July 28, 2009

from EMSNews Website




The Late Heavy Bombardment (commonly referred to as the lunar cataclysm, or LHB) is a period of time approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) during which a large number of impact craters are believed to have formed on the Moon, and by inference on Earth, Mercury, Venus, and Mars as well.

The evidence for this event comes primarily from the dating of lunar samples, which indicates that most impact melt rocks formed in this very narrow interval of time.





Another comet hit Jupiter exactly on the anniversary of the previous comet hit we saw 15 years ago.


Also, the Spitzer Space Telescope took a stunning picture of a galaxy that is in the process of merging with a smaller galaxy, triggering massive star formation activity around a very large black hole.


It should now be obvious that not only do all galaxies have black holes, all galaxies are falling towards one and another, a paradox of the expanding universe that really isn't expanding in this regard, but rather, is falling into each other.


Jupiter - Our Cosmic Protector?


July 25, 2009

An object, probably a comet that nobody saw coming, plowed into the giant planet's colorful cloud tops sometime Sunday, splashing up debris and leaving a black eye the size of the Pacific Ocean.




This was the second time in 15 years that this had happened.


The whole world was watching when Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 fell apart and its pieces crashed into Jupiter in 1994, leaving Earth-size marks that persisted up to a year.

That's Jupiter doing its cosmic job, astronomers like to say. Better it than us. Part of what makes the Earth such a nice place to live, the story goes, is that Jupiter's overbearing gravity acts as a gravitational shield deflecting incoming space junk, mainly comets, away from the inner solar system where it could do for us what an asteroid apparently did for the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.


Indeed, astronomers look for similar configurations - a giant outer planet with room for smaller planets in closer to the home stars - in other planetary systems as an indication of their hospitableness to life.

Since the beginning of our solar system, the gravitational pull of the sun has sucked in lots of stuff. We know from looking at the universe that there are these immense sheets of dark stuff that blocks the light of the stars. We call this 'dust lanes' for example and all spiral galaxies have these dust lanes. The dust looks fine when seen from light-years away.


But we have no idea how big this stuff is, when seen close up compared to a human scale. For example, is the immense seas of dense dust made up of stuff that is the size of grains of sand or the size of planets?

We know there is this fine dust which varies in amount as the solar system rotates around the black hole in the center of the Milky Way. Stars that are exploding create this finer dust.


Unseen or unnoticed by humans, a fine rain of dust falls into our planet every day.





This Milky Way picture shows the solar system relative to the rest of our galaxy.


Note that we are in the Orion arm which used to the outermost arm of the galaxy back 5 billion years ago when it first formed.


There is some theories that the sun was part of a small star cluster that was moving along with sheets of dust and when it was pulled into the gravitational pool of the Milky Way's central black hole, the compression of the matter surrounding this hobbit star cluster caused a sudden surge in star-making.



Fountain of Mysterious Space Dust Found


10 February 2009

In fact our solar system is currently experiencing a cosmic dust storm with at least three times as much dust passing through compared to just a few years ago, owing to a periodic weakening of the sun's magnetic field.


And sometime in the next 10,000 years, we'll plow through the G-cloud, a region of dust more dense than the one we're in now.





Astronomers have struggled for a conclusive answer as to where all this dust comes from.

Since the creation of the sun, we have rotated closer to the galactic core.


The sheets of dust that surround this core are still ahead of us, we can see this at night when we look at the Milky Way. Most of the starlight from this system is blocked by immense, nearly unimaginable amounts of dust, rocks and asteroids all being squeezed into a smaller and smaller space.


When we look outwards, away from the galactic core, we see flags and rags of this dark debris which means, we are surrounded by this stuff.

It obviously impacts on our own sun.

  • Does passing through increasing dust lane density excite greater solar activity?

  • Could the Ice Ages be due to the sun being relatively inactive due to low density dust conditions?

There are many questions about all these things.


Within the astronomical community, there is much debate about global warming with significant dissent that perhaps it may be necessary for us to have global warming if we are to avoid another spell of ice age coldness. Conditions around us can change.


Using Jupiter to suck up most of the debris that is hurtling towards the sun won't work so well if we go into a major dust lane episode at the same time that Betelgeuse blows up.





It is possible that Betelgeuse will become a supernova, which will be the brightest ever recorded, outshining the Moon in the night sky. Considering its size and age of 8.5 million years, old for its size class, it may explode within the next thousand years.


Since its rotational axis is not toward the Earth and also because of its 640 light year distance, Betelgeuse's supernova will not cause a gamma ray burst in the direction of Earth large enough to damage its ecosystem.





Nobel Laureate Charles Townes announced evidence that 15 consecutive years of stellar contraction has been observed by UC Berkeley's Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) atop Mt. Wilson Observatory in Southern California.


Reported on June 9, 2009, the star has shrunk 15% since 1993 with an increasing rate. The average speed at which the radius of the star is shrinking over the last 15 years is approximately 470-490 miles per hour.

According to the university, Betelgeuse's radius is about 5.5 AUs, and the star's radius has shrunk by a distance equal to half an astronomical unit, or about the orbit of Venus.


Some theorists have speculated that this behavior is expected for a star at the beginning of the gravitational collapse at the end of its life. The mass of Betelgeuse puts it in range to become a neutron star or possibly a black hole.

If this happens during a passage through heightened dust conditions, will this cause a compression of dust outwards from around Betelgeuse and towards our own solar system?


We know that all star deaths, there is this ring of dust that is created by the star and perhaps, the dust that surrounds the star's vicinity also is pushed outwards and forms a ring around the dead star. So this event could trigger a much, much higher rate of incoming star debris of all sorts.

By the way, my astronomer grandfather loved to tell me,

'You have exactly 8 minutes of time after the sun blows up, to know it blew up. Then it is too late.'

Ah, fun facts for small children!


Well, Betelgeuse may have already blown up long ago, back in the Middle Ages during the Black Death! When we find out this has happened, it is long after the fact.



Earth's Bombardment by Asteroids 3.9 Billion Years Ago May Have Enhanced Early Life, Says CU Study

University of Colorado at Boulder

May 20, 2009

Impact evidence from lunar samples, meteorites and the pockmarked surfaces of the inner planets paints a picture of a violent environment in the solar system during the Hadean Eon 4.5 to 3.8 billion years ago, particularly through a cataclysmic event known as the Late Heavy Bombardment about 3.9 billion years ago.





Although many believe the bombardment would have sterilized Earth, the new study shows it would have melted only a fraction of Earth's crust, and that microbes could well have survived in subsurface habitats, insulated from the destruction.

"These new results push back the possible beginnings of life on Earth to well before the bombardment period 3.9 billion years ago," said CU-Boulder Research Associate Oleg Abramov.


"It opens up the possibility that life emerged as far back as 4.4 billion years ago, about the time the first oceans are thought to have formed."…

The 3-D models allowed Abramov and Mojzsis to monitor temperatures beneath individual craters to assess heating and cooling of the crust following large impacts in order to evaluate habitability, said Abramov.


The study indicated that less than 25 percent of Earth's crust would have melted during such a bombardment.

The Late Heavy Bombardment event was probably when a planet was so disrupted by gravitational pull combined with exterior events, it blew up and its debris fell towards the sun, peppering all the inner planets.


The asteroid belt is probably testimony of this lost planet.


Seeing that generally, the planets are all gas giants after the asteroid belt and none are gas giants inside this belt is most interesting and there are various theories to account for all this.


The main thing is, we live in a danger zone and the gas giants protect us to some degree but certainly, not totally.



The Day The Moon Was Made - 24 Hours of Chaos


15 August 2001

A dark, lifeless object less than half as massive as Earth careens around a newborn Sun.


It is one of many planet-sized bodies hoping for a long career. But its orbit is shaky. It's future grim. It is a character actor on the grand stage of the solar system, a player of great ultimate consequence but one destined to never see its name in lights.


This doomed "protoplanet" travels a path that crosses the orbits of similar objects and, ultimately, cannot last.


Eventually, the nameless protoplanet meets up with a fledgling Earth.





It is not a head-on collision, but rather a glancing blow.


The impact imparts what astronomers call angular momentum into the system. It sets Earth to spinning on its axis and creates a Moon that would go round and round the host planet for billions of years.

The shock of the impact strips material from the outer layers of Earth and the impacting object. The mostly iron cores of both bodies meld into Earth's core.


It is like a compact car merging onto the highway and colliding with an S.U.V. - glass, trim and hubcaps fly, but the two chassis remain hopelessly tangled.

All told, about 2 percent of the combined mass of the objects - mostly rocky stuff that's largely bereft of iron - begins to orbit the Earth. About half of this eventually becomes the Moon.

Some of the stripped material is heated so fantastically that it vaporizes and expands into the surrounding vacuum of space.

"The material that was vaporized expands into a cloud that envelops the whole planet," Canup explained.

Meanwhile, a long arm of solid matter is winging its way around Earth.


Some of it develops into a clump that slams back into the planet. The rest is flung into orbit, all pretty much along a plane that mimics the path of the incoming object.


This plane slices through what is now Earth's equator, and it is roughly the same plane along which the Moon orbits.

Note that iron didn't leave the Earth. This is due to it being heavy.


Mars is similar to the moon in this way, incidentally and this leads me to a series of thoughts that are open to question but are well within the bounds of natural probability:





What is interesting is, Mars didn't do this.


Mars is half the size of earth but only a fraction (Ratio Mars/Earth = 0.107) of earth's weight. Venus is nearly the same size as earth and unlike Mars, has a gaseous atmosphere which all the planets beyond Mercury have.



Asteroid belt


The current asteroid belt is believed to contain only a small fraction of the mass of the primordial belt. Computer simulations suggest that the original asteroid belt may have contained mass equivalent to the Earth.





Primarily because of gravitational perturbations, most of the material was ejected from the belt within about a million years of formation, leaving behind less than 0.1% of the original mass.


Since their formation, the size distribution of the asteroid belt has remained relatively stable: there has been no significant increase or decrease in the typical dimensions of the main belt asteroids.

It is very interesting that the possibility that the asteroid belt was once an Earth/Venus sized entity which then disintegrated due to Jupiter.


But this doesn't fit all possible models. If nothing else, Nature loves logic and numbers. No system is more rational than the systems set up by Nature, itself. So, logically speaking, Mars should be the same mass category as Earth and Venus.


Instead, it is dwarfed by all the other planets except for Mercury. Certainly, if the asteroid belt was once the mass of Earth, then this means there was uniformity from Venus, Earth and then Mars and this is missing. We must presume that something altered the size of the two larger inner ring planets.


That is, there were collisions with more than one 'Mars' sized planet during the Late Heavy Bombardment.





Jupiter is 2.5 times more massive than all the other planets in our Solar System combined - this is so massive that its barycenter with the Sun actually lies above the Sun's surface (1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center).


Although this planet dwarfs the Earth (with a diameter 11 times as great) it is considerably less dense. Jupiter's volume is equal to 1,317 Earths, yet is only 318 times as massive. A Jupiter mass (MJ) is used to describe masses of other gas giant planets, particularly extrasolar planets.

Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, the planet would shrink.





For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about four Jupiter masses the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased gravitation force that the planet's volume would actually decrease despite the increasing amount of matter.


As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. The process of further shrinkage with increasing mass would continue until appreciable stellar ignition is achieved as in high-mass brown dwarfs around 50 Jupiter masses.


This has led some astronomers to term it a "failed star", although it is unclear whether or not the processes involved in the formation of planets like Jupiter are similar to the processes involved in the formation of multiple star systems.

It is entirely possible that Jupiter's core could have been very similar to Earth and Venus but for some reason, at the same time as the Late Heavy Bombardment period began, this planet collected a runaway amount of interstellar gasses (from a nearby collapsed star?) which nearly turned it into a sun. This is very, very possible because we see, all over the place, dual star systems.


Often, with a smaller star orbiting a larger one. Indeed, the times we have detected planets in other star systems, these are often even bigger than Jupiter.

When Jupiter suddenly began to bulk up in size with this gas collection business, this may have caused the Asteroid planet to suddenly explode. That is, the inner core blew outwards which is why there is a certain degree of uniformity with the size of the Asteroid Belt debris.


This explosion probably also stripped Mars of much of its own atmosphere due to Mars being significantly smaller than the other inner planets, the stripping of the atmosphere due to this explosive event probably reduced the mass of Mars to the point, it couldn't attract enough of the mass bombardment of this event, 90% of the debris of the Asteroid planet falling towards the sun.


So Mars not only didn't grow due to this event, it lost the chance to double its own iron core. For we suspect that this missing planet had a considerable iron core.

The addition of this iron base may have increased the gas shell of Venus and Earth, too. Another possibility could be, and this is a very wild guess, that Mars is the moon of this missing planet that once was in the Asteroid region.


The similarity of the materials of Mars with Lunar material means both may have been made the same way:

  • Before the Late Heavy Bombardment, perhaps Mars was split from the planet Asteroid during the same chaotic mess that created the Earth's own moon?

  • Perhaps this planet was accreting the same mass and materials as Jupiter and between them, they couldn't sustain this accumulation?

  • And maybe this explosion caused the gasses to fall into Jupiter's orbit which is why it is so much bigger than all the other planets?

  • While the heavy mass fell into Earth and Venus?

This month, old NASA sea dogs called for us to go to Mars, yet again.


But if all this data is true, Mars will have precious little to offer us in the way of hard mineral resources that would make up for the difficulties of leaving it again. That is, the moon is close, it is very much part of the Earth's gravitational pooling system so moving mass from the moon to the earth or the reverse is much more efficient and if we go anywhere else, it has to be to other star systems.


With maybe a jump off platform built in the Asteroid Belt from the debris there which as a higher useable mineral content comparable with our own planet.



NASA finds monster black hole sucking up gas, dust and stars at centre of galaxy


24 July 2009

The star-ringed black hole forms the eye of a galaxy called NGC-1097 which was photographed by the US space agency's Spitzer Space Telescope in California.

A black hole is a region of space in which the gravitational pull is so powerful that nothing, including whole planets, can escape being sucked in if they come within its reach.





The galaxy in the photograph is spiral-shaped, like our Milky Way, and extends long arms of red stars into space.


But NASA said the black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which Earth is situated is tame by comparison to NGC-1097, with the mass of just a few million suns.

"The fate of this black hole and others like it is an active area of research," said George Helou, deputy director of Nasa's Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.


"Some theories hold that the black hole might quiet down and eventually enter a more dormant state like our Milky Way black hole."

It should be painfully obvious to anyone that all galaxies are falling into all other galaxies.


The Milky Way and Andromeda are colliding. It seems, according to research this last year, that Andromeda is falling towards us due to it having a smaller mass than our own galaxy. Both Andromeda and the Milky Way are falling towards the Great Attractor, a monster cluster galactic system. The reason NGC-1097 is so excited is due to it devouring the small companion galaxy.


The compression this is causing has already disrupted one of the spiral arms and broken it apart. It will reform after the smaller galaxy passes through and heads into the heart of the system.

When the smaller black hole system merges with the greater one, this will cause immense tidal forces that will range not only across the entire galactic system but will extend outwards into the area around the galaxy, disrupting the shoals of cosmic dust that is also being vacuumed into this black hole complex.

THE MILKY WAY IS NOT DORMANT. It is simply moving. All these things move in space and time!


As Andromeda gets closer and closer, the 'dormancy' of our own galaxy will become very excited and energetic as the tidal forces move across the face of the galactic plane.



Supernova Waves Rolled Over Mammoths


September 28, 2005

A distant supernova that exploded 41,000 years ago may have led to the extinction of the mammoth, according to research that will be presented by nuclear scientist Richard Firestone of the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab).


Firestone, who conducted this research with Arizona geologist Allen West, will unveil this theory at the 2nd International Conference "The World of Elephants" in Hot Springs, SD. Their theory joins the list of possible culprits responsible for the demise of mammoths, which last roamed North America roughly 13,000 years ago.


Scientists have long eyed climate change, disease, or intensive hunting by humans as likely suspects.





Now, a supernova may join the lineup.


Firestone and West believe that debris from a supernova explosion coalesced into low-density, comet-like objects that wreaked havoc on the solar system long ago. One such comet may have hit North America 13,000 years ago, unleashing a cataclysmic event that killed off the vast majority of mammoths and many other large North American mammals.


They found evidence of this impact layer at several archaeological sites throughout North America where Clovis hunting artifacts and human-butchered mammoths have been unearthed. It has long been established that human activity ceased at these sites about 13,000 years ago, which is roughly the same time that mammoths disappeared.

They also found evidence of the supernova explosion's initial shockwave: 34,000-year-old mammoth tusks that are peppered with tiny impact craters apparently produced by iron-rich grains traveling at an estimated 10,000 kilometers per second.


These grains may have been emitted from a supernova that exploded roughly 7,000 years earlier and about 250 light years from Earth.

This can't be a supernova event since it hammered ONLY North America.


I subscribe to the 'blow up of a comet' theory for this reason. It destroyed the wildlife and humans who hunted these things but only in the Great Plains, not in Central or South America or even the Arctic circle region where there was no ice such as Alaska or Siberia in Eurasia.



Earthquake Shift Puts Kiwis Closer to Aussies in Distance Only


July 26, 2009

Rob Valentine, the mayor of Hobart in Australia's island state of Tasmania, says New Zealanders should be thankful their biggest earthquake in 78 years pushed the neighbors 30 centimeters (12 inches) closer.

"They're just that little bit closer to paradise," Valentine said. "As neighbors, we're really close, we can work together to take on the rest of the world."

The magnitude 7.8 quake on July 15, the strongest in the world this year, struck off New Zealand's South Island, according to seismological monitor GeoNet.


Hobart is the Australian city nearest to New Zealand, separated by 1,530 kilometers (951 miles) of water across the Tasman Sea.

Australia is rushing northwards faster than any tectonic plate on earth.


New Zealand is simply a ring of volcanic activity excited by this northwards trek. Australia is deforming the entire Pacific Basin and is the cause of all the volcanic activity of this 'Ring of Fire'.


And we might thank the Late Heavy Bombardment for the existence of our landmasses.


After all, I fear that maybe, there would not have been this 'soup' of lighter materials to ride on top of the iron core, if there wasn't a sudden surge in the amount of interplanetary matter!


Maybe, all our landmasses are really the Asteroid planet!