President Wilson delivers his "Fourteen Points" speech on January 8th, naming 14 points to be used as a guide for a peace settlement. The speech will do much to undermine German morale during the final months of the war.

William B. Thompson, who was in Petrograd from July until November last, has made a personal contribution of $1,000,000 to the Bolsheviki for the purpose of spreading their doctrine in Germany and Austria. (Washington Post, February 2, 1918)

World War I Ends. The Austro-Hungarian Empire collapses. Germany faces long-term financial ruin under the treaty of Versailles. Wilson is the first president to travel outside the U.S. office, leaving for the Versailles Peace Conference on December 4th. Enormous crowds gather wherever he goes, sobbing, cheering, and shouting his name.

"Dear Mr. President: I am in sympathy with the Soviet form of government as that best suited for the Russian people..." (Letter to President Woodrow Wilson (October 17, 1918) from William Lawrence Saunders, chairman, Ingersoll-Rand Corp.; director, American International Corp.; and deputy chairman, Federal Reserve Bank of New York)

Abram Givatovzo, cousin of Leon Trotsky, who was a private banker in Kiev before the Russian Revolution and in Stockholm after the revolution, represents the Soviets in currency transactions even though he is a professed antibolshevik.

Michael Gruzenberg, the chief Bolshevik agent in Scandinavia who under the alias of Alexander Gumberg is also a confidential adviser to the Chase National Bank in New York and later to Floyd Odium of Atlas Corporation. This dual role was known to and accepted by both the Soviets and his American employers. The Gruzenberg story is a case history of international revolution allied with international capitalism.

Despite many complaints of corruption and scandal in the U.S. Food Administration, no one was ever indicted. After the war, the partners of J. Henry Schroder Company found that they now owned most of Cuba’s sugar industry. One partner, M.E. Rionda, was president of Cuba Cane Corporation, and director of Manati Sugar Company, American British and Continental Corporation, and other firms. Baron Bruno von Schroder, senior partner of the firm, was a director of North British and Mercantile Insurance Company. His father, Baron Rudolph von Schroder of Hamburg, was a director of Sao Paulo Coffee Ltd., one of the largest Brazilian coffee companies, with F.C. Tiarks, also of the Schroder firm.

A group from 120 Broadway formed the American-Russian Industrial Syndicate Inc. to exploit Russian markets and the earlier support given the Bolsheviks. The financial backing for the new firm came from the Guggenheim Brothers, 120 Broadway, previously associated with William Boyce Thompson (Guggenheim controlled American Smelting and Refining, and the Kennecott and Utah copper companies); from Harry F. Sinclair, president of Sinclair Gulf Corp., also 120 Broadway; and from James G. White of J. G. White Engineering Corp. of 43 Exchange Place - the address of the American-Russian Industrial Syndicate.

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RCA founded. Within a year of its foundation, engineers began publishing papers and organizing the study of long-range radio communications.

The Rockefeller Foundation’s work in the natural sciences begins, with support to the National Research Council to establish fellowships in physics and chemistry. More than $4.5 million is expended over 33 years to train more than 1,000 individuals.

During a strenuous speaking tour through the Midwest and the Far West to promote the League of Nations to the American people, Wilson collapses from fatigue and nervous tension. After returning to Washington, he suffers a paralytic stroke. But he doesn’t give up the presidency. Only his wife and his doctor are allowed to see him. When Secretary of State Robert Lansing presumes to call Cabinet meetings, Wilson promptly dismisses him. He refuses to allow his vice president, Thomas R. Marshall, to take charge.

Franklin Roosevelt is a strong believer in the League of Nations. He and Ohio governor James M. Cox as vice presidential and presidential nominees, go on nationwide tours, speaking for the full entry of the U.S. into the organization. Roosevelt makes more than a thousand speeches.

The Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. Warren Harding votes against it.

Governor Coolidge gains to national prominence when he summons the state guard to keep order in Boston during the police strike. He says: "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time."

The U.S. embassy in London cabled Washington in the fall, about Messrs. Lubovitch and Rossi "representing American-Russian Industrial Syndicate Incorporated - What is the reputation and the attitude of the Department toward the syndicate and the individuals?" To this cable State Department officer Basil Miles replied: . . . Gentlemen mentioned together with their corporation are of good standing being backed financially by the White, Sinclair and Guggenheim interests for the purpose of opening up business relations with Russia."

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A business decline will bring unemployment and the collapse of farm prosperity. People will blame Wilson and the Democrats.

Warren Harding with his plea for a "return to normalcy" after the war is elected president on November 2nd. Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts is elected vice president.

President Wilson is unable to participate in the campaign. Harding and Coolidge defeat James M. Cox of Ohio and Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York in a landslide.

Woodrow Wilson is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10th for his work in founding the League of Nations and seeking a fair peace agreement.

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Rockefeller Foundation endows a second and third school of public health in the U.S.- Harvard University and the University of Michigan -and launches an ambitious plan to circle the globe with schools. Spending more than $25 million, RF helps establish schools in Prague, Warsaw, London, Toronto, Copenhagen, Budapest, Oslo, Belgrade, Zagreb, Madrid, Cluj (Romania), Ankara, Sofia, Rome, Tokyo, Athens, Bucharest, Stockholm, Calcutta, Manila, and Sao Paulo.

Infantile paralysis or poliomyelitis ("polio") is widespread in the summer of 1921. Franklin Roosevelt contracts the disease--his legs are completely and permanently paralyzed.

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RCA hired Alfred Goldsmith as consulting head of Research Department while he taught electrical engineering at the City College of New York. Two years later, Goldsmith led a crew of engineers, technicians, and scientists to the new Technical and Test Laboratory opposite Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx in New York City. There they tried to maintain quality control and standardization of the vacuum tubes and radios manufactured by General Electric and Westinghouse Companies and marketed by RCA. Between 1930 and 1932, David Sarnoff re-organized RCA as an independent company that manufactured as well as marketed electronic technologies.

Poland. Many witnesses in observe a silvery object, two hemispheres divided by a rotating ring. The object ’shoots’ a beam of light, and then rises with a loud noise.

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Samuel Russell established Russell and Company for the purpose of acquiring opium in Turkey and smuggling it to China. Russell and Company merged with the Perkins (Boston) syndicate in and became the primary American opium smuggler. Many of the great American and European fortunes were built on the "China"(opium) trade. One of Russell and Company’s Chief of Operations in Canton was Warren Delano, Jr., grandfather of Franklin Roosevelt. Other Russell partners included John Cleve Green (who financed Princeton), Abiel Low (who financed construction of Columbia), Joseph Coolidge and the Perkins, Sturgis and Forbes families. (Coolidge’s son organized the United Fruit company, and his grandson, Archibald C. Coolidge, was a co-founder of the Council on Foreign Relations both of which will be itemized further on.)

Early in the year, Harding suffers from a severe attack of influenza, followed by other disorders. His wife is also in poor health. He decides to go on a speaking tour that could help his health and his popularity. He leaves with his wife and a party of 65 on a 1,500-mile, 2-month trip to Alaska with stops at cities along the way. Exhausted, he becomes ill in Seattle and dies of bronchopneumonia and a possible cerebral hemorrhage on August 2nd in San Francisco’s Palace Hotel. Mrs. Harding immediately returns to Washington and burns all of his papers. He leaves an administration torn by scandal, but was a popular president and is deeply mourned by the nation. Vice President Calvin Coolidge is vacationing at his father’s home in Plymouth, Vermont. It takes several hours for the news of President Harding’s death in California to reach the small town. Because the chief justice of the Supreme Court is 500 miles away, Coolidge’s father, a notary public, administers the oath of office to his son by the light of a kerosene lamp at 2:30 a.m.

Harry A. Franck, explorer, visits the Xianyang mounds previously seen by Robert Sterling Clark in 1908.

Beyond Sienyang the whole dust-hazy landscape was covered as far as the eye could see with graves, not the little conical spatters of earth to be seen in myriads all over China, but immense mounds by the score, some of them veritable mountains. (Wandering in North China)

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The Virginia Racial Integrity Act passed on the advice of Harry Laughlin (Eugenics lab funded by Harrimans and Rockefellers) and was finally overturned and struck off the books by order of the US Federal Supreme Court as late as 1967.

On February 22nd, Calvin Coolidge delivers the first presidential radio broadcast from the White House.

Ireland, County Wexford. Two boys watched for several minutes as a solid beam of light several feet long traveled through the air a few feet from the ground. It moved at approximately 10mph, climbing a hedge and crossing a field, before encountering a railroad track and moving off along its length.

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Coolidge wins a second term as president.

United States, Moora, WA. Two Australian teenagers stumbled upon a saucer-shaped shimmering object resting on four legs in a paddock near. They ran off in fear.

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Mongolia. During his expedition explorer Nicholas Roerich and members of his caravan, caught sight of a huge oval-shaped object high in the sky. It had a shiny surface that reflected the sun on one side and moved at great speed north to south.

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Charles Lindbergh is the first person to fly across the Atlantic Ocean.

Stalin comes to power in the former Soviet Union.

Romania. A cylindrical object flew over a Rumanian village at an altitude of 200-300 m from west to east. Smoke gray in color it was an estimated 15-20 m in length and had a diameter of 3-4 m. It was not illuminated and passed soundlessly.

Australia, Fernvale. A disc-shaped object with a dome on top was seen to light up a valley as it landed one evening. The witnesses returned the next day and discovered a circle of scorched grass about 10m in diameter.

Albert Mitchell-Hedges discovers crystal skulls in Central America. The clearing of the ancient Mayan city in the tropical jungles of the Yucatan peninsula (it’s today’s Belize) in 1924 preceded the discovery. It was decided to burn down thirty three hectares of forests that covered the ancient buildings. When the smoke finally lifted, the expedition saw an unbelievable scene: stone ruins of a pyramid, of the city walls, and an enormous amphitheater that could hold up to several thousands spectators. During the excavation of the ruins, Mitchell-Hedges discovered the crystal skulls. His find became the most mysterious discovery of the 20th century.

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Coolidge declines to run for president again.

Herbert Hoover was "designated" to run for president of the United States. There was only one problem; although Herbert Hoover had been born in the United States, and was thus eligible for the office of the presidency, according to the Constitution, he had never had a business address or a home address in the United States, as he had gone abroad just after completing college at Stanford. The result was that during his campaign for the presidency, Herbert Hoover listed as his American address Suite 2000, 42 Broadway, New York, which was the office of Edgar Rickard. Suite 2000 was also shared by the grain tycoon and partner of J. Henry Schroder Banking Corporation, Julius H. Barnes.

The New York Times carried a story headlined: "Einstein on verge of great discovery; resents intrusion," followed by another headline: "Einstein reticent on new work; will not "count unlaid eggs." These stories erroneously state that Einstein was preparing a book on a new theory. In fact, as his correspondence shows, and his colleagues confirmed, he was at work on a short paper trying out a new version of UFT by means of distant parallelism. At the time, Einstein’s name was as magical then as a rock star is today and considering the impending stock market crash, it is very likely that these were merely distractions for the public.

Einstein’s friend Eddington wrote to him saying

"You may be amused to hear that one of our great department stores in London has posted on its window your paper (the six pages pasted up side by side), so that passers-by can read it all through. Large crowds gather around to read it!"

So great was the public clamor for a hero that Einstein had to go into hiding. And, as it turned out, it was much ado about almost nothing. His attempt to derive his equations from a variational principle had to be withdrawn.

The Rockefeller Foundation formally embarks on programs in the social sciences, with the consolidation of the activities of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial into RF. Directed by Beardsley Ruml, the Memorial concentrated on increasing manpower and developing facilities for research "in a systematic investigation of concrete social problems." A year later RF identifies three major social science fields for support: international relations, economic stabilization, and public administration. Grants are to go for research, conferences, and publications.

Rockefeller Foundation also makes grants to build the Palomar Telescope.

America’s first TV station (W3XK) begins scheduled television broadcasts.

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Herbert Hoover becomes the 31st president and the first president born west of the Mississippi River.

Stock Market Crash - The Great Depression begins. The stock market crash throws the nation’s economic system into disorder. Roosevelt’s vigorous relief policies convince people that he is on their side. Joseph Kennedy is one of the few financiers to sense the coming crash and makes hundreds of millions of dollars--he will set up a million-dollar trust fund for each child to free them from future financial worry and allow them to devote their lives to the public good, if they desire.

Einstein was again sure he was "on the right track." Wolfgang Pauli wrote scathingly:

"[Einstein’s] never-failing inventiveness as well as his tenacious energy in the pursuit of [unification] guarantees us in recent years, on the average, one theory per annum"

It is psychologically interesting that for some time the current theory is usually considered by its author to be the "definitive solution."

Secretary of State Henry Stimson refuses to endorse a code-breaking operation, saying, "Gentlemen do not read each other’s mail."

Agreement between Rockefeller Foundation and the General Education Board paves the way for the Foundation to "accept responsibility for the support of the natural sciences." Archaeologists working on excavation of the ancient Athenian Agora receive support through grants to the American School of Classical Studies, Athens. Other early RF efforts in the humanities include support to the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago to train archaeologists and Harvard’s Fogg Art Museum to train curators and art historians, and for building library collections abroad. Max Mason becomes president of RF and serves until 1936.

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Institute for Advanced Study founded. This ivory tower of academia, if ever there was one, was the result of a "synchronous" act of philanthropy. The Institute was underwritten with a gift from Mr. Louis Bamberger and his sister, Mrs. Felix Fuld, under the guidance of the famous educator Abraham Flexner, who originated the concept from which the Institute took its form. The Bambergers originally thought of endowing a dental school, which is probably why they consulted Flexner when they decided that they wanted to give some of their fortune away. Flexner was a high school principal who wrote a report on American Colleges. Based on this report and the recommendation of his brother, a pathologist with connections to existing medical schools, he was chosen by the Carnegie Foundation to do a study of American Medical Education just after the turn of the century. Flexner visited medical schools across the nation on a schedule that barely allowed him a whole day each for the evaluation of some schools. His efforts were closely linked with the American Medical Association, who provided resources. Although purporting to be objective, the Report actually established guidelines that were designed to sanction orthodox medical schools and condemn homeopathic ones and alternative therapies. In short, it was biased toward allopathy and the AMA.

The New York Herald Tribune of February 18, 1930, quoted by Congressman Louis McFadden in the House on February 26, 1930, said,

"One of Belgium’s two directors on the Bank for International Settlements will be Emile Francqui of the Societe Generale, a member of both the Young and Dawes Plan Committees. The board of directors of the international bank will have no more colorful character than Emile Francqui, former Minister of Finance, veteran of the Congo and China . . . he is rated as the richest man in Belgium, and among the twelve richest men in Europe."

Despite his prominence, The New York Times Index mentions Francqui only a few times during two decades before his death. On October 3, 1931, The New York Times quoted Le Peuple of Brussels that Francqui would visit the United States.

"As a friend of President Hoover, Monsieur Francqui will not fail to pay a visit to the President." On October 30, 1931, The New York Times reported this visit with the headline, "Hoover-Francqui Talk was Unofficial". "It was stated that Mr. Francqui spent Tuesday night as a personal guest of the President, and that they talked of world financial problems in general, strictly unofficial. Mr. Francqui was an associate of President Hoover during the latters ministrations in Belgium during the war. Their visit had no official significance. Mr. Francqui is a private citizen and not engaged in any official mission."

No reference is made to the Hoover-Francqui business associations which were the subject of huge lawsuits in London before WW I.

The Francqui visit probably involved Hoover’s Moratorium on German War Debts, which stunned the financial world. On December 15, 1931, Chairman McFadden informed the House of a dispatch in the Public Ledger of Philadelphia, October 24, 1931,


The American President was in intimate negotiations with the German government regarding a year’s debt holiday as early as December, 1930." McFadden continued, "Behind the Hoover announcement there were many months of hurried and furtive preparations both in Germany and in Wall Street offices of German bankers. Germany, like a sponge, had to be saturated with American money. Mr. Hoover himself had to be elected, because this scheme began before he became President. If the German international bankers of Wall Street--that is Kuhn Loeb Company, J. & W. Seligman, Paul Warburg, J. Henry Schroder--and their satellites had not had this job waiting to be done, Herbert Hoover would never have been elected President of the United States. The election of Mr. Hoover to the Presidency was through the influence of the Warburg Brothers, directors of the great bank of Kuhn Loeb Company, who carried the cost of his election. In exchange for this collaboration Mr. Hoover promised to impose the moratorium of German debts. Hoover sought to exempt Kreuger’s loan to Germany of $125 million from the operation of the Hoover Moratorium. The nature of Kreuger’s swindle was known here in January when he visited his friend, Mr. Hoover, in the White House."

(Not only did Hoover entertain Francqui in the White House, but also Ivar Kreuger, the most famous swindler of the twentieth century.)

Herbert Hoover appoints one of the old London crowd, Eugene Meyer, as Governor of the Federal Reserve Board. Meyer’s father had been one of the partners of Lazard Freres of Paris, and Lazard Brothers of London. Meyer, with Baruch, had been one of the most powerful men in the United States during World War I, a member of the famous Triumvirate which exercised unequalled power; Meyer as Chairman of the War Finance Corporation, Bernard Baruch as Chairman of the War Industries Board, and Paul Warburg as Governor of the Federal Reserve System.

Chairman Louis McFadden of the House Banking and Currency Committee, a longtime critic of Eugene Meyer, was quoted in The New York Times, December 17, 1930, as having made a speech on the floor of the House attacking Hoover’s appointment of Meyer, and charging that "He 74 represents the Rothschild interest and is liaison officer between the French Government and J.P. Morgan." On December 18, The Times reported that "Herbert Hoover is deeply concerned" and that McFadden’s speech was "an unfortunate occurrence." On December 20, The Times commented on the editorial page, under the headline, "McFadden Again", "The speech ought to insure the Senate ratification of Mr. Meyer as head of the Federal Reserve. The speech was incoherent, as Mr. McFadden’s speeches usually are." As The Times predicted, Meyer was duly approved by the Senate.

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The Hoover Moratorium was not intended to "help" Germany, as Hoover had never been "pro-German". The Moratorium on Germany’s war debts was necessary so that Germany would have funds for rearming. In 1931, the truly forward-looking diplomats were anticipating the Second World War, and there could be no war without an "aggressor".

27 American states had enacted sterilization laws to allow the compulsory sterilization of certain categories such as the feebleminded and morons. By 1941, almost 36,000 individuals in the US had been compulsorily sterilized under such laws. The trend spread: within a few years a number of European countries had followed suit with compulsory sterilization. These included not only Nazi Germany, but also Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries.

Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.

Sir Francis Chichester

"An object ’like an oblong pearl’ drew steadily closer until perhaps a mile away when, right under my gaze as it were, it suddenly vanished. . . .But it reappeared close to where it had vanished. . . .It drew closer. I could see the dull gleam of light on nose and back. It came on, but instead of increasing in size, it diminished as it approached! When quite near, it suddenly became its own ghost. For one second I could see clear through it and the next. . .it had vanished."

June 10, 1931 , Tasman Sea

Sir Francis Chichester, a famous aviator, sailor, and author, reporting on a strange sighting he had while flying his Gypsy Moth.

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The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated.

Rockefeller Foundation grants are used to establish full-time departments of psychiatry in teaching hospitals and medical schools, including Chicago, Duke, Harvard, McGill, St. Louis, Tulane, Yale, and Washington.

The presidential campaign is staged against the background of the depression. Millions of people mistakenly blame President Hoover for the depression. Political manager James A. Farley is able to procure a strong lead for Roosevelt long before the Democratic convention opens. Roosevelt flies to Chicago to make his acceptance speech in person, showing that he is prepared to act boldly and that polio will not hamper him as president.

Hoover fights a vigorous battle, denouncing Roosevelt’s ideas, but Roosevelt carries all but 6 states. Hoover then wants to work with Roosevelt on emergency measures but Roosevelt believes that without authority he can take no responsibility.

On December 13, 1932, Chairman McFadden introduced a resolution of impeachment against President Hoover for high crimes and misdemeanors, which covers many pages, including violation of contracts, unlawful dissipation of the financial resources of the United States, and his appointment of Eugene Meyer to the Federal Reserve Board. The resolution was tabled and never acted upon by the House since it is a moot point after the election of Roosevelt.

In December of 1932, it seemed inevitable to many observers of the German scene that Hitler was also ready for a toboggan slide into oblivion. Despite the fact that he had done well in national campaigns, he had spent all the money from his usual sources and now faced heavy debts.

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In his book Aggression, Otto Lehmann-Russbeldt tells us that

"Hitler was invited to a meeting at the Schroder Bank in Berlin on January 4, 1933. The leading industrialists and bankers of Germany tided Hitler over his financial difficulties and enabled him to meet the enormous debt he had incurred in connection with the maintenance of his private army. In return, he promised to break the power of the trade unions. On May 2, 1933, he fulfilled his promise."

Present at the January 4, 1933 meeting were the Dulles brothers, John Foster Dulles and Allen W. Dulles of the New York law firm, Sullivan and Cromwell, which represented the Schroder Bank. The Dulles brothers often turned up at important meetings. They had represented the United States at the Paris Peace Conference (1919); John Foster Dulles would die in harness as Eisenhower’s Secretary of State, while Allen Dulles headed the Central Intelligence Agency for many years. Their apologists have seldom attempted to defend the Dulles brothers appearance at the meeting which installed Hitler as the Chancellor of Germany, preferring to pretend that it never happened. One biographer, Leonard Mosley, bypasses it in Dulles when he states,

"Both brothers had spent large amounts of time in Germany, where Sullivan and Cromwell had considerable interest during the early 1930’s, having represented several provincial governments, some large industrial combines, a number of big American companies with interests in the Reich, and some rich individuals."

Allen Dulles later became a director of J. Henry Schroder Company. Neither he nor J. Henry Schroder were ever suspected of being pro-Nazi or pro-Hitler; the inescapable fact was that if Hitler did not become Chancellor of Germany, there was little likelihood of getting a Second World War going, the war which would double their profits.

On February 15th, Giuseppe "Joe" Zangara tries to assassinate president-elect Franklin Roosevelt but kills Chicago mayor Anton J. Chermak instead.

The depression deepens before Roosevelt takes office. More than 20 states declare bank "holidays" to stop panic withdrawals on March 2nd.

Roosevelt’s March 4th inaugural address is broadcast on the radio and does much to restore public confidence. In foreign affairs, he is a follower of Woodrow Wilson, wanting world peace, close friendship with Latin America and the British Empire, and more foreign trade. Roosevelt appoints Frances Perkins, a well-known social worker, as secretary of labor, the first woman Cabinet member.

When Congress ends its 99-day special session, an amazing number of laws have been passed. Roosevelt says he will be satisfied if he is right 60% of the time.

Congress passes the Securities Act.

Congress passes the Tennessee Valley Authority Act.

Congress Passes the Banking Act (’33).

Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. It is ironic that when the Nazis came to power in 1933 they found many of their ideas about human fitness already in place within the medical and scientific communities of Britain and America. A eugenic sterilization law was enacted immediately, inspired partly by what was happening in the US. By the 1940s some 400,000 people had been sterilized on eugenics grounds. A whole bureaucracy was established: there were Erbklinik (genetic clinics), Erbgesundheitsgerichte (genetic courts), ErbŠmter (genetic officials).

In April of 1933, Hitler’s first anti-Jewish law was promulgated, stripping all "non-Aryan" academics of their teaching posts. The new law abruptly stripped a quarter of the physicists in Germany, including eleven who had earned or would earn Nobel Prizes, of their positions and their livelihood.

Under official Emergency Committee auspices thirty scientists and scholars arrived in the U. S. in 1933, thirty-two in 1934, only fifteen in 1935; but forty-three came in 1938, ninety-seven in 1939, fifty-nine in 1940, and fifty in 1941. Of these, approximately 100 were physicists.

Physicist Leo Szilard conceives the atomic chain reaction and patents it.

Rockefeller Foundation, beginning in 1933 and extending for more than 20 years, expends $1.5 million in identifying and assisting 300 scientists and scholars from Nazi Germany to settle in friendly locations; many relocate to U.S. universities.

Scandinavia. The month of December saw the beginning of the Swedish ’Ghost Rockets’ Wave. It ended four years later with an accumulation of 1,000 reports that also covered neighboring Finland and Norway. Most sightings involved airplane-shaped craft and luminous phenomena, none identified.

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Hoover attacks FDR’s New Deal policies in The Challenge to Liberty

Congress passes the Securities and Exchange Act.

In China, Mao Zedong and his followers begin ’The Long March.’

The British government classifies Physicist Leo Szilard’s atomic chain reaction patents.

Drs. E. L. Chaffee and R. U. Light write monograph: A method for Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System

Experiments in Distant Influence, book by Soviet Professor Leonid L. Vasiliev. Vasiliev also wrote an article, "Critical Evaluation of the Hypnogenic Method" concerning the work of Dr. I. F. Tomashevsky on experiments in remote control of the brain.

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The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occurred within poverty-striken black populations.

Parallel with the eugenics programme, the Nazi racial doctrines were developed. The Nuremburg Race Laws of 1935 were drawn up after extensive discussion amongst leading academics. It can fairly be said that, rather than following their political masters, the medical profession and the scientific establishment were driving forces behind Nazi race theories. It is difficult to exaggerate the degree to which mainstream German science was involved. Racial theories, which grew out of the ideas of the Society for Racial Hygiene and other groups, had become an integral part of German academic life in the years after the First World War.

Within the scientific community itself many individuals, some of them early supporters of eugenics, came to oppose the movement. Noteworthy were the American biologists Herbert Jennings and T.H. Morgan, and the British biologists J.B.S. Haldane and Julian Huxley. The latter was grandson of Darwin’s great friend and advocate, T.H. Huxley, and the brother of Aldous, whose masterpiece Brave New World satirizes the eugenics movement.

Congress Passes the Banking Act

Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. During the Ethiopian War a disc-shaped object hovered motionless in the sky above and was seen by many witnesses.

Canada, Saskatchewan. Three witnesses saw landed UFO at Nipawin, and watched several little entities in silver suits ascending and descending a ladder. Square imprints and burnt areas seen and photographed at the location the next day.

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John Maynard Keynes publishes The General Theory of Economics. So-called "Macroeconomics" is born.

The Olympic Games are held in Berlin. African American track and field star Jesse Owens wins gold medals.

A UFO crashed near the city of Freiburg, according to some sources. It is said that the UFO was retrieved, and that German scientists attempted to understand the UFO’s energy system and propulsion systems.

Herrlee Glessner Creel, sinologist and archaeologist notes in a paper that the tombs of King Wen - to whom tradition ascribes authorship of the I Ching - and his sons King Wu and the Duke of Zhou were located on the ancient plateau previously visited by Robert Sterling Clark in 1908 and Harry A. Franck in 1923. He located the place northwest of modern-day Xi’an, north of the Wei River in Shaanxi province and about four miles north of Xianyang. He described the tumuli as flat-topped earthen pyramids. Yet in his later work, (1970) a book about the Zhou dynasty that Kings Wen and Wu founded, he never mentions the burial mounds again. Nor does any other scholarly archaeological text on China mention the subject after this point.

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Einstein proposes to take Kaluza’s fifth dimension as REAL. Later retracts.

Estonia, Juminda. Two observers watched a 1-meter long object that was greenish -brown in color until it finally disappeared.

Stalin tries the "Anti-Soviet bloc of rightists and Trotskyites." The crux of the Stalinist accusation was that Trotskyites were paid agents of international capitalism. K. G. Rakovsky, one of the 1938 defendants, said, or was induced to say, "We were the vanguard of foreign aggression, of international fascism, and not only in the USSR but also in Spain, China, throughout the world." The summation of the "court" contains the statement, "There is not a single man in the world who brought so much sorrow and misfortune to people as Trotsky. He is the vilest agent of fascism ...." And we are reminded of the strange affair of Trotsky and Woodrow Wilson and the Wall Street Bankers. What we notice, in particular, is that Trotsky was supported by the same gang of international capitalists, who, incidentally, were also supporters of Mussolini and Hitler.

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World War II begins in Europe, when Germany invades Poland.

In Germany, sterilization of the mentally retarded was replaced by a euthanasia law. Now patients in mental hospitals could simply be killed on eugenics grounds. Victims of this program, both adults and children, were given lethal injections or gassed; in the occupied territories, they were shot by the same Einsatzgruppen that were killing Jews and gypsies. By 1941, when protests against the policy of gassing patients had become so great that orders were given by Hitler to stop, some 70,000 had been killed. However, killing by other means continued, and even took place after the end of the war.

Due to scientific criticism, the Carnegie Institution withdrew funding from the Eugenics Record Office and closed it down in 1939. However, it was only the liberation of the concentration camps, and the discovery of the work of men like Mengele, that finally discredited the ’old’ eugenics movement.

Nevertheless, much legislation remained on the statute books. Laws against miscegenation in various American states were finally overturned by a federal Supreme Court ruling as late as 1967. In Sweden, eugenic sterilizations continued until 1976. In total, some 62,000 Swedes were sterilized over the 40 years of the programme, an unenviable per capita world record.

Julian Huxley’s brother, Aldous, wrote Brave New World with the eugenics of the 1930s in mind, but his novel has a fair claim to become the prophesy of the 21st century. For eugenics went underground with the importation of the Nazi Scientists after WW II. As we note, eugenics was formerly supported in Germany by Rockefeller et al funding - but the outcry of the people after the war made it imperative to take this work deep underground. It is now supported on site and in secret.

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Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.

Rockefeller Foundation supports work to improve the design of the Van de Graaff accelerator and makes a grant to Dr. Ernest Lawrence for research on a 154-inch cyclotron-two tools of physics used to study the nuclei of atoms.

Japan. While flying over Japan, Wing Commander D.J. Blakeslee sighted an object he described as having red, green and white lights. The craft moved rapidly to escape detection. Blakeslee was guided by ground radar. He was reported to be stable and reliable. The Air Force officially ruled the sighting to be Jupiter, although it was tracked by radar.

Roosevelt authorized the FBI to engage in electronic eavesdropping against activities judged by Hoover to be potentially detrimental to the internal security of the United States.

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