by Stephen Smith
March 15, 2011
remnant G54.1+0.3 in X-ray (blue), short wavelength infrared
and longer wavelength infrared (yellow).
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/T.Temim
et al.; IR: NASA/JPL-Caltech
press release from the Chandra
X-ray Observatory describes the image at the top of the page as,
"...made up of gas and dust that
condensed out of debris from the supernova."
The glowing clouds are,
"...energized and heated by a shock
wave from the supernova."
Material blown away by the supernova
explosion is said to be streaming at enormous speed past the other
stars that were close by when the giant stellar mass collapsed and
then rebounded, throwing its outer layers into space.
Does that explanation correspond to
observations? How is it that explosions inside clouds of hot gas
As has been pointed out many times, stars are not simplistic globes
of hot gas under pressure, they are composed of plasma. Plasma is
ionized and is therefore an electrically charged substance. Since it
is ionized, it does not behave like a pressurized gas, so shock
waves and gravitational instabilities are insufficient when it comes
to explaining the birth and death of stars.
In the laboratory, plasma forms cells separated by thin walls of
opposite charge called double layers.
Could charge separation also take place
in the short circuit discharges known as supernova remnants? That
question might require centuries to answer, since the only way to
detect a double layer in space is by flying a probe through one.
However, everywhere in our own Solar
System cellular structures separated by double layers abound:
Sun's heliosphere, comet tails,
and magnetospheres are all examples of charge separation in
Electric Universe theory states, a
supernova is an exploding star, but not in the conventional sense.
Rather, it constitutes the explosion of
a double layer in plasma. Star power comes from external electric
currents flowing through vast circuits in space, so the radiation
and “wind” from stars are due to arc discharges that vary in
It is those electric arcs that make up the stellar corona, chromosphere and photosphere of our Sun, for instance.
Supernovae are the result of a star effectively “throwing a switch”
in the galactic circuit.
The result is the same as an unintended
circuit break in an earthly power grid where the stored
electromagnetic energy in the entire circuit is suddenly focused at
In an exploding double layer, the energy of an entire circuit might
flow into the explosion, increasing its expansion far from the
surface of the star. Radiation from the double layer is pushed into
ultraviolet or X-ray wavelengths, emitting bursts of high-energy
light. Shock waves and heat (infrared) are not the principle
evidence for such an occurrence, they are the secondary
manifestations of a primarily electrical event.
The roughly concentric and radial filaments of G54.1+0.3 suggest
that the telescope is looking down into the cylindrical formation of
an interstellar Birkeland filament that is pinching into an
hourglass shape and powering the excessively bright central star.
Chandra team's analysis of the temperature is also most likely
questionable. Thermal energy is created when atoms collide with each
The various infrared wavelengths emitted
from those atomic collisions correlate to their temperature.
However, most radiant energy in space is synchrotron radiation
produced by electrons as they travel through a magnetic field.
If electrons are moving they are called an electric current. An
electric current in a magnetic field is defined as “field-aligned"
and is known as a
Birkeland current. Birkeland
currents release synchrotron radiation, and synchrotron radiation
provides no indication of temperature.
It is electric currents in plasma that make up what we observe.
Rather than an expanding shock front of gases, the features shown in
the Chandra image are lit by electricity passing through the dusty
The X-ray radiation is typical of that
given off by highly excited stars, indicating extremely strong