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To conclude that an opinion is worthless because it is not expressed in the best form is a great mistake. To study out a problem, and to be able to convey the thought clearly and forcibly to the public, is quite another thing. Whether I can state my views on this subject in a manner that will convince others, I know not; I only hope that the reader will give credit to my ideas, rather than my expression.
I claim that the earth is not only hollow, but that all, or nearly all, of the explorers have spent much of their time past the turning-point, and have had a look into the interior of the earth. When Lieutenant Greely was beholding the mock sun at 120 deg. L., he was looking into our sister-world; and when Nansen saw the square sun lined with horizontal bars, he was gazing on what may be the future home of his daughter, then but two years old.
To present these facts to the reader in order, and in a clear, concise form, let us
see whether there be anything that conflicts with the claim that the earth is hollow.
1. Why is the earth flattened at the poles? As the earth is hollow, it could not be round, is the answer to that. Again, the opening to the interior would detract from its roundness just in proportion to the size of the opening.
2. Why have the poles never been reached? No poles exist, in the sense usually understood. The term, "the poles," will be used throughout this work, however, for convenience' sake, as covering the farthest point from the equator so long sought for by divers explorers.
3. Why does the sun not appear for so long a time in winter near the supposed poles? Because during the winter the sun strikes the earth obliquely near the poles. Upon the way round the curve, approaching the interior, the earth being hollow, one sinks a long way in; hence the sun shines over him; it does not show up again until it strikes that part of the earth more squarely and shines down into the basin.
4. Assuming that the earth is hollow, the interior should be warmer. We will produce what evidence we can to show that it is warmer. The ones that have explored the farthest will be the best judges.
5. We must now resort to the compass. Does it refuse to work when drawing near the supposed poles?
6. Meteors are constantly falling near the supposed poles. Why? If the earth be solid, no one can answer this question; if hollow, it is easily answered. Some volcano is in eruption in the interior of the earth, and from it rocks are thrown into the air.
7. The next query is concerning the great quantities of dust constantly found in the Arctic Ocean. What causes this dust? The volcanic eruptions that send up the rocks called shooting stars. One does not ask what this dust is composed of; for it has been analyzed, and found to be carbon and iron, supposed to come out of some volcano.
8. What produces the Aurora Borealis? The Aurora Borealis is the reflection of a
fire within the interior of the earth. The exploding and igniting of a burning volcano, containing all kinds of minerals, oils, and so on, causes much coloring; while absence of coloring, or only a faint toning, is due to the burning of vegetable matter, such as prairie or forest fires.
9. Icebergs are next in order. Where are they formed? And how? In the interior of the earth, where it is warm, by streams or canyons flowing to the Arctic Circle, where it is very cold, the mouth of the stream freezing and the water, continuing to pass over it, freezing as it flows. This prevails for months, until, owing to the warm weather in summer, the warmth from the earth, and the warm rains passing down to the sea, the bergs are thawed loose and washed into the ocean. Icebergs cannot be formed on earth, for the reason that it is colder inland than at the mouth of a stream; hence the mouth would be the last to freeze and the first to thaw. Under those conditions, icebergs could not be formed.
10. What causes tidal waves? Many
are started by icebergs leaving the place where they were formed, and plunging into the ocean. This answer is given because nothing else can produce one hundredth part of the commotion of a monster iceberg when it plunges into the ocean. What is the natural conclusion if an iceberg creates the greatest commotion? It will start the largest waves, and send them the farthest. Some advance the theory that the moon starts tidal waves and keeps them going; but it is hard to believe, as they would have to travel more than one thousand miles an hour, which is too fast for a wave of water.
11. What causes colored snow in the Arctic region? Two causes: The red, green, and yellow are caused by a vegetable matter permeating the air with such density that when it falls with the snow it colors it. This vegetable matter is supposed to be the blossom or pollen of a plant. As it does not grow on earth, one can naturally believe that it must grow in the interior. Black snow is caused by a black dust, consisting of carbon and iron, and
supposed to come from a burning volcano. As no burning volcano is near the Arctic Ocean, it also must come from the interior of the earth.
12. Why are the nights so long in the polar regions? In winter, the sun strikes the earth obliquely in that locality, and in approaching the supposed poles one passes down into a hollow, thus shutting out the sun until it strikes the earth more squarely.
13. What causes the great ice-pressure in the Arctic Ocean during still tide and calm weather? One of the great annoyances, as well as dangers, met with in the Arctic regions, is the ice-pressure. This is caused by different conditions. Reference is not made to hummock or loose ice, that grinds against shore; or fast ice; but to the ice that ships get fast in and drift with. Ice-pressure arises from change of current caused by the tide setting in or out, a strong wind with a sudden change, and in calm weather, the tidal wave, most annoying of all; for it comes when not looked for, and turns everything topsy-turvy. The ice, accordingly, has no show
and must break. A wind is different. The whole moves along like a monster raft. The sea is covered, and cannot rise, while the wind blows a perfect gale. This, when under cover in ship or hut, is but little felt; but when a tidal wave puts in an appearance, things are different. The wave is in motion long before it reaches the ice-field, and the force that keeps it moving is not interfered with by the ice, which is lighter than the wave, else it would sink. When the ice, therefore, is raised, it must break, split, and roar; but the wave goes on.
14. Why is the ice filled with rock, gravel, and sand? These substances came from an exploding volcano near where the iceberg was formed. As they fall during all seasons of the year, they appear, of course, in all stages, from the time the stream first froze over until the iceberg passed into the ocean.
GLOBE SHOWING SECTION OF THE EARTH'S INTERIOR
The earth is hollow. The poles so long sought are but phantoms. There are openings at the northern and southern extremities. In the interior are vast continents, oceans, mountains and rivers. Vegetable and animal life are evident in this new world, and it is probably peopled by races yet unknown to the dwellers upon the earth's exterior.
Next: Chapter I. Flattening of the Earth at the Poles.