truth shall come forth again, and those who are of Darkness shall fall in its Light”.

However, despite all this touching rhetoric and technical detail, one feels inclined to wonder whether all those “secret-diary entries” were, in actual fact, really penned by Richard E. Byrd, or whether they are all part of a gigantic hoax, perpetrated merely to sell quasi-scientific books? I must confess that, after reading a lot of what has been written about the Hollow Earth, I find it would be so very easy to be totally skeptical of the whole idea, and of the feasible-sounding “science” in which it seems to be cleverly enveloped.

Arriving at a Conclusion?
My first general feeling, after initially looking into the “Hollow Earth” idea was that it could very possibly be the elaborate invention of several, if not many, clever minds, triggered off by the brilliant tales penned by such ingenious science-fiction writers as Jules Verne, Edgar Allan Poe, H. G. Wells and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Thus, it might have proved, for many creative thinkers, to be far too exciting and enticing an hypothesis to be simply left lying around without being pseudo-scientifically exploited, even if only in the high-flown Arthur C. Clarkean realms of super-science-fiction, or, at best, perhaps taken up and elaborated upon as an intriguing and challenging exercise in abstract philosophy by some bored intellectual.

Perhaps the “New Age” thinkers are right, in that such seeming “sci-fi fantasies” (as this may even yet turn out to be), are often worth testing out by proper scientific methods. We already owe so many true-life major scientific advances in all fields of cosmic and technological discovery and invention to the initial vivid imaginations of inspired science-fiction visionaries like Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke!

Sober Afterthoughts
But still, however much one tries to airily dismiss the whole idea as pure nonsense, there is a certain inescapable “something” in all of this “Hollow Earth” concept that draws otherwise perfectly rational “feet-on-the-ground” scientific thinkers to it like iron-filings to a magnet. I, for one, feel inexplicably loathe to simply walk away from it all and return to more pragmatic mental pursuits. No matter how one tries to rationalize it away with sound scientific argument, the whole idea lingers on in the back of one’s consciousness as a gigantic shadowy mystery, still worthy of yet further consideration and investigation!

My own “gut-feeling” today, after very carefully considering all the clues and inferred evidence is that all planets and stars, including the Earth, are hollow. Not only that, but I also tend toward the concept that our human race might perhaps have actually originated there! I do not make this statement lightly, or off the top of my head. Such an origin for our particular species would account for our apparently total lack of any natural protection from the rigors of the external Earth, both as it is today, and even more so, as it probably was a couple of hundred thousand years ago, when the solar radiation was far more powerful, and would have burned naked human skin quite mercilessly, not to mention its effect upon our eyes.

One has only to consider that humanity is probably the only species on the face of our planet which has had to resort to artificial protection for our tender skin, not only from the UV radiation of the sun, but from all the elements as well - extremes of cold and heat, windburn, sand-blasting, general cuts and tears from thorny trees and sharp rocks, etcetera. Most of the animals of the world have been naturally protected from such hazards by thick pelts of fur, thick scaly skins or hard, leathery carapaces, as well as possessing eyes capable of seeing in the dark. So why hasn’t Man?

True, some men have hirsute bodies and can grow thick beards and long head-hair, but they are in the minority. Most men in the world, especially Negroes and Asiatic, tend to be virtually free of body-hair by comparison. And all of the women are generally smooth-skinned. (Head-hair, however, would be an essential protective-cover for cave-dwellers - against cracking their skulls upon tunnel roofs and other overhead projections, like stalactites!) There has no doubt been a lot of adaptation, especially in peoples from cold climates, to compensate for this lack, principally in the men, since women, both prehistorically and to this day, have generally been largely confined to the interiors of caves, huts or houses by their natural roles as mothers and home-makers.

The men in ancient times, were the hunters and providers of sustenance, as well as the warrior-guardians of women and children. Thus, because of this role, they had to adapt, as well as they could, to the direct rigors of the outdoor world, by developing what little protection they had in terms of beards and head and body-hair. Where this was still not enough, they soon learned to wrap themselves in the pelts of the animals they hunted and killed. In hot sunny climates, where the warmth of animal furs would have made life intolerable, humans had to adapt to some extent, by secreting extra melanin pigmentation to protect their naked skins from the Sun’s UV radiation – often to the saturation point of becoming indigo-black.

However, despite all of this adaptation and artificial protection, we humans are still naked and vulnerable creatures, struggling to survive in our fabricated clothing and sunglasses and hiding from the sun and elements as much as possible inside our air-conditioned, artificially-constructed “cave-houses”.

It should, therefore, be patently obvious that we are a species battling to survive in an alien environment. Even though its elements, such as air, water, earth and even fire, are natural to us, this cannot be the original environment of our ancient progenitors. We are creatures of the shadows and the half-light, not of the open plains or the blazing sunshine. Nor are we truly safe in forest or jungle, since our skins are not thick enough to withstand the constant scratches and rips of sharp thorns and rough branches, or contact with poisonous plant-leaves – not to mention all the dangerous lurking denizens of the jungle! If we were, we would possess thick pelts or tough leathery hides, as well as effective natural weapons of defense, such as powerful claws and fangs - as well as powerful night-vision!

Regardless of all the claims of anthropologists that we have evolved into a tool and weapon-making species, and have thus lost all need for such natural defenses, so that these have now atrophied completely, I remain totally unconvinced. The domestic dog, which was once a ferocious wolfish or dingo-like carnivore and needed these attributes to stay alive, has now been domesticated by Man for more than a hundred thousand years – or even ten times that – yet it still possesses all of its original attack and defense-equipment, even down to the bone-crunching molars and premolars! Surely, one would have expected the dog – or any of the domesticated animals – to have at least begun to shed some of this unnecessary ancient “survival-equipment”, after so many thousands of generations in Man’s company and care? But this is simply not the case.

All dogs can become ferocious, ravening beasts in the twinkling of an eye, should the occasion demand, and can return to their original feral condition and appearance within just a couple of generations, if released or dumped into the wild. This says little for Darwin’s “Evolutionary Theory”, since even genetic modification, artificial cross-breeding, and behavioral conditioning should nevertheless bring about some measurable degree of “evolution”, if Darwin’s theory really works. Quite evidently, it doesn’t - as has been proved more than adequately by many other modern researchers, far better educated and learned in such matters than I.

Thus I completely reject the concept that humans have evolved from some lower mammalian order, such as the progenitor of the great apes. I would rather champion Creationism - except that those of my readers who are of an atheistic inclination might be put off by such a theistic belief – so I’ll simply leave it lie as a plain repudiation of Darwinian evolution as a genuinely viable theory.

Instead, I put forward for the reader’s consideration, the suggestion that, in view of all the contraindications for Man having evolved or developed upon the open surface of this planet, that his origins must lie elsewhere, in one of two possible locations:

1)   Within the gloomy caverns and labyrinthine tunnels of the earth’s crust – or even from deep inside the actual hollow centre of the Earth itself – or,
2)   Upon some extraterrestrial home-world, preferably within our Solar System than that of some other far-away star. (Perhaps Mars - or its parent planet, now long defunct - might qualify, since neither Mercury or Venus are, in my opinion, remotely capable of sustaining life as we understand it, and since the great gas-giants seem equally untenable to Earthly types of lifeforms, as also do their satellites – at least, as far as we know!)

Much as I would love to develop this “We’re From Elsewhere” concept here and now, and speculate upon which option is the more tenable, I feel I must resist the urge, and stay with the basic question of “Is Our Earth Really Hollow?” However, I shall pursue it much more vigorously in another closely-related hypothesis concerning Mars.

Back To the Main Question
I guess I shall now have to continue on with my investigations and theorizing upon the possibility - however unlikely - of there actually being another realm hidden deep inside our earth. There are so many facets to the idea, that it holds one in its thrall like a spinning golden trinket in the hands of a hypnotist. One feels totally compelled to follow it through to the end, wherever it may lead! I suspect that there’s more than a dash of the “Indiana Jones” mentality inside the minds of most imaginative thinkers. And what greater adventure can our present well-trodden and thoroughly known surface world offer us now - having yielded up so many of its jealously guarded but superficial secrets to those earlier intrepid explorers - than such a vast and last greatest secret of all; that there is another totally new and wondrous living world inside our own!


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