Dr. Bruce H. Lipton, Ph.D.
Recent advances in cellular science are
heralding an important evolutionary turning point.
For almost fifty years we have held the
illusion that our health and fate were preprogrammed in our genes, a
concept referred to as genetic determinacy. Though mass
consciousness is currently imbued with the belief that the character
of one's life is genetically predetermined, a radically new
understanding is unfolding at the leading edge of science.
Cellular biologists now recognize that the environment (external
universe and internal-physiology), and more importantly, our
perception of the environment, directly controls the activity of
our genes. The lecture will broadly review the molecular mechanisms
by which environmental awareness interfaces genetic regulation and
guides organismal evolution.
quantum physics behind these
mechanisms provide insight into the communication channels that link
the mind-body duality.
An awareness of how vibrational signatures
and resonance impact molecular communication constitutes a master
key that unlocks a mechanism by which our thoughts, attitudes and
beliefs create the conditions of our body and the external world.
This knowledge can be employed to
actively redefine our physical and emotional well-being.
Knowledge of the philosophical foundation underlying conventional
(allopathic) medicine is relevant for it illuminates why and
how the dogma of genetic determinacy was derived.
Francis Bacon defined the
mission of Modern Science shortly after the onset of the Scientific
Accordingly, the purpose of science was,
"to dominate and control Nature."
To accomplish that goal,
scientists had to first acquire knowledge of what "controls" an
organism's structure and function (behavior).
Concepts founded in the principles of
Newtonian physics defined the experimental approach to this quest.
These principles stipulate that the Universe is a "physical
mechanism" comprised of parts (matter), there is no attention given
to the invisible "energy." In this world view, all that matters is
Consequently, modern science is
preoccupied with MATERIALISM.
The way to understand how a finely tuned mechanism works is to
disassemble it and analyze all of the component "parts."
This approach is called REDUCTIONISM.
Through an analysis of the parts and how they interact, defective part(s) in a malfunctioning organism can be identified and either
repaired or replaced with "manufactured" parts (drugs, engineered
genes, prosthetic devices, etc.). Knowledge of the body's mechanism
would enable scientists to DETERMINE how an organism works and how
to "control" the organism by altering its "parts."
Biologists were preoccupied with taking organisms apart and studying
their cells for the first half of this century. Subsequently, cells
were disassembled and their molecular "parts" catalogued and
Cells are comprised of four types of
large (macro-) molecules:
The name PROTEIN means "primary
element" (proteios, Gr.) for proteins are the primary components of
all plant and animal cells.
A human is made of ~100,000 different
Proteins are linear "chains," whose
molecular "links" are comprised of amino acid molecules. Each of the
20 different amino acids has a unique shape, so that when linked
together in a chain, the resulting proteins fold into elaborate
3-dimensional "wire sculptures." The protein's sculpture's pattern
is determined by the sequence of its amino acid links.
The balancing of electromagnetic charges
along the protein's chain serves to control the "final" shape of the
sculpture. The unique shape of a protein sculpture is referred to as
its "conformation." In the manner of a lock and key, protein
sculptures compliment the shape of environmental molecules (which
includes other proteins).
When proteins interlock with the
complimentary environmental molecules, they assemble into complex
structures (similar to the way cogged "gears" intermesh to make a
When proteins chemically couple with other molecules it changes the
distribution of electromagnetic charges in the protein. Changes in
"charge" cause the protein to change its shape. Therefore, upon
coupling with chemicals, a protein's will shift its shape from one
conformation to another conformation. A protein generates "motion"
as it changes shape.
A protein's movement can be harnessed to do
Groups of interacting proteins which
work together in carrying out a specific function are referred to as
"pathways." The activities of specific protein pathways provide for
digestion, excretion, respiration, reproduction and all of the other
physiologic "functions" employed by living organisms.
Proteins provide for the organism's structure and function, but
random protein actions can not provide for "life." Scientists needed
to identify the mechanism that "integrates" protein functions to
allow for the complex behaviors. Their search was linked to the fact
that proteins are labile (opposite of stabile). Like parts in a car,
proteins "wear-out" when they are used.
If an individual protein in a pathway
wears-out and is not replaced then the action of the pathway will
stop. To resume function, the protein must be replaced.
Consequently, behavioral functions were thought to be controlled by
"regulating" the presence or absence of proteins comprising the
The source of replacement protein parts
is related to "memory" factors that provide for heredity… the
passing on of "character".
The search for the hereditary factors that controlled protein
synthesis led to DNA. In 1953, Watson and Crick
unraveled the mystery of the "genetic code," which revealed how the
DNA served as a molecular "blueprint" that defined amino acid
sequences comprising a protein.
The DNA blueprint for each protein
is referred to as a GENE.
Since proteins define the character of
an organism and the proteins' structures are encoded in the DNA,
biologists established the dogma known as the Primacy of DNA. In
this context, Primacy means "first level of control." It was
concluded that DNA "controls" the structure and behavior of living
Since DNA "determines" the character of
an organism, then it is appropriate to acknowledge the concept of
Genetic Determinism, the idea that
the structure and behavior of an organism are defined by its genes.
Science's materialist-reductionist-determinist philosophy led to the
Human Genome Project, the multibillion dollar program to
map all of the genes. Once this is accomplished, it is assumed that
we can use that knowledge to repair or replace "defective" genes and
in the process, realize Science's mission of "controlling" the
expression of an organism.
Since 1953, biologists have assumed that DNA "controls" life. In multicellular animals, the organ that
"controls" life is known as
Since genes are presumed to control
cellular life, and genes are contained in the cell's nucleus, the
nucleus would be expected to be the equivalent of the cell's
Dispelling the Myth
If the brain is removed from any organism, the immediate and
necessary consequence of that action is - death of the organism.
Removing the cell's nucleus, referred to as enucleation,
would be tantamount to removing the cell's brain. Though
enucleation should result in the immediate death of the cell,
enucleated cells may continue to survive and exhibit a "regulated"
control of their biological processes.
In fact, cells can live for two or more
months without a nucleus. Clearly, the assumption that genes
"control" cell behavior is wrong!
As is described by Nijhout (X), genes are "not
self-emergent," that is genes can not turn themselves on or off. If
genes can't control their own expression, how can they control the
behavior of the cell? Nijhout further emphasizes that genes are
regulated by "environmental signals." Consequently, it is the
environment that controls gene expression.
Rather than endorsing the Primacy of
DNA, we must acknowledge the Primacy of the Environment!
Cells "read" their environment, assess the information and then
select appropriate behavioral programs to maintain their survival.
The fact that data is integrated, processed and used to make a
calculated behavioral response emphasizes the existence of a "brain"
equivalent in the cell.
Where is cell's brain? The answer is to be
found in bacteria, the most primitive organisms on Earth.
The many processes and functions of this
unicellular life form are highly integrated, consequently, it must
have a brain equivalent. Cytologically, these organisms do
not contain any
organelles (diminutive of "organs)
such as nuclei, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, etc.
The only organized
structure in these primitive life forms is its "cell membrane," also
known as its plasmalemma.
The cell membrane, once thought to be
like a permeable
Saran Wrap that holds the cytoplasm
together, actually provides for the bacterium's digestive,
respiratory, excretory and integumentary (skin) systems. It also
serves as the cell's "brain."
The cell membrane is primarily composed of "phospholipids" and
Phospholipids, which resemble lollipops with two sticks,
are arranged in a crystalline bilayer. The membrane resembles a
bread and butter sandwich, wherein the lipid "sticks" form the
central butter layer. The phospholipid bilayer forms a skin-like
barrier which separates the external environment from the internal
Built into the membrane are special proteins called Integral
Membrane Proteins (IMPs).
IMPs look like olives in the membrane's bread and butter sandwich.
There are two classes of IMPs: RECEPTORS and EFFECTORS.
Receptors are the cell's "sense" organs,
the equivalents of eyes, ears, nose, etc.
When a receptor recognizes
and binds to a signal, it responds by changing its conformation.
Conventional biology stipulates that receptors only respond to "matter" (molecules), a belief consistent with the Newtonian view of
the Universe as a "matter machine."
Leading edge contemporary cell research has transcended conventional
Newtonian physics and is now soundly based upon a universe created
out of energy as defined by quantum physics. This new physics
energetics over materialism,
substitutes holism for reductionism, and recognizes uncertainty in
place of determinism. Consequently, we now recognize that receptors
respond to energy signals as well as molecular signals.
Conventional medicine has consistently ignored research published in
its own main-stream scientific journals, research that clearly
reveals the regulatory influence that electromagnetic fields have on
cell physiology. Pulsed electromagnetic fields have been shown to
regulate virtually every cell function, including DNA synthesis, RNA
synthesis, protein synthesis, cell division, cell differentiation,
morphogenesis and neuroendocrine regulation.
These findings are relevant for they
acknowledge that biological behavior can be controlled by
"invisible" energy forces, which include thought.
When activated by its complimentary signal, the protein receptor
changes its conformation so that it is able to complex with a
Effector proteins carry out cell behaviors. Effector
proteins may be enzymes, cytoskeletal elements (cellular equivalents
of muscle and bone ) or transporters (proteins that carry electrons,
protons, ions, and other specific molecules across the "bread and
Generally effector proteins are
inactive in their resting conformation. However, when the receptor
binds to the effector protein, it causes the effector
to changes its own conformation from an inactive to an active form.
This is how an environmental signal activates a cell's behavior. The
activity of effector IMPs generally regulate the behaviors of
cytoplasmic protein pathways, like those associated with digestion,
excretion, and cell movement.
If specific functional proteins are
not already present in the cell, activated effector IMPs send
a signal to the nucleus and elicit required gene programs.
Receptor IMPs "see" or are "aware" of their environment and
effector IMPs create physical responses that translate
environmental signals into an appropriate biological behavior. The
IMP complex controls behavior, and through its affect upon
regulatory proteins, these IMPs also control gene expression.
IMP complexes provide the cell with "awareness of the environment
through physical sensation," which by dictionary definition
represents perception. Each receptor-effector protein complex
collectively constitutes a "unit of perception."
A biochemical definition of the cell membrane reads as
the membrane is a liquid crystal (phospholipid
organization), semiconductor (the only things that can cross the
membrane barrier are those brought across by transport IMPs)
with gates (receptor IMPs) and channels (effector IMPs).
This definition is exactly the same as
that used to define a computer chip. Recent studies have
verified that the cell membrane is in fact an
organic HOMOLOGUE of a silicon chip.
Taken in this context, the cell is a self-powered microprocessor.
Simply stated, the cell IS an organic computer.
The operation of the
cell can be easily understood by noting its homology to the
the "CPU" (information
processing mechanism) is the cell membrane
the keyboard (data entry) are
the membrane receptors
the disk (memory) is the nucleus
the screen (data output) is the
physical state of the cell
Receptor/effector IMP complexes, the
units of "perception," are equivalent to computational BITS.
When new, heretofore unrecognized, "signals" enter the environment,
the cell creates new perception units to respond to them. New
perception units require "new" genes for the IMP proteins. The
cell's ability to make new IMP receptors and respond to the new
signal with an appropriate survival-oriented response (behavior) is
the foundation of evolution.
Cells "learn" by making new receptors
and integrating them with specific effector proteins.
Cellular memory is represented by the "new" genes that code for
these proteins. This process enables organisms to survive in ever
This learning/evolution mechanism is employed by the immune system.
To the immune cell
(T-lymphocyte), invasive ANTIGENS (e.g., viruses, bacteria,
toxins, etc.) represent "new" environmental signals.
T-lymphocytes create protein
ANTIBODIES which complement and bind to the antigens.
Antibodies are "receptors" for
they specifically recognize their antigen "signal."
Protein antibody structure is
encoded in genes (DNA). In making new antibodies, cells
"create" new genes.
A cell's awareness of the environment is
reflected in its receptor population.
In single-celled organisms (bacteria,
protozoa and algae), the cell's receptors respond to all
survival-related environmental signals. These signals include
elements of the physical environment (light, gravity, temperature,
salts, minerals, etc.), food (nutrients, other organisms), and
life-threatening agents (toxins, parasites, predators, etc.).
In multicellular organisms, the cells evolved additional
receptors required for "community" identity and integration.
Integration receptors respond to information signals (hormones,
growth factors) used to coordinate functions in cell communities. A
special group of receptors confer "identity" so that members of the
cellular community can collectively respond to a "central" command.
Identity receptors are referred to as "self receptors," or "histocompatibility
Self-receptors are used by the immune
system to distinguish "self" from invasive organisms. Organs or
tissues can not be exchanged unless they bear the same
self-receptors as the recipient.
When a perception unit recognizes an environmental signal, it will
activate a cell function. Though there are hundreds of behavioral
functions expressed by a cell, all behaviors can be classified as
either growth or protection responses. Cells move toward growth
signals and away from life-threatening stimuli (protection
response). Since a cell can not move forward and backward at the
same time, a cell can not be in growth and protection at the same
At the cellular level, growth and
protection are mutually exclusive behaviors. This is true for human
cells as well. If our tissues and organs perceive a need for
protection, they will compromise their growth behavior. Chronic
protection leads to a disruption of the tissue and its function.
What happens if a cell experiences a stressful environment but does
not have a gene program (behavior) to deal with the stress?
It is now recognized that cells can
"rewrite" existing gene programs in an effort to overcome the
stressful condition. These DNA changes are mutations. Until
recently, all mutations were thought to be "random," meaning that
the outcome of the mutation could not be directed. It is now
recognized that environmental stimuli can induce "adaptive"
mutations which enable a cell to specifically alter its genes.
Furthermore, such mutations may be mediated by an organism's
perception of its environment.
For example, if an organism "perceives a
stress that is actually not there, the misperception can actually
change the genes to accommodate the "belief."
The structure of our bodies are
defined by our proteins.
Proteins represent physical
complements of the environment.
Consequently, our bodies are
physical compliments of our environment.
IMP perception units in the
cell's membrane convert the environment into awareness.
Reception of environmental
signals change protein conformations.
The "movement" generated by
protein shape changes is harnessed by the cell to do "work."
Life (animation) results from
protein movements which are translated as "behavior."
Cells respond to perception by
activating either growth or protection behavior programs.
If the necessary behavior-providing
proteins are not present in the cytoplasm, the IMP perception units
can activate expression of appropriate genes in the cell's nucleus.
"Perceptions" lie between the
environment and cell expression. If our perceptions are accurate,
the resulting behavior will be life enhancing.
If we operate from "misperceptions," our
behavior will be inappropriate and will jeopardize our vitality by
compromising our health.
Read the full book, "The
and Additional Good References
These references are organized into subject categories and serve as
references to related information.
Relevance of each article enclosed in
parentheses. Most references are from the journal Science, this
source is present in almost all local libraries and schools of
Articles with an * are written for
general reading audiences.
Physics and Biology
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* A New Twist on Molecular Shape Frank Weinhold, Nature 2001,
411:539-541 (Reveals why Newtonian-based chemistry textbooks
hinder advance into quantum mechanical understanding of
* Biologists Cut Reductionist Approach Down to Size Nigel
Williams, Science 1997, 277:476-477 (Current science is
materialistic since "information" considered to be only found in
* Complex Systems: Beyond Reductionism Science 1999, 284:79-109
Collection of 10 articles that question continued use of
"Reductionism" and endorse "Holism" as necessary for acquiring
* Detecting Individual Atoms and Molecules with Laser: Every
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wavelengths, V. S. Letokhov Scientific American September 1988
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266:215-217 (Research on how vibrational energy affects specific
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272:646-648 (Bringing new physics to cell biology)
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Science 1974, 227:74-83 (States that vibrational energy
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New Concepts Regarding Gene Expression and
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Genes in Development H. F. Nijhout BioEssays 1990, 12
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need environmental signal for activation)
* The Origin of Mutants John. Cairns, J. Overbaugh and S. Miller
Nature 1988, 335:142-145 (This was first major paper on
"adaptive" mutations [i.e., mutations that are not random!])
* The Evolution of Genetic Intelligence David S. Thaler Science
1994, 264:224-225 (Discusses new papers which verify adaptive (Cairnsian)
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* * Evolution Evolving Tim Beardsley Scientific American
September 1997, pages 15-16 (Provides the first notice of Cairns
study to the "general public," almost ten years after it was
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Science 2000, 289:1455-1457 (Moveable genes create rapid changes
in DNA code)
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284:62-63, (Genetic mechanisms for "adaptive" mutations)
* Test Tube Evolution Catches Time in a Bottle T. Appenzeller
Science 1999 284:2108-2110 (The "regularity" and
"reproducibility" (not chance) of mutational response in genetic
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394:439-447 (Nature selects organisms that benefit Earth, not
survival of the "fittest")
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et al., Science 2001, 291:1001-1004 (Discusses that traits are
due multi-genes, many genes acting together, allows "buffering"
of effect of individual mutated genes)
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290:1066-1067 (Same "transcription factors" used for 3 different
genes in same nucleus, how does single factor select among three
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406:347-348 (Reviews 2 books by evolutionary geneticist R.
Lewontin, who questions current genetics dogma as "bad science,"
brings up environment-gene issues)
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(Compares the new understanding of gene function and behavior
with the established "DNA dogma")
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News 2000 157:406 (A single gene can create 38,000 different
versions of a protein, knowing gene does not predict the outcome
* * How the Genome Readies Itself for Evolution E. Pennisi
Science 1998, 281:1131-1134
* * Doubled Genes May Explain Fish Diversity G. Vogel Science
1998, 281:1119-1121, and
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Wills Scientific American January 1999, pages 94-99
* Twinned Genes Live Life In The Fast Lane E. Pennisi Science
2000, 290:1065-1066 (Reviews article on how gene duplication
serves as source for "new" genes and other new DNA mutation
mechanisms to support rapid evolution)
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263:608-610 (Junk DNA s important role in evolution)
* * Quick-Change Pathogens Gain an Evolutionary Edge D. Grady
Science 1996, 274:1081 Versatile Gene Uptake System Found in
Cholera Bacterium E. Pennisi Science 1998, 280:521-522 (Bacteria
pick-up environmental genes)
* Close Encounters: Good, Bad, and Ugly E. Pennisi Science 2000,
290:1491-1493 (Microrganisms exchange DNA in cooperation,
resulting in continuous evolution thru interaction)
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Gene Expression T. Misteli Science 2001, 291:843-847 (Describes
role of nuclear proteins in gene expression)
Transcription: from information to
* how chromatin changes
its shape michael hagmann science 199, 285:1201-1203 (how
environmental signals [growth/protection] select gene programs)
* catalysis by a multiprotein ib kinase complex t. maniatis
science 1997, 278:818-819 (an example to illustrate pathway from
signal at membrane receptor to nuclear gene activation)
* inner workings of a transcription factor partnership b. j.
graves science 1998, 279:1000-1002 (how proteins turn on genes)
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news 1998, 153:276 (receptor relay system controls gene
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pawson and j. d. scott science 1997, 278:2075-2080 and, integrin
signaling f. g. giancotti and e. ruoslahti science 1999,
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* Epigenetics: Regulation
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286:481-486 ("Acquired" characteristics passed from parent to
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288:39 (Environment controls genes through "epigenetic"
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Dean and J. Walter Science 2001, 293:1089-1093 (Describes how
environmental programs, ie, epigenetic control templates, are
erased and reset in embryonic development)
* Reprogramming of genomic function through epigenetic
inheritance M. A. Surani Nature 2001, 414:122-128 (Describes
"genomic imprinting," mechanism by which parents program gene
expression in offspring)
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grail? h. j. c. berendsen science 1998, 282:642-643 (how
proteins fold into shapes)
* * folding proteins caught in the act r. f. service science
1996, 273:29-30 (seeing dynamics of protein folding)
* * proteins in motion m. gerstein and c. chothia science 1999,
285:1682-1684 (how membrane protein conformation changes send
signals into cytoplasm)
* the rotary enzyme of the cell: the rotation of f1-atpase
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(Insight into how protein conformation changes produce work)
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Barinaga Science 1999, 283:1247-1249 (How connections between
proteins regulate cell pathways)
* the molecules of the cell
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* the structure of proteins in biological membranes
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September 1997 pgs62-67 (Using membrane technology to engineer
membrane transport and reception)
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Proteins D. M. Engelman Science 1996, 274:1850-1851 (Reviews
mechanisms by which proteins incorporate into lipid membrane)
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* Structure of the MscL Homolog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis:
A Gated Mechanosensitive Ion Channel G. Chang et al., Science
1998, 282:220-226 Mechanosensation and the DEG/ENaC Ion Channels
D. P. Corey and J. Garcia-Anoveros Science 1996, 273:323-324
(Membrane mechanism to transduce physical stresses into
electrical activity/cell control)
* * The Architecture of Life D. Ingber Scientific American
January 1998 pgs48-57 (role of tensegrity in shaping cellular
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2000, 290:1721-1726 (Describes cholesterol s role in membrane
dynamics, discusses lipid "rafts" that transport IMPs)
Information in Biology
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T. K. Attwood Science 2000, 290:471 (Now that the genome is
sequenced, so what. Major obstacle was not in identifying the
genes but in understanding the code)
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a digital chip out of a cell membrane)
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(Surface Receptors-how cells know who they are and where they
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reductionism in cell information pathways)
Creating new perception proteins:
the antibody as a model system
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276:1658-1659 (the molecular nature of "learning and memory" as
seen in antibody maturation)
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precise nature of gene mutations in antibody formation)
* b cell receptor rehabilitation-pausing to reflect
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they are formed)
cells used in "regenerate" tissues and organs in adults
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Electromagnetics and Cell Behavior
* Pulsing Electromagnetic
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* Exposure of Salivary Gland Cells to Low-frequency
Electromagnetic Fields Alters Polypeptide Synthesis R. Goodman
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AM and FM)
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energies physically alter protein structure/function)
* * Electromagnetic Fields May Trigger Enzymes M. Jensen Science
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* * EMF's Biological Influences:Electromagnetic fields exert
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Environment and Behavior (also see Conscious Parenting
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(Bipolar disorder can be controlled by adhering to daily routine
* * Behavioral Genetics in Transition Charles C. Mann Science
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* * A Cellular Striptease Act Z. Werb and Y. Yan Science 1998,
282:1279-1280, The Plasticity of Ion Channels: Parallels between
the Nervous and Immune Systems R. S. Lewis and M. D. Cahalan
Trends in Neuroscience 1988, 11:214-218 Social Status Sculpts
Activity of Crayfish Neurons M. Barinaga Science 1996,
271:290-291 (Papers that show how environmental experiences
change cell behavior by changing population/action of membrane
* A Model of Host-Microbial Interactions in an Open Mammalian
Ecosystem L. Bry, et al. Science 1996, 273:1380-1383 (Human
genes selected by environmental bacteria)
* * How the Malarial Parasite Manipulates Its Hosts V. Morell
Science 1997, 278:223 (Parasite genes change to accommodate
* * Eugenics Revisited J. Horgan Scientific American June 1993
pgs122-131 (Corrects some misinterpretations regarding
extravagant claims of genes controlling behavior)
* * Habitat Seen Playing Larger Role In Shaping Behavior D.
Normile Science 1998, 279:1454-1455 (Reveals major role of
environment over genes)
* A Cellular Rescue Team J.
L. Pomerantz and D Baltimore Nature 2000, 406:26-29 (describes
how cytokine signal selects between cell growth and death
* Akt Signaling: Linking Membrane Events to Life and Death
Decisions B. A. Hemmings Science 1997, 275:628-630 (Life-death
* * Sphinx of Fats J. Raloff Science News 1997, 151:342-343 (How
ceremide signal gauges level of stress)
* * Superoxide Relay Ras Protein s Oncogenic Message E. Pennisi
Science 1997, 275:1567-1568 (Growth-protection switch mechanism)
* A Strong Candidate for the
Breast and Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Gene BRCA1 Y. Miki, et
al., Science 1994, 266:66-71;
* * Breast Cancer Gene Offers Surprises author? (news) Science
1994, 265:1796-1799 (genetic factors account for ~5% of breast
* Silencing the BRCA1 Gene Spells Trouble N. Seppa Science News
2000, 157:247 Silencing a Gene Slows Breast-Tumor Fighter N.
Seppa Science News 2000, 157:407 ("Silencing" a process by which
environment/behavior regulate gene expression, environmental
switches activate cancer)
* * Epidemiology Faces Its Limits Gary Taubes Science 1995,
269:164-169 ("External" factors cause 70-90% cancer/regarding
epidemiology: don t believe all you hear! Real science vs
* * Oncogenes Reach a Milestone Jean Marx Science 1994,
266:1942-1944 (Most "cancer" genes are normal cellular genes
with a control problem)
* Transient Expression of a Mutator Phenotype in Cancer Cells L.
L. Loeb Science 1997, 277:1449-1450 ("Adaptive mutation"
mechanism activated in cancer, but not in "normal" cells)
* * Outside Influences: A cancer cell s physical environment
controls its growth J. Travis Science News 1997, 152:138-139
* * Putative Cancer Gene Shows Up in Development Instead W.
Roush Science 1997, 276:534-535 (Digital switches +/- in cell
* Obesity, Cancer and Heart Attacks: How Your Odds are Set in
the Womb S. Begley, J. Davenport and E. Check Newsweek Sept. 27,
1999, pages 50-56 (Evidence showing life-long health is
determined by life in the womb)
* Death and Methylation P. A. Jones Nature 2001, 409:141-144 (
Significance of epigenetic [environmental] control in melanoma
and other cancer)
* Growing Old Together E. Strauss Science 2001, 292:41-43
(Reveals "common" aging mechanism among all organisms, aging
related to metabolism, insulin pathways)
* Why Do We Age? T. Kirkwood and S. Austad Nature 2000,
408:233-238 (Reviews role of caloric intake, metabolism and
stress upon aging response)
* * Conditions That Appear to
Favor Extrasensory Interactions Between Homo Sapiens and
Microbes C. M. Pleass & N. Dean Dey J. Scien Exploration 1990,
4:213-231 (Human thought can control experiment s results!)
* *Listening in on the Brain Science 1998, 280:376-378
(Perception linked to synchronous firing of neurons)
* Recording and Interpretation of Cerebral Magnetic Fields R.
Hari and O. V. Lounasmaa Science 1989, 244:432-436 (How brain
activity surrounds body)
* The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox in the Brain:The
Transferred Potential J. Grinberg-Zylberbaum, et al. Physics
Essays 1994, 7(4);422-XX (Describes research on brains
interacting over distances)
* The Evoked Magnetic Field of the Human Brain L. Kaufman and S.
J. Williamson Annals New York Academy of Sciences 1980, 340:45
(How brain magnetic fields surround body)
* Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and The Human Brain M.
Hallett, Nature 2000, 406:147-150 (TMS mechanism explained, plus
insights to therapeutic use)
* Boosting Brain Activity From The Outside In L. Helmuth Science
2001, 292:1284-1286 (Directing magnetic fields into brain [TMS]
can change behavior and relieve depression)
* *The Placebo Effect W. A. Brown Scientific American January
1998 pgs 90-95
* *Placebos Prove So Powerful Even Experts Are Surprised S.
Blakeslee NY Times (On the Web) 10/13/1998 Can the Placebo Be
the Cure? [Prozac is 80% placebo!] M. Enserink Science 1999,
284:238-240 (The mind over matter story)
* style='font-size:10.0pt;color:black'>Medical applications of
neurofeedback style='font-size:10.0pt; color:black'> R. Laibow
in Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback (1999), James R. Evans and
Andrew Abarbanel, eds., Academic Press (Describes sequential
origin of EEG states during development)
* Brain Changes in
Response to Experience M. Rosenzweig, E. L. Bennett and M. C.
Diamond, Scientific American 1972, 226(2):22-29 (Classic paper-
shows brain cell populations dynamically adjust up or down with
* * Adult Human Brains Add New Cells J. Travis Science News
1998, 154:276 and, Brain, Heal Thyself D.H. Lowenstein and J. M.
Parent, Science 1999, 283:1126-1127 (Dispelling myth about "no
new neurons", how brains regenerate)
* Dementia May Travel Lonely Road B. Bower Science News 2000,
157:263 (Lack of social connections linked to dementia/Alzheimer
s disease, use it or lose it)
* * Grown-Up Monkey Brains Get Growing B. Bower Science News
1998, 153:180 (Brain remodeling occurs in adults, influence by
stress and trauma)
* Teaching the Spinal Cord to Walk I. Wickelgren Science 1998,
279:319-321 (Spinal cords severed from brain create neural
connections, i.e., "learn," how to walk through muscle feedback
* * Mapping the Sensory Mosaic S. L. Juliano Science 1998,
279:1653-1654 (Brain "maps" dynamically altered to reflect
* * Solving the Brain s Energy Crisis Ann Gibbons Science 1998,
280:1345-1347 (Discusses "genomic imprinting," how regulatory
proteins select maternal/paternal genes in response to
* Gray Matters J. Netting Science News 2001, 159:222-223
(Reviews important contributions of glial cells in brain
* Control of Synapse Number by Glia E. Ullian, et a3,. Science
2001, 291:657-662 (Glial cells control synapse formation between
* A Glial-Neuron Signaling Pathway Revealed by Mutations in a
Neurexin-Related Protein L. Yuan and B. Ganetzky Science 1999,
283:1343-1345 (Glial cells modify response of Neurons)
* Nongenomic transmission
across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in
the rat d. francis, j. diorio, d. liu and m. meaney science
1999, 286:1155-1158 (maternal care [i.e., environment]
influences child s behavior and can change genetics in next
* where health begins -- obesity, cancer and heart attacks: how
your odds are set in the womb style='font-size: 10.0pt'> S.
Begley, J. Davenport and E. Check Newsweek Sept. 27, 1999, pages
50-56 (Evidence showing lifelong health is determined by life in
* Psychological Influences of Stress and HPA Regulation on the
Human Fetus and Infant Birth Outcomes style='font-size: 10.0pt'>
C. A. Sandman, et al. Annals of the NY Acad. of Sciences 1994,
739:198-210 (Stress in third trimester can permanently influence
brain mechanisms and behavior)
* Weight Matters, Even in the Womb D. Christensen Science News
* Severe Emotional Stress in First Trimester Linked with
Congenital Malformations D. Hansen et al. Lancet 2000,
356:875-880 (High stress hormones in first trimester linked to
50% increase in cranial malformations)
* The Mental Butler Did It B. Bower Science News 1999,
156:280-282 (Most behavior operates subconsciously from
repeating "tapes" created from "programmed" life experiences)
* Effects of Neonatal Handling on Age-Related Impairments
Associated with the Hippocampus M. J. Meaney, et al. Science
1988, 239:766-768 (Perinatal parenting impacts brain function
* * Solving the Brains Energy Crisis A. Gibbons Science 1998,
280:1345-1347 (Important: see sidebar regarding genomic
imprinting and role of mother s perception in fetal brain
* * The Heritability of IQ B. Devlin, et al. Nature 1997,
388:468-471 The Democracy of Genes M. McGue Nature 1997,
388:417-418 (Emphasizes prenatal environment influences upto 50%
* Nurture Helps Mold Able Minds I. Wickelgren Science 1999,
283:1832-1834, and, Kids Adopted Late Reap IQ Increases B. Bower
Science News 1999, 1546:X (Early environment influences shape
and "reshape" IQ development)
* * The Importance of a Well-Groomed Child R. M. Sapolsky
Science 1997, 277:1620-1621 (Role of parenting produces life
long [genetic/biochemical] influences on offspring)
* Child Abuse and Neglect: Usefulness of Animal Data D.
Maestripieri and K. A. Carroll Psychological Bulletin 1998,
123:211-216 (Child neglect and abuse derived from "learning"
* Genetics of Mouse Behavior: Interactions with Laboratory
Environment J. C. Crabbe, et al. Science 1999, 284:1670-1672
(Genetically identical strains, different environments produce
* Multiple Pathways to Conscience for Children with Different
Temperments G. Kochanska Developmental Psychology 1997,
33:228-234 (Conscience development linked to mother s
* Tourette Syndrome: Prediction of Phenotypic Variation in
Monozygotic Twins by Caudate Nucleus D2 Receptor Binding S.S.
Wolf, et al. Science 1996, 273:1225-1227 (Prenatal environmental
influences offspring s gene expression)
* Your Child s Brain S. Begley Newsweek 2/19/96, pgs 55-62
(Reviews role of parents in child s brain development)
* A New Look at Maternal Guidance Elizabeth Pennisi Science
1996, 273:1334-1336 (Describes new work on maternal experiences
selecting gene programs in offspring)
* * The Moral Development of Children W. Damon Scientific
American August 1999, pages 72-78 (Parent behaviors shape child
s moral behavior)
* Duke Study Faults Overuse of Stimulants for Children
style='font-size: 10.0pt'> E. Marshall Science 2000, 289:721 and
Study of Stimulant Therapy Raises Concern B. Bower Science News
2000, 158:69 (Half of Ritalin using ADHD kids DO NOT have ADHD!)
* Altered Nociceptive Neuronal Circuits After Neonatal
Peripheral Inflammation M. A. Ruda, et al Science 2000,
289:628-630 (Early painful stimuli rewire neonatal brains, cause
increased sensitivity to pain in later life)
Stress and Biology
* * Don't Stress K.
Leutwyler Scientific American Jan. 1998 pgs 29-30 (Stress causes
developmental problems and neurodegeneration)
* Functions of Ceramide in Coordinating Cellular Responses to
Stress Y. A. Hannun Science 1996, 274:1855-1859 (Reveals how
cell behavior is divided into Growth and Protection functions)
* * Healthy Functioning Takes Social Cues B. Bower Science News
1998, 153:391 (Stressful jobs/lonely life increase physical
* * Immigrants Go from Health to Worse B. Bower Science News
1998, 154:180 (US culture increases stress and leads to mental
* * Physical Ills Follow Trauma Response B. Bower Science News
1997, 152:372 (Title self-explanatory)
* * Probing the Biology of Emotion C. Mlot Science 1998,
280:1005-1007 (Emotions trigger behavioral and brain changes)
* Gigantism in Mice Lacking Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling-2
D. Metcalf Nature 2000, 405:1069-1073 (Suppression of immune
system leads to greater growth of organism)
* * Stress Hormone May Speed Up Brain Aging B. Bower Science
News 1998, 153:263 (Title self-explanatory)
* * The Biology of Being Frazzled A. F. T. Arnsten Science 1998,
280:1711 (stress reduces intelligence)
* * The Cortisol Connection:Does Stress hormone play a role in
AIDS? K. Fackelmann Science News 1997,152:350-351 (Title
* * Tracing Molecules That Make The Brain-Body Connection. E.
Pennisi Science 1997 275: 930-931 (Regulation of immune system
* Gene Expression Profile of Aging and its Retardation by
Caloric Restriction C-K. Lee, R. G. Klopp, R. Weindruch and T.
Prolla Science 1999, 285:1390-1393 (How stress signals select
genes that promote aging)