by Laura Knight-Jadczyk
28 January 2008
Comet of 1532
This morning I was thumbing through a newly arrived book:
Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society, published by the eminent
scientific publishing house, Springer, edited by Peter T. Bobrowsky
and Hans Rickman.
This book is a collection of scientific papers
presented at a workshop under the aegis of the International Council
In the introduction, we read:
The International Council for Science recently recognized that the
societal implications (social, cultural, political and economic) of
a comet/asteroid impact on Earth warrants an immediate consideration
by all countries in the world.
Wow! You think?
You mean it's not just us (and a few
others on the net) who are keeping track of the increasing number of
Fireballs and Meteorites that suggest we are passing through rather
dangerous areas of space, or that maybe
Something Wicked This Way
Yes, it seems so. In the chapter entitled "Social Perspectives on
Comet/Asteroid Impact (CAI) Hazards: Technocratic Authority and the
Geography of Social Vulnerability" we read:
Until quite recently, research into comet and asteroid hazards was
focused on establishing the scale and scope of past impacts,
credible estimates of their recurrence, and models for physical
impact scenarios... CAI hazards have moved well beyond the realm
of ungrounded speculation and apocalyptic visions.
represent more than just new findings. They revolutionize, or are
about to revolutionize, some basic understandings about the Earth,
its history, biological evolution and future. Although human life
has had a tiny place in the story so far, our longer term fate seems
to be challenged by these forces and may be decided by them.
In a chapter entitled "Social Science and Near-Earth Objects: an
Inventory of Issues", we read:
It would have been ridiculous, not too long ago, to admit openly
that you were thinking about asteroids and comets slamming into the
Earth. Such events could mean the end of the world as we know it -
TEOTWAWKI as millenialists call it - and that kind of talk is often
Respectable people are pondering the issues.
For example, S. Pete
Worden, who is a Brigadier General in the US Air Force and Deputy
Director for Command and Control Headquarters at the Pentagon, has
said that he believes,
"we should pay more attention to the
'Tunguska-class' objects - 100 meter or so objects which can strike
up to several times per century with the destructiveness of a
I located the General's comments and they are now in the SOTT
database. It seems that the above is not all the general said.
fact, he states quite unequivocally:
I can show people evidence of real strikes inflicting local and
regional damage less than a century ago. Even more compelling are
the frequent kiloton-level detonations our early warning satellites
see in the earth's atmosphere... Within the United States space
community there is a growing concern over "space situational
The general was writing back in 2000. "Less than a century ago."
That would be after 1900. He said that there were "real strikes
inflicting local and regional damage" since 1900?!
Did I miss something? Did all of us miss something?
Well, we'll come back to that soon enough. That's not what I wanted
to talk about today. Today, I wanted to pick up where we left off
last time, the end of the Hundred Years' War.
In the previous installments of this series of articles we have
looked at how the Black Death was probably a period of cometary
fragment bombardment leading to mass death on an unimaginable scale.
In today's world, the equivalent would be the deaths of two,
possibly three billion people planet-wide and many animals as well.
Just contemplating what humanity would do with that many bodies to
be disposed of is daunting, not to mention considering how society
The Black Death was no respecter of rank, either:
the elites died in proportionate numbers to the masses of ordinary
people. This has some interesting implications in terms of how the
elites are looking at the matter now, but again, that is something
we will come back to once we have a look at the evidence.
In our discussion of the Hundred Years' War, we learned that a great
cover-up was effected at the end of it all and this was mainly to
reestablish the religious control of the masses because, of course,
religious control has always been the right arm of princes and
Inasmuch as it was popularly believed that the continued sterility
of many years was caused by witches through the malice of the Devil,
the whole country rose to exterminate the witches. This movement was
promoted by many in office, who hoped wealth from the persecution.
And so, from court to court throughout the towns and villages of all
the diocese, scurried special accusers, inquisitors, notaries,
jurors, judges, constables, dragging to trial and torture human
beings of both sexes and burning them in great numbers. Scarcely any
of those who were accused escaped punishment. Nor were there spared
even the leading men in the city of Trier.
For the Judge, with two
Burgomasters, several Councilors and Associate Judges, canons of
sundry collegiate churches, parish priests, rural deans, were swept
away in this ruin. So far, at length, did the madness of the furious
populace and of the courts go in this thirst for blood and booty
that there was scarcely anybody who was not smirched by some
suspicion of this crime.
Meanwhile notaries, copyists, and innkeepers grew rich. The
executioner rode a blooded horse, like a noble of the court, and
went clad in gold and silver; his wife vied with noble dames in the
richness of her array. The children of those convicted and punished
were sent into exile; their goods were confiscated; plowman and
vintner failed hence came sterility.
A direr pestilence or a more
ruthless invader could hardly have ravaged the territory of Trier
than this inquisition and persecution without bounds: many were the
reasons for doubting that all were really guilty. This persecution
lasted for several years; and some of those who presided over the
administration of justice gloried in the multitude of the stakes, at
each of which a human being had been given to the flames.
though the flames were still unsated, the people grew impoverished,
rules were made and enforced restricting the fees and costs of
examinations and examiners, and suddenly, as when in war funds fail,
the zeal of the persecutors died out.
(Burr: Linden, Gesta
Trevirorum (from his manuscript in the City Library of Trier.
Latin. Printed in Hontheim's Historia Trevirensis diplomatica (iii,
p. 170, note) and in Wyttenbach and Muller's ed. of the Gesta
this LINK for many first hand accounts and details of
the witch persecutions.)
Indeed, the question that led to the persecution of witches was a
How could a world created by a watchful, benevolent,
and engaged God be such a mess?
Answering this question led to a
growth industry in persons and institutions dealing death and
destruction. We see a lot of that going on in our world today: the
"security industry" is booming in the mythical "War on Terror."
The Reformation divided Europe between Protestant regions and those
loyal to the Pope, but Protestants took the crime of witchcraft no
less seriously - and arguably even more so - than Catholics.
rife with sectarian strife, saw Europe's greatest execution rates of
witches - higher than those in the rest of the Continent combined.
Witch hysteria swept France in 1571 after Trois-Echelles, a
defendant accused of witchcraft from the court of Charles IX,
announced to the court that he had over 100,000 fellow witches
roaming the country. Judges responding to the ensuing panic by
eliminating for those accused of witchcraft most of the protections
that other defendants enjoyed.
Jean Bodin in his 1580 book, On the
Demon-Mania of Sorcerers, opened the door to use of testimony by
children against parents, entrapment, and instruments of torture.
Brief History of Witchcraft Persecutions before Salem)
Pope Innocent VIII
The problem is, of course, that the primary targets in any such
persecutions are those who talk about the calamities themselves and
point out that the religious faiths are obvious failures and perhaps
it might be better to look at the world rationally and
Such individuals must be accused of being witches or
"cults" and silenced because they threaten the very foundation of
Western Civilization, Uniformitarianism and the Fascist control of
humanity by such elements.
We know of what we speak first hand! Have a look at
The Disappeared: SOTT.net and Google's conspicuous omissions and then have a look at
this ongoing defamation undertaken by modern-day Witch Hunters:
Laura Knight Jadczyk's Cassiopaea Cult.
We wondered how long it
would take the psy-ops folks to set up a 9-11 framed attack on us.
As I commented yesterday, we must scare the be-jeezus out of the PTB
or so much effort wouldn't be spent on trying to shut us down,
suppress us, and, failing that, defame us.
But, getting back to the subject at hand (if one is going to be
defamed, one might as well be defamed for telling the WHOLE truth!),
in Victor Clube's narrative report funded by the USAF and Oxford,
the next important period of cometary calamity was the Thirty Years'
Let's look at a short timeline just to orient ourselves.
1337 to 1453 - Hundred Years War
1347/48 - 1351 - Black Death (included in the time period of the
Hundred Years' War)
1400 - Renaissance (begins as the Hundred Years War is ending)
1431- Joan of Arc burned at the stake for being a witch (included in
the time period of the Hundred Years' War)
1484 - Pope Innocent VIII announced that satanists in Germany were
meeting with demons, casting spells that destroyed crops, and
1486 - Malleus Maleficarum published
1500 - Witch persecutions begin
1515 - Outbreaks of witchcraft hysteria, with subsequent mass
1591 - King James authorizes the torture of suspected witches in
1600 - Renaissance ends "officially"
1606 - Shakespeare's "Macbeth" performed
1616 - Thirty Years War begins
1642 - Beginning of the English Civil War
1643 - The largest witch-hunt in French history occurred. For two
years there were at least 650 arrests in Languedoc alone. The same
time was one of intense witch-hunting in England, as the English
civil war created an atmosphere of unrest that fueled the hunting,
especially under Matthew Hopkins.
1648 - Thirty Years War ends
1651 - End of the English Civil War
1660 - Witch persecutions end - Europe saw between 50,000 and 80,000
suspected witches executed. About 80% of those killed were women.
Execution rates varied greatly by country, from a high of about
26,000 in Germany to about 10,000 in France, 1,000 in England, and
only four in Ireland. The lower death tolls in England and Ireland
owe in part to better procedural safeguards in those countries for
1682 - England executes its last witch, Temperance Lloyd, a senile
woman from Bideford. Lord Chief Justice Sir Francis North, a
passionate critic of witchcraft trials, investigated the Lloyd case
and denounced it as a farce. Witch-hunting shifted from one side of
the Atlantic to the other, with the outbreak of hysteria in Salem in
I'm not too sure why the Renaissance is said to end in 1600, looks
to me more like it was probably the Thirty Years' War that ended it.
But, never mind, that's the date range agreed on by most scholars.
The Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally
on the territory of today's Germany, and involved most of the major
It began as an ostensible religious conflict
between Protestants and Catholics and gradually developed into a
general war involving much of Europe, related to the France-Habsburg
rivalry for pre-eminence in Europe, which led later to direct war
between France and Spain.
Notes to ponder
The Thirty Years' War also pretty much spanned the
reign of Louis XIII of France (1610-1643).
Galileo lived from 1564
to 1642. Many adherents of Catharism, fleeing a papal inquisition
launched against their alleged heresies in France, had migrated into
Germany and the Savoy. This may have been at the root of the initial
religious conflict. In fact, Catharism may have fed the Protestant
The Thirty Years' War was one which utilized mercenary armies to a
great extent, and these hired killers were said to have devastated
entire regions leaving the inhabitants to suffer widespread famine
and disease which decimated the population. This affected primarily
the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries and
Italy. At the same time, it bankrupted many of the governmental
powers involved. Sounds a lot like what is happening today, doesn't
The English Civil War, which began after the Thirty Years War had
been going on for about 25 years (and was running out of steam and
people), consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political
machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as
Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers).
The question is, do we find any mentions of comets or other strange
astronomical phenomena during this period of time? As it happens, we
David Herlicius published in 1619 a discourse on a comet that had
appeared shortly before, in 1618, and enumerated the calamities that
this comet, and comets in general, bring with them or presage:
Desiccation of the crops and barrenness, pestilence, great stormy
winds, great inundations, shipwrecks, defeat of armies or
destruction of kingdoms... decease of great potentates and
scholars, schisms and rifts in religion, etc. The portents of comets
are threefold - in part natural, in part political, and in part
[William Whiston and the Deluge]
The seventeenth-century was witness to numerous comet sightings,
including those of 1618, 1664, 1665, and 1677.
Inquiries into these
comets produced a noteworthy number of scientific texts including,
Samuel Danforth's An Astronomical Description of the Late Comet
John Gadbury's treatise De Cometis (1665)
Hooke's 1678 report to the Royal Society, Cometa
complemented the earlier work of Brahe and Kepler and helped to
expand the emerging technical understanding of this particular
"This year (1618) brought on three bright
His observations on the three comets of 1618 were
published in De Cometis, contemporaneously with the Harmonice Mundi
My search for direct source material giving evidence of unusual
events from this time has been rather frustrating. I have found that
the only people reading the original documents are scholars who
generally refer to the descriptions of the time as being hyperbole,
or more or less "religious" metaphor, so it is frustrating to find
that these actual passages are quoted in the original language -
Not to be thwarted, I sent the material off to a
German friend of SOTT and he quickly returned a translation.
In the journal, German Life and Letters 54:2, Geoffrey Mortimer
published an article entitled "Style and Fictionalisation in
Eyewitness Personal Accounts of the Thirty Years War".
Eyewitness personal accounts of the Thirty Years War are of interest
not only for their overt content, but as examples of how the process
of writing itself can shape both the resultant text and the meaning
derivable from it by the reader.
Techniques adopted, probably
unconsciously, by writers seeking to give force and point to their
narratives, here collectively termed 'fictionalisation', add to
well-known problems of eyewitness testimony to affect the historical
evaluation of such sources.
We are going to see that, apparently, Mr. Mortimer hasn't been
reading the work of Victor Clube!
He goes on for some pages
explaining to us that the people who wrote these accounts were
mostly simple individuals who had no literary pretensions, and the
works themselves were things like diaries and records intended to be
passed down in families.
One item that he says was written to
"create the desired impression, possibly at the expense of strict
representational accuracy" is the following:
Due to war, pestilence, price rise and famine, our people are
reduced to such an extent, that it will be difficult for our
descendants to believe it.
Now, one has to keep in mind the meaning of the word "pestilence" as
we discussed already in a previous section. Jon Arrizabalaga, in his
article included in
Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black
Death, discusses the etiology of this word and how it was understood
by the peoples of the time.
The emphasis placed on celestial causes of the 'pestilence' by the
different physicians studied here varied quite widely...
Augustine of Trent, a friar eremite of St. Augustine, justified
having written a medical and astrological work on a 'pestilence of
diseases' happening everywhere in Italy, because of physicians'
ignorance about the roots of diseases; this fact was considered by
him 'a pestiferous mistake involving many physicians', and he blamed
it on their 'ignorance of astronomy'. ...
Works from other geographical areas assigned a more relevant role to
celestial causes in the genesis of the 'pestilence.' ...
Jacme d'Agramaont ...said nothing concerning the term
he extensively developed what he meant by pestilencia. He gave this
latter term a very peculiar etymology, in accordance with a from of
knowledge established by Isidore of Seville (570-636) in his
Etymologiae, which came to be widely accepted throughout Europe
during the Middle Ages.
He split the term pestilencia up into three
syllables, each having a particular meaning: pes = tempesta: 'storm,
tempest'; te = 'temps, time', lencia = clardat: 'brightness, light';
hence, he concluded, the pestilencia was 'the time of tempest caused
by light from the stars.'
And so, we have a better idea of what our German diarist meant when
Due to war, pestilence, price rise and famine, our people are
reduced to such an extent, that it will be difficult for our
descendants to believe it.
On page 5 (101) of Mortimer's paper, we read that a young officer at
the time of the sack of Magdeburg in 1631 wrote in his memoirs:
[A] grand storm-wind picked up, the town was inflamed at all
possible places, so that even little aid (rescue) was of help
(appreciated). ... then I saw the whole town of Magdeburg, except
dome, monastery and New Market, lying in embers and ashes, which
raged only about 3 or 3 1/2 hours, from which I deduced God's
strange omnipotence and punishment.
A "grand storm wind" and a town that was "inflamed" all over at
once, and burned to cinders in 3.5 hours? Perhaps the reader will
like to go back and re-read the description of how an overhead
cometary explosion would manifest, quoted at the beginning of the
Wars, Pestilence and Witches.
Note the date of the above event: 1631. As it happens, there were
other mysterious things happening on the planet at that time.
Comets and Popular Culture and the Birth of Modern Cosmology
Sara J. Schechner writes:
Comets, like other marvels, were exploited by polemicists in prodigy
books. In 1661-1662, for example, radical English dissenters
published sensationalist reports of prodigies, including comets,
which gloomily greeted the restoration of Charles II...
no fewer than twenty-five apparitions visible in seventeenth century
Europe, and these comets made frequent appearances in the polemical
broadsheets and chapbooks hawked in the marketplaces...
Comets were apparently flinging all over the place during this time.
One of these tracts shows comets in 1680, 1682, 1683. Another shows
five comets between 1664 and 1682. Another talks about comets of
A tract entitled "The Signs of The Times" shows a bunch of
prodigies that accompanied comets.
All these outbursts were concerned with specific political quarrels.
Some pamphleteers, however, raised themselves above the local rough
water to examine a larger vista. They thought they saw a
fast-approaching end to the world and their works adopted an
apocalyptic tone. The comet of 1580 confirmed Francis Shakelton in
his opinion that the Day of Judgment was near at hand...
Although Regiomontanus and others agreed that 1588 would be a year
of great revolutions and world mutations, Jesus had yet to reappear
when William Lilly viewed the comets of 1664 and 1665 and 1673 as
tokens of the beginning of the end.
In comets like that of 1680, E. Tonge, Christopher Ness, and others saw the great "northern star"
the messianic herald of the last days predicted by the sybyl
Tiburtina and Tycho Brahe.
Watercolour sketch labelled as 'the comet of 1532',
in a sixteenth century commonplace book.
This particularly bright
comet was seen for 119 days after its discovery at the end of 1532.
The astronomer Edmond Halley (1652-1742), famous for the comet named
suggested later that this particular comet may be related
to the bright one seen in 1661.
Studying its movements across the
sky, Halley concluded that both comets were one of the same,
followed identical orbits around the Sun.
Panic and joy were heightened by the great conjunction of Jupiter
and Saturn in the fiery trigon in 1682 which came on the heels of a
While great conjunctions take place every twenty
years, this one was part of an astrologically profound series of
conjunctions that commenced with the climacteric conjunction at the
close of the sixteenth century.
By definition, climacteric
conjunctions occurred only every eight hundred years when the great
conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn returned to the sign of Aries and
to the fiery trigon. It was widely reported by the popular press
that Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Johann Heinrich Alsted
correlated historical periods with climacteric conjunctions and
believed that they portended great mutations and reformations...
Tycho Brahe reckoned that all odd-numbered maximum conjunctions were
auspicious and urged people to look forward to the period of the
sabbatical or seventh climacteric conjunction since the world's
Creation which he believed would follow the conjunction in Aries in
During the conjunctions in Leo in October 1682, the planets
allegedly would be in the same configuration as they had been at the
beginning of the world. Alsted believed this might be the last
conjunction of the present world and publicly announced that the
Millennium would commence in 1694.
By itself, the great conjunction in the fiery trigon was a serious
matter but its power was corroborated by several other signs. Mars
joined Jupiter and Saturn in 1682. There was a solar eclipse. But
most critically, the great conjunction was ushered in by the comets
of 1680 and 1682 and the former was said to have been unrivaled in
eight hundred years. Many thought the comets augured the
Apocalypse... the end of the world...
In sensationalist street literature, radical pamphleteers took
advantage of these comets...
At the restoration, the Crown cracked
down on the almanacs of Lilly and others, blaming them for fomenting
insurrection and irreligion during the Civil War and Interregnum...
The author next discusses the major controls put in place at this
point to stamp out the popular discussion of predictions,
interpretations... of "signs in the skies."
So we can understand how
so much of this period of "panic" when "governments fell" was
covered up. Based on the number of pamphlets and broadsides, it must
have been a really crazy time and everybody was thinking the world
was going to end.
BUT, as we go through this description, we find a
most interesting item that relates to what our young officer
witnessed at the fall of Magdeburg:
The sunny disposition of the weather during the coronation (of
Charles II) was seen as the fulfillment of a prophecy. In 1630, at
the time of Charles' birth, a noonday star or rival sun allegedly
had appeared in the sky. ... Aurelian Cook in Titus Britannicus
explained its import: 'As soon as Born, Heaven took notice of him,
and eyed him with a star, appearing in defiance of the Sun at
For Cook, the extra sun announced that Charles ruled by divine
right. Moreover, the timing of Charles' entry into London on his
birthday was politically calculated to fulfill what had been
portended at his birth.
Abraham Cowley, poet, diplomat and spy for
the court wrote:
No Star amongst ye all did, I beleeve,
Such Vigorous assistance give,
As that which thirty years ago,
At Charls his Birth, did in despight of the proud
Suns' Meridian Light,
His future Glories, this Year foreshow.
Edward Matthew devoted an entire book to the fulfillment of the
prophecy declaring Charles "ordained to be the most Mighty Monarch
in the Universe..."
Charles' return was seen as a rebirth of England and duly recorded
by a special act in the statute book, which proclaimed that 29 May
was the most memorable Birth day not only of his Majesty both as a
man and Prince, but likewise as an actual King...
So, a "second sun" was seen on and around May 29, 1630, and on May
20, 1631, one year later, Magdeburg fell as described by our young
The standard historical description of the Fall of Magdeburg goes
pretty much as follows:
The fall of Magdeburg horrified Europe. The city had been starved
and then was bombarded unmercifully. The artillery shelling grew so
bad, the town caught on fire. Over 20,000 of the citizens perished
in the siege and the cataclysm that ended it. The city itself was
burned to the ground. The cruel and pointless devastation marked a
new low, an act abhorred by a generation well accustomed to horrors.
The war was to continue for 17 more years. 20 or 30 years later a
lot of new comets showed up, and I used to think that this "second
sun" seen at the time of the birth of Charles II may have been an
appearance of our sun's twin in the far reaches of the solar system.
However, with the scientific information provided by Clube and
Napier et al, I have changed my view.
In any event, we begin to see why Clube wrote:
[W]hen the prospect of these global catastrophes recurs, such is the
nerve-racking tension aroused in mankind that the principal leaders
of civilization have long been in the habit of dissembling as to
their cause (and likelihood) simply in order to preserve public calm
and avoid the total breakdown of civil affairs...
The Christian, Islamic and Judaic cultures have all moved since the
European Renaissance to adopt an unreasoning anti-apocalyptic
stance, apparently unaware of the burgeoning science of
catastrophes. History, it now seems, is repeating itself: it has
taken the Space Age to revive the Platonist voice of reason but it
emerges this time within a modern anti-fundamentalist,
anti-apocalyptic tradition over which governments may, as before, be
unable to exercise control.
The logical response is perhaps a
commitment on the part of government to the voice of reason and a
decision to eliminate all signs as well as perpetrators of cosmic
catastrophes in order to appease a public not too far given to rabid uniformitarianism.
Cynics... would say that we do not need the
celestial threat to disguise Cold War intentions; rather we need the
Cold War to disguise celestial intentions!
We see that the events of those times have been covered up and/or
forgotten, for the most part in their historical context.
Long after the event, John Dryden suggested that the comets of 1664
and 1665 were related to the Sun that was seen at the birth of
Charles II. He described this apparition as "That bright companion
of the sun..."
After the Thirty Years War was over, comets were associated with
witches and both were written off as superstition by the protestants
who pride themselves on having ushered in the scientific age.
C. Fix, professor of History at LaFayette College, PA, writes:
Blathasar Bekker was a minister in the Dutch Reformed church first
in Friesland and then in Holland.
He was educated in philosophy and
theology at the northern Dutch universities of Groningen and Franeker, becoming a Doctor of Theology at Franeker. Influenced by
Cartesian philosophy, he was an important critic of belief in
witchcraft in his book De Betoverde Weerld (the World Bewitched) in
which he argued against the possibility that disembodied spirits
could contact, influence, or do evil to human beings, and thus
against the possibility of witchcraft. ...
After writing a work critical of the terrestrial influence of comets
Bekker became interested in other popular superstitions including
witchcraft and sorcery. He approached these topics from the point of
view of a Reformed minister upholding the power and earthly
influence of God against the supposed power of witches and spirits.
In the discussions around the Sabbath, the earthly effects of
comets, and witchcraft Bekker was motivated in part by Cartesian
rationalism, in part by his Calvinist idea of God's omnipotence, and
in part by his view of Scriptural exegesis, which included the
doctrine of accommodation, the idea that God had in some places
accommodated his holy language to the limited understandings of men.
In volume one of The World Bewitched Bekker maintained that belief
in the Devil and evil spirits as well as in such things as fortune
telling, sorcery, and witchcraft were originally pagan beliefs
founded upon ignorance, prejudice, and fear that had over time crept
into the Catholic church and even into Bekker's own Reformed
In volume two of the work Bekker applied Cartesian dualism to argue
that the material and spiritual worlds could not interact with each
other outside man and therefore spirits without bodies such as the
Devil could have no influence or effect on people.
(Andrew C. Fix:
Angels, Devils, and Evil Spirits in Seventeenth-Century Thought: Balthasar Bekker and the Collegiants)
And so it was that records of the phenomena of that time as having
any impact on Earthly matters have been explained away, covered up,
dismissed, consigned to superstition and "cults."
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