by Iona Miller and Richard Alan Miller
Organization for the Advancement of Knowledge, Grants Pass, Oregon
"One really should start
in terms of biomind receptors,
in terms of ESP"
SHOT IN THE DARK-SIDE
OF THE MOON
While on his journey to the moon and back, astronaut Edgar
Mitchell conducted an unscheduled experiment of his own.
22, 1971, he informed the New York Times that:
"During the Apollo 14 lunar
expedition I performed an extrasensory-perception experiment the
world's first in space. In it five symbols a star, cross,
circle, wavy line and square were oriented randomly in columns
Four persons in the United States
attempted to guess the order of the symbols. They were able to
do this with success that could be duplicated by chance in one
out of 3,000 experiments."
He claimed, in effect, that his
demonstration showed that ESP (Extrasensory Perception) was independent of shielding, locale,
distance, or time.
When he got back to planet Earth, he founded
The Institute of Noetic Science (IONS), noetic
meaning consciousness studies. That program, now run by
parapsychologist Dean Radin, is still thriving and the Institute
recently moved to larger quarters in an old school in Petaluma,
IONS is celebrating its 30th
MAKES ME WANT
The spontaneous event commonly called psychic experience, perception
or ability is called 'psi' in scientific arenas.
precisely, it is now often referred to as anomalous cognition (AC).
A particular form of intentional AC is known as
Between 1978-1995 the U.S. government sponsored the
Program, in conjunction with Stanford Research Institute (SRI), a psyops development think tank.
The existence of psi or ESP abilities has been hotly debated among
scientists for decades, since J. B. Rhine began his experiments in
Both the pro (Dean Radin; Ingo Swann; Jessica Utts, Russell
Targ; Hiroshi Motoyama) and con (James Randi, Susan Blackmore,
CSICOPS) positions have their "true believers", and it seems never
the twain shall meet.
Psi is still a paradigm that lives on the outskirts trying to become
a sanctioned science. But just because a subject is controversial,
and happens to be a space and time transcending experience, doesn't
mean we shouldn't investigate it. In fact, it beckons us to focus on
it even more thoroughly to reveal the truths hidden there. We simply
need to do it with stringent, critic-proof methodology.
There are a variety of psi powers, known for centuries in Eastern
philosophy as siddhas, exceptional human abilities.
or skeptical may be perplexed or daunted at the prospect of coming
to any rational conceptual understanding of these anomalous
phenomena, which have been associated with the realm of mysticism,
superstition and the supernatural.
In actual fact, research by the authors, who are both certified
hypnotherapists (A.C.H.E.), and others (Miller; Ryzl) shows that
nearly anyone can improve their psi ability through simple
techniques of self-hypnosis.
Psi is also at the root of focused intent, distant mental
interactions, distance healing and therapeutic rapport, where there
is a subtle shared consciousness and often brainwave
synchronization. This capacity is within everyoneís grasp, as the
human potential movement demonstrated with such trance phenomena as
fire walking and guided imagery.
We've virtually all had those uncanny or awesome experiences where
we seemed to intuit, dream, or "know" something in advance of
conventional means. Sometimes it is called pre-sentiment. Around 55%
of reported incidents occur in dreams.
Another example, is
synchronicity at work in the affairs of "star-crossed
we are in love, we seem to share the same "wavelength," virtually
able to read one anotherís minds. Who hasnít thought of a friend or
acquaintance only to have the phone ring?
Often the most compelling stories come from those who don't even
"believe" in the phenomenon, but find themselves experiencing it,
usually in the unfortunate circumstance of the illness, injury or
death of a distant loved-one.
Psi is not just a mental perception or
conception; we feel it in our guts, in our bones, in our marrow. It
is first and foremost a holistic mind/body experience.
According to leading parapsychologist Dr. Stanley Krippner,
"At one level of investigation,
there already are 'replications' and 'battle-tested' results,
specifically the finding that about 50% of an unselected group
will report having had a 'psychic experience,' supposedly
involving those psi phenomena that have been given such labels
as 'telepathy', 'clairvoyance', 'precognition', and 'psychokinesis'
[mind over matter].
This percentage may vary from one culture,
age group, and educational level to the next, but it has been
repeated, in one study after another, for the last several
The move in biophysics is to take psi
research from endless theorization, proofs of existence and boring
replications into innovative and practical experimentation.
problem is that in order to do that scientifically, one has to risk
credibility and professional suicide, as well as being underfunded.
Though it often seems confined to mediums, channels, sensitives, or
ESPers, most individuals are capable of expressing some nonlocal
communication or psi phenomena.
However, that ability may be blocked
for various reasons by an adaptation to consensus reality, to
conventional thinking. We need to develop "out of the box" thinking.
Even Einstein said that past, present, and future are illusions,
even if they are stubborn ones. Conscious calculation rarely plays a
role in ESP; the same is true for creativity.
Both ESP and creativity have deep taproots in the psyche. Pang and
Forte (1967) found some evidence of a relationship between
creativity and ESP, as did others (Honorton, 1967).
reported that a large proportion of ESP experiences occur in altered
states such as dreams, trance, hypnosis and creativity while Masters
and Houston (1966) counted it among the varieties of psychedelic
ESP, hypnosis and mind-expanded states have sensitivity to the
unconscious at their core. And that subconscious expresses itself
through symbols, imagery, and sensations to communicate with the
conscious mind. Hypnosis is the "open sesame" to the waking
impressions and sensory images of the deeper mind/body.
The elusive ability to swing back 'the doors of perception' and
enter the numinous realm of the collective unconscious was described
by psychologist C.G. Jung. Whether deliberate or accidental, anyone
can open to the force of this revealed process, to this dynamic
information field. Those who frustrate themselves with
self-defeating behavior in other areas of life often show poor psi
Positive ESP scores seem to correlate generally with traits such as
openness, high self-esteem, warmth, sociability, adventuresomeness,
relaxation, assertiveness, talkativeness and practicality. However,
some psi-talented individuals often don't score well in laboratory
On the other hand
Russell Targ (1994) claims,
"[P]si is no longer elusive; it can
be demonstrated when needed for study and investigation."
Even though psychic training to
strengthen the signal line is possible, unpredictability has been
the hallmark of this emergent gift.
To overcome this problem in both
the theoretical and experimental arenas requires a marriage of the
disciplines of physics, biology, medicine, psychology, and hypnosis.
Findings from all these fields converge in the paradoxical subject
of Extra-Sensory Perception. As the ideas of quantum mechanics,
relativity and parapsychology slowly make their way into our
collective consciousness, our common-sense views on time and
causality find themselves more strained than they've ever been in
the course of human history.
Will this challenge remain the domain of theoretical science, or can
we foresee a day in which the general understanding, and even the
experience of the average individual, will be shaped by this new
perspective on reality? (Sidorov, 2003, "The Mind In Time").
It takes many disciplines, as well as the latest findings in
physiology, neurobiology and information theory to begin to
formulate any comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon and
bridge the conceptual gap.
ESP used to be studied in Parapsychology,
an adjunct of psychology. But its subject matter has become so
mainstream, the field has been return to ordinary Psychology. ESP
"software" is studied in psychology, but ESP "hardware" is the
domain of biophysics.
Researchers are probing the interface between matter, spacetime and
mind with increasing precision. There is optimism that ultimately
conventional pathways will be found to explain their appearance.
Suggestions have included
Schumann Resonance as a
nearly-instantaneous carrier of psi information or perhaps
paradoxical quantum nonlocality or coherence to account for it.
There are many models that provide potentially viable explanations.
The mental aspects can perhaps be described psychologically, but the
mechanics require models from physics. A variety of theories have
been proposed, including neurological, holographic, electromagnetic,
and quantum mechanics based hypotheses.
Like electricity, no one knows how psi works.
However, to foster and
practice psi we don't need to know how it works, anymore than we
need to know the mechanics of internal combustion to drive a car.
WHAT IS PSI?
This month (July 2003) on the editorial board of the Journal of
Non-Local and Remote Mental Interactions, we have been preparing
special issue on Remote Viewing.
Stargate RV expert and teacher,
Joseph McMoneagle is interviewed,
along with such notables as author and theoretical physicist, Fred
Alan Wolf, and Finnish physicist Matti Pitkanen.
theories and new experimental protocols are being proposed, pushing
the leading edge of physics, biophysics, and experimental
parapsychology. Though it is often suggested, it remains to be seen
if psi is a field, a quantum effect, or a physical quantity.
We are examining aspects from coherent fields to strength of intent,
arousal states, target specificity, subject-target separation, psi-expectancy,
anticipatory effects and information flow.
Studies of field
resonance, metabolism, biophotons, entanglement, geomagnetic
fluctuations, time-reversed experience, energy transfer,
physiological detectors, biomind receptors, psychophysical
responses, bioregulation, enhanced recovery, experimenter effects,
EM signatures and transduction pathways may yield more information
about the process.
The areas of extrasensory perception or anomalous cognition we
discuss here include,
These faculties came into the public eye
when stories of Russian and CIA remote viewers broke in the press.
But compelling, anecdotal stories alone do not satisfy the
Stories of distance healing, a form of PK or
over matter), require another article of their own to do them
justice. It may be easier to model virtual information transfer than
mind over matter.
"Spooky action at a distance" requires even
stronger evidence than sensing at a distance. But is "distance" here
really a factor or an illusion in a holographic simply-connected
universe? The paradox of space-time and relativity presents itself
in psi as psycho-retrocognition, or time-reversed PK.
Though these experiences of knowing at a distance are called
"extra-sensory," they often appear "as if" received by conventional
sensory or mental means, for how else can we "know what we know"? It
is a holistic psychophysical experience, affecting the whole self,
physically, emotionally, mentally and often spiritually.
impediments of distance and time seem to dissolve; the barriers of
space-time are mysteriously overcome.
The information is 'just there' in one
form or another, whether spontaneous or facilitated.
Telepathy is a message, direct
mind-to-mind communication, direct knowing through being, a
clear intuition or empathic awareness, often demonstrated in the
psychotherapeutic setting. Telepathy is a transmission from one
mind to another.
Clairvoyance appears as information
about events at remote locations, manifesting as an image, or
gestalt psychic impression, rather than a thought; (it is often
linked to perception at a distance: so-called astral travel,
out-of-body experience, or remote viewing).
Precognition is the most uncanny;
transcending time, it seems to rend the veils of the future (jamais
vu) and the past (deja vu) with strong, often
According to Scientific American
(Sept. 2002, p. 103), [apparently long after Pribram's theory from
"in 1990 Herman Sno, a psychiatrist
at Hospital de Heel in Zaandam, the Netherlands, suggested that
memories are stored in a format similar to holograms. Unlike a
photograph, each section of a hologram contains all the
information needed to reproduce the entire picture.
smaller the fragment, the fuzzier the resultant image. According
to Sno, deja vu occurs when some small detail in one's current
situation closely matches a memory fragment, conjuring up a
blurry image of that former experience."
There are competing theories of deja vu,
but the holographic concept of reality is a leading contender in the
biomechanical explanations of psi.
Psi meaning comes through emotionally intense visual, auditory and
kinesthetic experiences. It is a human potential we can learn to
tap. We can use our intentionality as a probability perturbation
instrument. We can use mental focus to alternately concentrate and
relax our attention. Intent is suggested as a variable in
transmission and reception in the exchange of extrasensory
information, possibly within the range of ELF electromagnetic
frequencies (Sidorov, 2002).
Stanford and Lovin (1970) found possible support for a relationship
between the generation of alpha waves and ESP, as did Monroe (1971).
More recent research has implicated the electromagnetic signals of
Schumann Resonances as carrier of seemingly non-local transfer of
information (Pitkanin, 2001). Persinger (1989) has suggested that
psi information signals are actually carried on extremely low
electromagnetic frequencies and our temporal lobe structures are
sensitive to them.
Whether one believes in spontaneous psi experience, or not, it has a
long and colorful history, in the mystic and healing arts of the
East and West, and in science, even business. The difference is the
trigger that evokes the experience. Management trainers have taught
self-hypnosis as a means of fostering intuition, rapport and other
practical applications of ESP.
The role of ESP is inextricably bound up with other creative
processes where information or inspiration seemingly appear from
nowhere. Data acquired through ESP, prescient dreams and other
imaginative thought processes riddles the stories of scientific
discovery and creativity. Psychic detective work and investigative
reporting has received mixed reviews, since following up on dry
leads uses time and vital resources. Without controls, these
anecdotes are difficult to evaluate.
In the arts, it has been said that "life imitates art," sometimes to
uncanny proportions. Krippner (1972) recounts a story of ESP in
creativity, whose prophetic detail later took on ominous tones.
In 1898, Morgan Robertson published a popular novel called Futility.
It described the wreck of a giant ship called the Titan, considered
"unsinkable" by the characters in the novel.
Perhaps you recognize
this oft-told tale as that of the Titanic, but it was not wrecked
until April 15, 1912.
In the novel,
the ship displaced 70,000 tons
(Titanic 66,000 tons), was 800 feet long (Titanic 828 feet)
the Titan carried 3000
passengers and 24 lifeboats, while Titanic had only 20
lifeboats for the same number of people
both ships sank while
encountering an iceberg at the speed of 23-25 knots
The rest, as they say, is history.
FROM TRANCE TO
The question becomes "How can we facilitate the emergence of psi
phenomena, either for greater awareness or creativity?"
we know about psi expression, how can we train ourselves to
encourage its emergence? Hypnosis or self-hypnosis simply helps
engage the emotional mind, the imaginal mind, the biophysical mind
rather than just approaching the task rationally and conceptually.
Unfortunately, the question of psi-facilitation was asked by covert
forces during the Cold War, and much of the statistical and
practical data on psi comes from those black-ops sources (CIA, KGB,
NSA, DIA, DOD, U.S. Army and Navy).
The Russians wanted to use psi
for espionage and the US countered with its own team. Much of this
government-sponsored work went on at Stanford Research Institute
(now SRI International), by
Human potential advocates, Jack Schwarz and Robert Monroe separately
pursued independent, more explorative and mystical approaches. Both
taught consciousness management techniques through forms of
self-hypnosis. Schwarz, practicing as the Aleithea Foundation in
Southern Oregon, focused on bioregulation with autohypnosis and
subtle human energies.
Monroe's techniques employ neuroregulation with the
frequency-following response (which he trademarked with the
Institute in Virginia, as Hemi-Synch) to induce trance, entraining
both hemispheres in alpha and theta (1982).
Hemi-Synch, also known as binaural beat technology, actively drives
the modulation of electrocortical activity through resonance
effects, changing levels of awareness and arousal, attentional
focus, and cognitive content. Often combined with biofeedback, it
helps shortcut processes that would take years of technologically
unassisted yogic training.
Graywolf Swinney (2001), Dr. Stanley Krippner, and
Iona Miller have conducted trainings in co-consciousness
(Erickson, Rossi & Rossi, 1976) and theta training at Asklepia
Foundation, also in Southern Oregon.
A deep state of rapport is used
in psychotherapeutic journey processes, employing shamanic
hypnotherapeutic techniques. Theta is reportedly the psychic range
of the mind, generated largely in the temporal lobes.
Co-consciousness is a shared virtuality, a telepathic rapport
wherein both participant's brainwaves become synchronized into a
single holographic biofield (Miller and Swinney, 2000).
Spontaneous psi phenomena have been associated with
theta waves by Krippner (1977), the Greens (1977), and more recently by
(1987). Consciously producing theta requires quieting the body,
emotions and thoughts simultaneously, leading to an integrative
reverie, a deep focus of attention. Theta is often accompanied by
hypnagogic or dream-like imagery emanating from the temporal lobes.
John Curtis Gowan (1975) catalogued the entire spectrum of
extraordinary phenomena related to trance, art, and creativity. In
his taxonomy, he called these distinctive modes or domains of human
dynamics Prototaxic (Trance), Parataxic (Art), and Syntaxic
Trance is characterized by loss of ego, art by emotionally charged
(often symbolic) imagery, and in creativity meaning is more or less
fully cognized symbolically with ego present. In some ways, these
modalities could represent the uncanniness of precognition, the
imagery of clairvoyance, and the knowing of telepathy.
Trance is often associated with awe, dread, horror, and panic since
ego control is weak or absent. These numinous effects are moderated
in the artistic experience that comes as visualization, audialization, emotional inspiration, sensual, symbolic and
In terms of precognition, artists are often said to be perceptually
"ahead of their time." Art is the transition phase in the
relationship between the ego and the emergent transcendent function.
Transcendence is a "quantum leap," a recurrent process, not a
steady-state. It is a phase-transition moving toward illumination.
The syntaxic experience of creativity is even more benign since the
mind apprehends directly without ego dissociation. Psi experiences
become more naturally integrated - regular, inspirational and
uplifting while less frightening or awesome.
Gowan's work naturally included both hypnosis and ESP, which he
cited as consciously or unconsciously operative at these various
levels of dissociation, ego-involvement and levels of arousal
(sympathetic and parasympathetic). Puharich (1961) found telepathic
reception facilitated by parasympathetic activation, while sending
the message was stronger with activation of the sympathetic, or
For Gowan, the accessibility of certain psychic experiences depended
on the mode of functioning. Intuitive self-knowledge is intrinsic to
a wide variety of higher mental functions.
self-hypnosis are clearly linked to the primal trance, but can be
applied in more integrated modes to enhance psi ability (Krippner,
PSI DEEPLY - HYPNOSIS & ESP
In 1967, the Czech government tried to co-opt the allegedly
successful psychical research and training program of biochemist
After screening many candidates, he found 50
high-scoring subjects, and they proceeded to win several rounds of
the Czech lottery.
"Milan Ryzl, a chemist who defected
to the United States from Czechoslovakia in 1967, developed a
hypnotic technique for facilitating ESP... Ryzlís technique
involved the intensive use of deep hypnosis sessions almost
daily for a period of several months. The first stage of the
sessions was to instill confidence in his subjects that they
could visualize clear mental images containing accurate
Once this stage was reached, Ryzl
concentrated on conducting simple ESP tests with immediate
feedback so that subjects might learn to associate certain
mental states with accurate psychic information.
Subjects were taught to reject
mental images which were fuzzy or unclear. This process,
according to Ryzl, continued until the subject was able to
perceive clairvoyantly with accuracy and detail. Finally, Ryzl
attempted to wean the subject away from his own tutelage so that
he or she could function independently. While still in
Czechoslovakia, Ryzl claimed to have used this technique with
some five hundred individuals, fifty of whom supposedly achieved
Other studies have shown heightened ESP in states of physical
relaxation or in trance and hypnotic states. In fact, the use of
hypnosis to produce high ESP scores is one of the most
replicable procedures in psi research."
WORLDíS FIRST PSYCHIC
In 1973, after hosting Ryzl for weeks in his Seattle home with many
late-night discussions on the nature of psi, physicist and
parapsychologist Richard Alan Miller created a model for anomalous
Also drawing on his laboratory
experience with biofeedback, he wrote a paper called "ESP Induction through Forms of
Self Hypnosis." In 1975, while never claiming to be a psychic, he
got to put his theory to a rather unique test: the Worldís First
On September 21, 1975, Llewellyn Publications, noted occult
publisher, sponsored this event in Minneapolis, Minnesota as part of
their 5th Annual Gnosticon Festival.
The tournament itself was
co-sponsored by the Foundation for the Study of Man, originally set
up to continue the work of Dr. J. B. Rhine and his pioneering work
in ESP at Duke University. Many famous psychics were invited,
including such personalities as John Pierrakos and Sibyl
One of the authors of this article (RAM) was also invited to test
the proposed models for inducing ESP ability using forms of
self-hypnosis. Since he was relatively unknown for having any
abilities in this ESP field, it seemed to hold some potential as a
valid first study. More than 20 nationally known psychics also
participated in this event.
The clairvoyance test consisted of twenty (20) cards randomly pulled
from ten (10) poker decks. Each participant was to guess the suit of
With one chance in four of guessing the correct suit, the
average score for a run of 20 cards with no ESP ability is 5. Each
participant was given five (5) different runs. A final score
determined the winner, with a total of 25 representing the norm.
What happened is now history: More than 50 percent of those
participating showed normal scores ranging from 22 to 27 out of a
possible 100, as would be expected in the general population. Most
of the more well-known psychics showed some seemingly paranormal
ability in clairvoyance, as expected, with total scores averaging
between 8 and 12 correct answers out of 20. One well-known psychic
even had a score as high as 61 out of a total possible 100.
Using the technique of ESP induction through forms of self-hypnosis
as outlined in his paper, however, Miller did not have a run less
than 16 out of 20. His total score was 83 out of 100. This was more
than two orders of magnitude greater probability than scores of
nationally recognized psychics.
He took home a first place certificate
as testament to his extraordinary performance.
It still hangs on the
wall in the office.
THE PSI FACTOR
Of course, this anecdotal evidence does not constitute scientific
proof of this model.
What it does represent, however, is a need to
understand the true significance of self-hypnosis is and how it
relates to extra-sensory perception. Something definitely made a
difference in the experiment. How might this be applied to therapy?
Or perhaps to such questions as the role of placebo, spontaneous
healing based in the physically-transforming belief that you can do
something beyond your normal scope.
Miller went on to create an ESP screening questionnaire that helps
define the attitudes that facilitate psi. It was given to 500
college students and weighing factors were assigned to individual
The bell-shaped curve developed from the survey indicated that
helpful traits included a belief in ESP, extroversion, freedom from
anxiety, easy or frequent dream recall, hypnotizability, and a
relatively expressive personality. Memory, creativity, and
visualization/association showed inconclusive results.
However, EEG parameters showed a highly significant positive
correlation between directional alpha frequency shift and ESP
scoring. More recent studies have shown an even greater correlation
for theta brainwaves and psi faculty. There also seems to be a
correlation between high ESP scores and number of reported psi
Stargate Project, SRI developed even more stringent criteria
for what constitutes a viable remote viewer, based on statistical
results. In their program, the level of arousal, according to McMoneagle as told to JNLRMI, didnít seem to matter much.
normal people are recommended to relax or use the progression
relaxation that facilitates self-hypnosis, professional remote
viewers can begin from a relaxed state and move to an excited one,
or begin excited and become calmer.
HOW DID HE DO
So, just how did Miller wind up beating the best psychics in the
nation at their own game? And more importantly, how can you increase
Miller developed a set of self-consistent definitions
and postulates relating self-hypnosis and ESP, both a theory and a
The standard definitions used for hypnosis often call it a
borderline state between sleeping and waking, i.e. body asleep, mind
awake. Any state characterized by an intense concentration of
attention in on area, accompanied by a profound lack of attention in
other areas, may also be considered hypnosis. It opens us to our
psychophysical impressions by limiting external input.
With this type of definition, everyone is considered to be
continually in a light state of hypnosis, witness "white line fever"
while driving, or the plea, "I was spaced-out." Musicians call it "being in the groove," others
"sharing a wavelength." Our social
roles are also like trance states with their intrinsic patterns.
When we go in public we wear the "armour" of our persona and immerse
ourselves in that self-image.
Charisma is also a form of hypnosis akin to Mesmerís original
Traumas also create trance states with automatic
behaviors that can persist for years. The "scripts, games, and
rackets" of Transactional Analysis can also be seen as trance
states, where we habitually replay our typical ways of dealing with
self, others, and world. So the question becomes not "if" one is
hypnotized, but what kind of trance and its depth one is in at any
The depth of hypnosis, which is an implied issue in this definition,
may be defined as the difference between the intensity of
concentration in one sphere or area and the depth of inhibition in
others. Attention focused in one area creates a corresponding
lacuna, or lack of attention, in other areas of the brain.
the attention for prolonged periods, often with suggestions for
further deepening, leads to deeper states of hypnosis.
With these definitions, a useful model
for relating hypnosis to psi phenomena is possible.
Postulate I: The conscious
experience is associated with the nervous processes which
take place above a certain critical level of
awareness/alertness. This function, defined as I(c), varies
considerably in a state of hypnosis, where attention is
Postulate II: Psi Energy,
arbitrarily defined as E(psi), is an equivalent in the field
of extra-sensory phenomenon of what, in our
three-dimensional world, is called energy.
Correlate A: E(psi) is not
limited by time.
Correlate B: E(psi) can not
be transformed into other energies (i.e. physical
energies,; converting heat into light).
Correlate C: E(psi) operates
by manipulating the transformation of physical energies.
Postulate III: Psi Energy, is
responsible for extra-sensory perception and psycho-kinetic
Postulate IV: Psi Energy is the
product of some aspect of the metabolic processes. Physical
data regarding the relationship between metabolic processes
and extra-sensory perception can be found in Beyond
Telepathy, by Andrija Puharich.
Postulate V: The generation of
Psi Energy rapidly decreases the level of alertness. This
immediately explains why:
each conscious act has a
why we experience a
permanent train of changing thoughts
why our attention
permanently shifts from one object to the next.
When you think, Psi Energy is
created. The Psi Energy automatically decreases the level of
alertness so that one shifts to something else.
Postulate VI: The intensity of
conscious experience, I(c), depends on the time rate of the
generation of psi Energy. Mathematically, this is described
as dE(psi)/dt = A(e) x I(c).
The rate of change of E(psi) as a function of time is equal
to some geographical constant, A(e), times the intensity of
concentration, I(c). More simply stated Psi Energy is equal
to a geographical constant times the intensity of
concentration, I(c), times the amount of time that the
thought is held. E(psi) = A(e) x I(c) x t
If we cannot make any particular thought last long enough,
it should be sufficient to repeat it again and again until
the value of the individual brief periods add up to a
sufficient value. The equation now becomes E(psi) = A(e) c
I(c) x [t(1) + t(2) + t(3) + Ö]
Postulate VII: The formation of
Psi Energy, which is created by a holistic psychophysical
act, preserves the semantic control of the thought that
created it. In essence, your thought is uniquely distinct.
If you deviate from your thought slightly, it is a different
thought-form, including the psychosomatic component. There
is a tangible shift in the mind/body.
Formulate the question.
Hold that thought for as
long as possible.
Assume that the event
Drop into a "blank mind"
state and wait.
When questioning or desiring
thoughts are intense enough, lasting long enough, or repeated
frequently enough, psi is produced in sufficient intensity and
structure to be detectable in the physical world.
This may occur
in hypnotic states, in states of intentionality, elated or
traumatic emotions, or when interest, motivation, or desire is
The individual confronts the continuum with desire and prolonged
concentration. The question being asked must be intense enough
to impress itself on the unconscious. Lacking intensity, the
signal will not be perceived. Intentionality strengthens the
Consciousness is then dropped into a "blank" state, an empty
state, or "beginnerís mind." The actual visualization is a
switch from the concentrated point to the void. When this occurs
the information is impressed on consciousness, resulting in a
psychophysical perceptual event. This event is independent of
both space and time.
Ordinarily when people spontaneously fall into trance states,
they are generally not in a "blank mind" state of expectant
emptiness. There is the chatter of subconscious thoughts going
on even as the process deepens toward sleep. These thoughts are
generated and go on automatically at a subliminal level, often
Consequently, the information or signal path gets distorted, and
weird patterns emerge, much like those experienced in dreams. In
a waking dream, distorted signals may be perceived as "spirit
guides", automatic handwriting, or other autonomous related
phenomena of trance states. We have seen earlier that Gowan
characterized this loss of ego-awareness as the Prototaxic Mode.
Puharich believes reception is enhanced by "parasympathetic
activation" in which there is an increase in released
acetylcholine. He claims that telepathic sending of information
is easier when there is an increased amount of adrenaline in the
system. These metabolic processes are not "causal" but merely
correlates of psi. Psi meaning comes through intense visual,
auditory, and kinesthetic psychosensory experiences.
This "energized enthusiasm" can be seen in states of emotional
involvement and artistic inspiration (Parataxic Mode), as well
as creativity (Syntaxic Mode). Parataxic experience consists of
relationships with multisensory images whose meaning remains on
the symbolic level.
Syntaxic experiences occur when the consciously aware ego
cooperates willingly with the subconscious forces. Here knowing
and meaning are clearer and fully cognized with minimal
Other higher forms of concentration include
biofeedback, meditation, tantra, peak experiences, higher Jhana
states of yoga, and so on. Concentration is intense, structured
ESP is often observed in hypnosis, a state characterized by a
single intensive thought. Recurrent cases of psycho-kinetic
phenomena, such as the haunted-house variety, are often reported
to be connected with previous trauma or tragic events,
associated with intensity of concentration, I(c).
The frequently reported cases of crisis telepathy - ESP contact
between two persons, one of which is dying or in grave danger - are necessarily associated with intense thought or
concentration, even obsession and a highly aroused state. The
length of time experienced depends entirely upon the
circumstances; in some cases there is subjective dilation of
The discovery of mental impregnation, known in the literature as
psychometry suggests that repeated identical thoughts increase
the expected psychic effect. Wearing a ring for a long time may
"imprint" memory of the wearer onto the ring; just slipping a
ring on and off and handing it to a psychometrist will not
generally reveal any memory of the wearer.
Religious or spiritual traditions assert that repeated prayers
may be more effective than single ones. In other words, the more
you repeat the same prayer, or mantra, or the more you do a
single ritual, the greater the effect.
Along that line of
reasoning, "tithing" might be seen as a factor of oneís time or
attention, rather than money. Some meditation schools, for
example, require no money but 10% of your daily time (2.5 hours)
The stimulating action of psi formation on the brain may account
for memory, more particularly, active recollection. The
influence of psi formation increases the level of awareness of
the neuro-patterns corresponding to the thought to be
The synapses are flooded over and over with the same
chemical messengers and electrical signals.
The correlating psychosomatic
content is consciously re-experienced.
TELEPATHY AND BEYOND
"In 1969, Charles Honorton
and Stanley Krippner reviewed the experimental literature
of studies designed to use hypnosis to induce ESP. Of nineteen
experiments reported, only seven failed to produce significant
Many of the studies produced astounding success. In a
particularly interesting precognition study, conducted by Fahler
and Osis with two hypnotized subjects, the task also included
making confidence calls - predicting which guesses would be most
The correlation of confidence call
hits produced impressive results with a probability of
Krippner went on to conduct
research in Dream Telepathy (1973) with Montague Ullman,
following the lead of other Maimonides Hospital (Brooklyn, N.Y.)
researchers, such as Frederick Myers.
These experiments in nocturnal
ESP are foundational and though never replicated, the results were
highly suggestive of a strong psi correlation.
Their ten-year study concluded that dream reports can show the
effect of telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition. Their
hypothesis was that ESP is more common during dreaming than waking
and therefore an "agent" could more easily transfer the target
thoughts or imagery to a sleeping subject, influencing their dreams.
Such prominent dream researchers as David Foulkes (Belvedere &
Foulkes, 1971), Gordon Globus (Globus et al., 1968), Calvin Hall
(1967), Robert Van de Castle (1971), and Keith Hearne (1987)
attempted to repeat these findings. Because the replication rate
from these other laboratories was inconsistent, the Maimonides team
did not claim to have conclusively demonstrated that communication
in dreams can sometimes transcend space and time. However, they did
open a promising line of investigation.
Years later, Stanley Krippner and Michael Persinger, a
Canadian neuroscientist, reviewed the entire body of dream research
data from Maimonides Medical Center, selecting the first night that
each subject in a telepathy experiment had visited the laboratory.
They matched the results of these nights with geomagnetic data,
discovering that the subjects' telepathy "hits" tended to be higher
during calm nights than during nights marked by electrical storms
and high sunspot activity (Persinger & Krippner, 1989).
Persinger (1974) has urged using reported psi phenomena in new and
ingenious ways, observing,
"Across cultures and throughout
history people have been reporting psi- experiences. Let us find
out what they are saying... It is by looking at the
similarities of the verbal behavior that we may find enough
consistencies to understand the factors responsible for the
reports" (p. 13).
Persinger (e.g., Schaut & Persinger,
1985) has examined several collections of spontaneous cases,
including the 35 gathered by Stevenson (1970), reporting that they
seem to occur most frequently when Geomagnetic activity is calmer
than the days before or after the experience - and lower than the
month's average activity.
This approach can be applied to any collection of cases (e.g.,
Persinger & Krippner, 1989) where the date of the alleged experience
has been recorded. If repeatable, these effects may help to provide
an understanding of the mechanisms underlying psi phenomena, and may
even indicate a potentially predictable pattern for such events.
Geomagnetic field perturbations have been reported to affect
biological systems by other investigators (e.g., Subrahmanyam,
Sanker Narayan, & Srinivasan, 1985).
Persinger (1989) has proposed
two interpretations of the geomagnetic field effect.
The first is
that psi is a geomagnetic field correlate; solar disturbances and
consequent geomagnetic storms affect this correlate.
The second is
that the geomagnetic field affects brain receptivity to psi, which
In the latter interpretation, psi is always present in space and
time, waiting to be accessed by crisis, emotion, or by optimal
laboratory stimulus parameters.
Geomagnetic activity may affect the
detection capacity of the brain for this information, especially the
neural pathways that facilitate the consolidation and conscious
access to this information. Without this geomagnetic activity,
awareness of the psi stimulus might not be as likely and the brain's
"latent reserve capacities" would not be utilized.
Taking this argument one step further, Persinger (1989) points out
that deep temporal lobe activity exists in equilibrium with the
global geomagnetic condition. When there is a sudden decrease in
geomagnetic activity, there appears to be an enhancement of
processes that facilitate psi reception, especially telepathy and
Increases in geomagnetic activity may suppress pineal melatonin
levels and contribute to reductions of cortical seizure thresholds.
Indeed, melatonin is correlated with temporal lobe-related disorders
such as depression and seizures. (Krippner)
So what direction can we expect psi research to take in this new
Clearly, the experimenters themselves want to follow a
self-directed course rather than the mandates of a government-driven
program. They would like access to private, academic, and government
funds, with leading edge equipment: high-ticket brain monitoring
equipment such as 90-channel EEG, fMRI, SPECT, and ERP. They would
like to practice without a professional stigma attached to their
Several theories of psi have been put forth throughout the years.
Psychologist Rex Stanford, altered-states expert Charles Tart,
post-quantum physicist Jack Sarfatti, and psi researcher Charles Honorton, as well as physicist
Helmut Schmidt have all developed
models for ESP and precognition. Each embodies certain possible,
even plausible factors. Some researchers worked with Eastern swamis
and yogis to understand the mechanisms and induction techniques or
evocation of this psychic power.
Quantum theory predicts that empty space (the vacuum) contains an
enormous amount of residual background energy known as
David Bohm, biologist
Sheldrake (researching psychic pets) with his morphogenetic fields,
and Ervin Laszlo propose zero-point or vacuum potential mediation
for psi. The superdense quantum vacuum may be a physically real
field, including but not limited to gravitation and
electromagnetism. Perhaps it can transmit psi.
However, they canít provide any experimental protocols that might
test such theories. Is psi a field or a quantum effect? Fields link
phenomena in time as well as space. But, fields themselves cannot be
observed; only the influences propagating through them.
Other theories suggest phase-conjugate pilot waves, scalar waves,
virtual states, hyperfield flux, holographic hyperchannel effect,
complementarity, even uncertainty. Biophysical theories for the
paranormal bridge include Josephson junctions, microtubules, and
liquid crystals as psi transducers.
Honorton and others long ago found defects in old psi testing
techniques and addressed criticisms with new methodology. They
eliminated variables like subconscious cueing by covering the
subjectsí eyes with split ping-pong balls and playing "white noise"
into their ears.
Researchers hypothesized that this neutral field would function as a
less-distracting "blank canvas" for psi hits. So it served a dual
purpose of refining experimental procedure and minimizing
distracting sensory input. These experiments, (known as Ganzfield
tests), were replicated by many experimenters in many facilities,
with encouragingly similar positive results. Other tests were
conducted in sensory deprivation chambers and electrically-shielded
Experimenter bias, the tendency to find what one seeks, is an
occupational hazard, though skeptics have found positive psi
correlations. But careful interpretations of models, artifacts,
experimental method, instrumentation, randomization, target
selection, statistical inference, sensory leakage, recording errors,
and controls canít be rigorous enough.
Proper scientific control for ESP research has been refined over the
years, though cheating and frauds have plagued the field, and the
naÔve scientist. One solution to this dilemma lately has been to
experiment with the field-tested government Remote Viewers, who have
established track records.
They have their own reports of their
subjective experiences - not the results of their missions - but the
sensations that led to the observation or retrieval of those images.
Ingo Swann, called the father of RV, argues for the
demystification of psi. Swannís model supersedes the traditional psi
paradigm and focuses on the hardware issues discussed in
neurobiology and information theory.
Swann argues for systematic and deliberate development of this
ability much like athletic training, as well as conceptual
understanding. He prefers the term Distant Mental Interactions
with Living Systems (DMILS) to ESP. He wants this
capacity tested in the context of physical science as part of manís
natural spectrum of senses.
He claims applying focus or attention on
the perceptual apparatus with feedback on results "fine tunes" psi
His concrete approach and insightful conclusions include his view of
our sensory apparatus as a "transducer array" to convert information
from one form to another. He calls his human "software" program a "mental information processing grid." He simply converts various
forms of input energy to another form his sensory system can "read."
We do much the same when we interpret the electromagnetic signals
that come through the air from a voice into meaning in our brains.
He suggests we can develop the ability for several transducers of
signals, depending on our exposure to the cognitive processing of
Targ claimed to see reasonably sharp and clear pictures. In remote
viewing, if the mental picture doesnít form, one is left with a mere
"impression," a less-precise signal. The signal is compared against
memory to determine if it is meaningful to the task at hand - the
In other words, you can develop this ability through practice and
feedback of the accuracy of your perceived signals. Pathways that
work get reinforced. The process is very similar to psychophysical
learning with biofeedback, such as alpha and theta training.
Swann argues for learning to fine tune oneís signal to noise ratio,
learning to notice direct sensory data as well as imaginal signals,
such as feelings, intuition, impressions. Repeated exposure and
accurate feedback strengthens recognition of subtle and implicit
relationships. Can cybernetic machines, such as random number
generators, computers, and biofeedback devices help us hone psi
Swann emphasizes the difference between message and its structure.
An experienced viewer can put together mental images from subtle
cues. In RV, the signal appears as symbols, sounds, feelings,
tastes, pictures, and holistic impressions. One learns to organize
them based, again, on repeated feedback.
Misconceptions, fears, rigid concepts, body movement, excessive
gastrointestinal activity, sleepiness, language categories, and
other psychological "baggage" can be sources of confounding noise.
Other blocks come from trying too hard, and distracting daydreaming
or preoccupying thoughts.
Telepathy, empathy or rapport, and
charisma seem to be related and clearly come into play during
Nothing is known about the physical mechanism of ESP, or anomalous
No one knows what modulates performance. Even those who
can demonstrate psi in the laboratory on demand, cannot account for
signal nonlocality or distant interaction. The origins of the data
are not revealed, only the conclusions with their level of
resolution or accuracy.
This is where the models of information
theory and biophysics come into play.
Physicist Lian Sidorov proposes two working models for
non-local communication and intent-mediated healing:
(entrainment) of specialized electromagnetic frequencies,
observed primarily in proximal healing
Distant healing and remote
viewing/diagnosis, where the targetís electromagnetic
profile is modulated from a distance via partial
entanglement of subject-target
He cites the research of Finnish
physicst Matti Pitkanen as a model for "directed
entanglement" between the subject and target - the magnetic sensory
Pitkanen conjectures that distance healing
involves transfer of specific electromagnetic frequencies through
quantum wormholes for near-instant transfer of information.
The transmission may trigger certain brain frequencies and
psychophysical changes. Thus, amplification of the signal leads from
quantum to macroscopic effects.
Pitkanen suggests the brain is a
sensory organ of our electromagnetic selves, and may be linked to
planetary rhythms through Schumann Resonance.
In his model, the EM fields are not directly carried from sender to
target. They are simultaneously generated at the two locations by a
vacuum (geometrical) current. Therefore, they remain coherent while
by passing the paradox of non-attenuation with distance. Neural
processing and quantum events may interpenetrate.
This still doesnít really account for origins of the data, but
merely the transmission modes. Biophysics researchers are attempting
to follow the signal back to its source. The research must be
interfaced with current theories in the natural sciences. Then it
can be considered empirical; the paradoxical anomaly can then be
linked within the known framework of knowledge.
Is there really a
field, or field-like continua, capable of transmitting information
beyond the recognized limits of time and space?
Laszlo (1996) suggests that the natural processes of complexity and
chaos could amplify vacuum-level fluctuations into significant
inputs to behavior, and that the brain, another chaotic system,
could receive and amplify these signals which can penetrate into
Occamís Razor is a principle applied in science that contends
problems should be stated in basic terms, not making more
assumptions than needed to choose the simplest of equivalent models.
Many hypotheses are proposed, tested, and rejected. Their validity
is debated exposing their flaws and underlying assumptions.
Additional relevant hypotheses and unrelated statements are weeded
out. Experiments with the sensitivity reveal which yield the most
accurate predictions. If two rival theories pass empirical tests,
the simpler one must be preferred.
When it comes to conspiracy
theories, we apply Hanlonís Razor:
"Never attribute to malice that
which can be adequately explained by stupidity."
But before we can find answers, we have to ask the right questions.
Once we ask the right questions, we often have all the information
needed to solve the problem. Unfortunately, in the case of psi, it
may be that our understanding of physics is still too incomplete to
solve the riddle.
Lian Sidorov, editor of Journal of Non-Locality and Remote
Mental Interactions has posed many incisive questions:
How is information stored and
retrieved nonlocally by consciousness?
This simple question contains the
essence of all psi paradoxes, from spontaneous events like
precognition and telepathy to carefully engineered processes like
How can one strengthen the
What is the significance of
electromagnetic signatures detected at the target in remote
What is the earliest
physiological detector of psi information in the
transduction pathway to conscious awareness?
What determines the direction of
information flow in nonlocal interactions; for example,
between healer and patient?
What are the technical
requirements of an experimental program and how do we
develop the most suitable types of equipment to detect such
Sidorov (2003) summarizes his
discussion with expert remote viewer, Joe McMoneagle:
"What you are saying seems to be
everything you will ever know is
already contained in your universe, although not necessarily
accessible to your conscious mind - that comes with the
effort involved in RV, or is revealed spontaneously as in
"when" a given target event
takes place relative to the experimental present is
irrelevant, because all the information is already available
other peopleís expectation and
feedback should not affect your results, as long you are
careful to task yourself in a way which does not include
"Making contact" with the target
is more like flipping to the right page in your book than
reaching anything in space and time"
Are there preferred pathways for the
signals in psi phenomena, windows of psi "sensitivity"?
specifically is the target recognized?
How does one modulate and
How does the signal rise above the threshold of
Mental intent seems to create cognitive bridges between subject and
object, operator and target.
We can also learn to recognize certain
psychophysical patterns in ourselves through feedback. The physical
and the psychical are inseparable. There appears to be an
energetic/informational component, perhaps based in EM frequencies
and holographic interference patterns. Holographic processes do
occur in nature, including holographic information storage. The
holographic field is a physical reality composed of interference
In Scientific American (Aug. 2003), Bekenstein poses the question
"Are you a hologram?" and states quantum physics says the entire
universe might be.
Can a somatic EM hologram possibly amplify as
little as one quantum of energy into an effective signal? Are there
holographic hyperchannels? Information in a field is holographic and
the propagation of holographic interference patterns is
Every part of the field contains the
whole informational content, just in lower resolution.
"Each particle of mass in our bodies
represents one closure of the entire universe - yielding a
holographic reality - and deeper communication with ourselves is
identical to communication with the universe, including any part
of it, at any distance.
Furthermore, in hyperspace the future
and the past are all present. Since a particle does indeed
exhibit a four-dimensional component for 1/137 of the time, each
particle does connect to the future and to the past.
With selective tuning and kindling
any part of this holographic reality is accessible. However,
because of the smallness of a single selective signal in the
midst of the totality, the channel is quite noisy.
reason skilled psychics - persons who have been found to have a
greater fidelity for selective tuning - can be expected to
produce better results than the normal person."
Entanglement seems to occur somehow
between all participants of a given intentional set-up.
We have no
idea how the non-local factor of target specificity is accomplished,
other than intent and training.
Do subject and target share a
unified holographic field?
Are standing waves picked up and carried
Schumann Resonance, or transmitted by scalar waves or a
gradient in the vacuum potential?
Are the brains entrained on a
Does DNA function as a multi-mode antenna
regulating growth, evolution, and perhaps psi?
Are specific interference patterns in the brain decoded and
Ambient ELF fields and human bioreceptors, such as
crystals and piezoelectric crystal calcifications, have been
How we can increase our sensitivity is yet another question. The
signal is perceived against a transient background of chaotic noise,
and amplified by the bodyís physiological pathways. Desire, intense
concentration, and spiritual focus have been suggested.
state has been proposed as restricting the amount of input while
allowing access to subtle perceptions.
Mind is a dynamic function of the entire organism at all levels of
self-organization. Constantly fluctuating local parameters are
embodied and amplified through the bodyís electromagnetic control
hologram. Mind/body modulates our sensitivity to external and
internal information. Researchers measure a brainwave known as
Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) to measure
anticipation, anticipatory strategies, or readiness to respond; this
stimulus can be informative or uninformative, carry content or just
be an alert.
Remote viewing requires super-sensitivity and super-efficient
states. It is not the result of cognitive training, but a gradual
remolding of the entire psychophysical structure and metabolic
pathways. Thus, the mind/body becomes a highly coherent,
Vast information resources are hidden in unexplored manifolds of the
mind/body continuum. In psi research, the study of nature and our
nature - our potential - becomes entwined.
As Einstein (1934, The
World As I See It) said,
"We are seeking for the simplest
possible scheme of thought that will bind together the observed
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