by Michael E. Salla, M.A., Ph.D.
The existence of extraterrestrial life has long been a subject of
intense speculation and fierce public debate.
focused on the more than 200 billion solar systems known to exist in
the Milky Way, and similar figures for other galaxies, that might
harbor advanced extraterrestrial life. This is exemplified in
estimates of extraterrestrial life in the galaxy provided by
Project OZMA participants (forerunner to Search for Extraterrestrial
Intelligence - SETI), who in a 1961 meeting agreed on the Drake
They came up with the initial figure of
10,000 technological civilizations scattered throughout the galaxy.
 Such estimates have
allowed futurists and science fiction authors to speculate on what
such life would be like, and how it may impact on human society at
some future date. Scientific speculation has taken the form of
estimating the possibilities of advanced extraterrestrial life
evolving in our galaxy, and the levels of scientific advancement
that these would have reached.
The Russian Astronomer Nikolai
Kardashev, for example, speculated that advanced
extraterrestrial civilizations could be distinguished by the
quantity of energy they used. This could occur at a planetary level
(Type I), stellar level (Type II) or galactic level (Type III).
Public debate concerning extraterrestrial life has focused upon
extensive visual sightings, radar trackings and photographs of
Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) that appear to be under
intelligent control. Many UFO sightings have been acknowledged by
government officials as not explainable in terms of known aircraft
or natural phenomena, and have even been reported to outperform the
most advanced aircraft possessed by industrialized nations.
For example, former Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff in the U.S., General Nathan Twining, made the
following declaration about the “flying disks” phenomenon in
“The phenomenon reported is
something real and not visionary or fictitious.”
[4 - see below insert]
Letter From General N.F.
Twining to Commanding General, Army Air Forces
This letter's recommendations led to the creation of
the US military's first
serious UFO investigation project.
23 September 1947
SUBJECT: AMC Opinion Concerning "Flying Discs"
TO: Commanding General
Army Air Forces
Washington 25, D.C.
ATTENTION: Brig. General George Schulgen
1. As requested by
AC/AS-2 there is presented below the considered
opinion of this command concerning the so-called
“Flying Discs.” This opinion is based on
interrogation report data furnished by AC/AS-2 and
preliminary studies by personnel of T-2 and Aircraft
Laboratory, Engineering Division T-3. This opinion
was arrived at in a conference between personnel
from the Air Institute of Technology, Intelligence
T-2, Office, Chief of Engineering Division, and the
Aircraft, Power Plant and Propeller Laboratories of
Engineering Division T-3.
2. It is the opinion that:
a. The phenomenon
reported is something real and not visionary or
b. There are objects probably approximately the
shape of a disc, of such appreciable size as to
appear to be as large as man-made aircraft.
c. There is the possibility that some of the
incidents may be caused by natural phenomena,
such as meteors.
d. The reported operating characteristics such
as extreme rates of climb, maneuverability
(particularly in roll), and action which must be
considered evasive when sighted or contacted by
friendly aircraft and radar, lend belief to the
possibility that some of the objects are
controlled either manually, automatically or
e. The apparent common description of the
objects is as follows:
or light reflecting surface.
(2) Absence of trail, except in a few
instances when the object apparently was
operating under high performance conditions.
(3) Circular or elliptical in shape, flat on
bottom and domed on top.
(4) Several reports of well kept formation
flights varying from three to nine objects.
(5) Normally no associated sound, except in
three instances a substantial rumbling roar
(6) Level flight speeds normally about 300
knots are estimated.
f. It is possible
within the present U.S. knowledge - provided
extensive detailed development is undertaken -
to construct a piloted aircraft which has the
general description of the object in
subparagraph (e) above which would be capable of
an approximate range of 700 miles at subsonic
g. Any developments in this country along the
lines indicated would be extremely expensive,
time consuming and at the considerable expense
of current projects and therefore, if directed,
should be set up independently of existing
h. Due consideration must be given the
possibility that these objects are of
domestic origin the product of some high
security project not known to AC/AS-2 or
(2) The lack of physical evidence in the
shape of crash recovered exhibits which
would undeniably prove the existence of
(3) The possibility that some foreign nation
has a form of propulsion possibly nuclear,
which is outside of our domestic knowledge.
3. It is recommended
Army Air Forces issue a directive assigning a
priority, security classification and code name
for a detailed study of this matter to include
the preparation of complete sets of all
available and pertinent data which will then be
made available to the Army , Navy, Atomic Energy
Commission, JRDB, the Air Force Scientific
Advisory Group, NACA, and the RAND and NEPA
projects for comments and recommendations, with
a preliminary report to be forwarded within 15
days of receipt of the data and a detailed
report thereafter every 30 days as the
investigation develops. A complete interchange
of data should be effected.
4. Awaiting a specific
directive AMC will continue the investigation within
its current resources in order to more closely
define the nature of the phenomenon. Detailed
Essential Elements of Information will be formulated
immediately for transmittal thru channels.
Lieutenant General, U.S.A.
Such comments by similar senior military
or government officials have led to the extraterrestrial hypothesis
that UFOs are extraterrestrial in origin, as a possible explanation.
More recently, a growing number of
former government, military and corporate officials have come
forward to disclose direct experience of UFOs and extraterrestrial
life, and of government suppression of corroborating data.
While speculation and debate continues around the subject of
extraterrestrial life and its relation to UFO sightings, there has
been growing controversy about how to approach the growing pool of
data available in the public domain, primarily through the internet.
The data comprises many thousands of accounts by both private
individuals; and former corporate, military and government
officials; who have made available personal testimonies, photos,
videos and documentation concerning extraterrestrial life.
National governments have also
significantly contributed to the growing pool of open source data
available. The U.S. government, for example, has made available many
documents through Freedom of Information Act requests that are now
available on the internet. Similarly, governments such as France and
Britain in 2007 and 2008 placed thousands of UFO case files on the
One approach to the public database has been to focus primarily on
evidence concerning UFOs, and to subject this to rigorous scientific
analyses to determine its credibility. Another more recent approach
gaining popularity has been to focus on the public policy
implications of evidence concerning extraterrestrial life. These
respective approaches are generally known as ‘UFOlogy’ and ‘exopolitics’.
The supporters of each approach advocate
distinct methodologies for dealing with the data available in the
In this paper, I contrast these two
approaches to UFO-related data in terms of their suitability for
comprehensively understanding the public policy implications of
Emphasizing Scientific Study of Physical Evidence
The field of UFOlogy is generally accepted to have started with
sightings of what were initially called ‘flying saucers’ by Kenneth
Arnold in June 1947. The frequency of flying saucer reports in the
U.S. quickly led to a classified study by the U.S. Air Force with
the initial assistance of the Federal Bureau of
(FBI) in 1948.
Documents have emerged to confirm that
the Air Force commissioned technical specialists at its Air
Technical Division at Wright Patterson Air Force Base to conduct a
detailed investigation. The resulting investigation of approximately
300 cases produced a highly classified study called ‘The Estimate of
the Situation’ in September 1948, whose initial conclusion
reportedly supported the extraterrestrial hypothesis.
The Estimate and its remarkable
conclusion was moved all the way up the Air Force hierarchy to the
desk of the Chief of Staff, General Hoyt Vandenberg who,
according to unconfirmed reports, rejected it and made clear that
support for the extraterrestrial hypothesis was not an acceptable
conclusion for reasons related to national security.
According to Captain Edward Ruppelt,
who in 1952 set up and was in charge of
Project Blue Book, the official
USAF investigation of the UFO phenomenon:
“The general said it would cause a
stampede....How could we convince the public the aliens weren’t
hostile when we didn’t know ourselves? … the general ordered the
secret analysis burned. But one copy was held out - Major Dewey
Fournet and I saw it in 1952.” 
If accurate, Ruppelt’s statement
suggests that the extraterrestrial hypothesis was not a neutral
scientific problem to be determined by technical specialists, but an
issue of utmost national security concerns.
Clearly, the public policy implications
of extraterrestrial life, trumped any neutral scientific study of
the phenomenon. It could not be assumed that the findings of any
genuine investigation of UFOs would be released to the general
public. The subsequent official U.S. Air Force study of UFOs,
Project Blue Book, was dogged by criticisms by UFO researchers that
important evidence was being overlooked.
The most well-known critic was Major
Donald Keyhoe who wrote a number of books concerning ‘flying
saucers’.  He eventually
became the head of the National Investigative Committee for Aerial
Phenomenon (NICAP) which was created in 1956 to initiate civilian
investigations of UFO’s and to pressure the USAF to conduct more
thorough investigations. Keyhoe and NICAP employed well-credentialed
scientists, engineers and former officials to build impressive
database confirming the reality of UFOs and the support this gave to
the extraterrestrial hypothesis.
Regardless of Keyhoe’s and NICAP’s
efforts, USAF and official government attitudes were dismissive, and
even recommended debunking of UFO reports on national security
The 1953 CIA-sponsored
Robertson Panel delivered a report,
the Durant Report, that recommended
ridiculing the flying saucer phenomenon and the possibility of
extraterrestrial life, for national security reasons.
The Report stated:
The "debunking" aim would result in
reduction in public interest in "flying saucers" which today
evokes a strong psychological reaction. This education could be
accomplished by mass media such as television, motion pictures,
and popular articles.… Such a program should tend to reduce the
current gullibility of the public and consequently their
susceptibility to clever hostile propaganda.
Subsequent debunking by government and
military officials culminated in Keyhoe and some UFO researchers
concluding that a government conspiracy existed to cover up
information. Keyhoe’s 1955 book, The Flying Saucer Conspiracy,
detailed the extent to which the U.S. military was silencing
personnel from revealing what they had seen and withholding
corroborating physical evidence. 
Other UFO researchers, in contrast, insisted that the government had
merely “fouled up” its study of UFOs, and that no government
conspiracy existed. The consensus between the two groups of UFO
researchers was that more emphasis would be given to establishing
the scientific merit of UFO evidence, to counter the debunking
efforts of government officials and members of the public.
Public policy implications of the data
confirming the reality of UFOs and the likelihood of the
extraterrestrial hypothesis would be put off to some future date
when evidence would be sufficiently overwhelming to remove all
As a field of study, UFOlogy therefore concentrated on scientific
analysis of physical data associated with UFOs, and minimized
speculation on the origins of UFOs and the extraterrestrial
This is best demonstrated in a famous
definition by Dr Allen Hynek, who defined the scientific
study of UFOs as follows:
We can define the UFO simply as the
reported perception of an object or light seen in the sky or
upon the land the appearance, trajectory, and general dynamic
and luminescent behavior of which do not suggest a logical,
conventional explanation and which is not only mystifying to the
original percipients but remains unidentified after close
scrutiny of all available evidence by persons who are
technically capable of making a common sense identification, if
one is possible. 
Leading UFOlogists such as Dr Hynek were
not receptive to the idea that government entities were
systematically tampering with evidence and intimidating individuals
into silence. Any government ‘cover-up’ was limited to maintaining
silence on evidence confirming UFO’s, and not admitting to blunders
in official studies of UFO’s.
Thus the government ‘cover-up’ or
‘foul-up’, according to UFOlogists, could be overcome by more
detailed scientific studies.
The view that a ‘hard’ cover-up existed in terms of systematic
evidence tampering and intimidating witnesses by draconian security
measures was dismissed. The idea of a ‘hard cover-up’ would
seriously undermine the merit of the scientific method championed by
UFOlogists for getting to the truth.
Given that leading UFOlogists were
scientists with backgrounds in engineering, astronomy, meteorology,
physics, and/or image analysis, who were “technically capable of
making a common sense identification”, the ‘hard cover-up’ idea was
dismissed as unsubstantiated conspiracy theory.
Consequently, neither the UFO data that
pointed to the existence of extraterrestrial life, nor evidence of a
high level government cover-up on national security grounds, would
be discussed in terms of its public policy implications.
UFOlogy as a field of study was not receptive to analyses of the
public policy implications of extraterrestrial life which was
regarded as premature and too speculative. Instead, a number of ad
hoc public policy measures were adopted in terms of briefings of
government officials and the mass media of the need for serious
scientific study of UFOs given the quality of evidence.
This attitude has not appreciably
changed over the sixty-year period of UFO investigations by official
and private entities. It is best exemplified in documents such as
“The Best Available Evidence” which was circulated in a confidential
policy initiative by
Laurence Rockefeller to brief the Clinton
Administration of UFOs in the early 1990s.
More recently, a Press Conference at
the National Press Club in Washington DC chaired by former
Arizona Governor Fife Symington, focused exclusively on
expert witness sightings of UFOs. 
National Press Club - Washington, DC
November 12, 2007
VIEW SHORT VIDEO CLIPS OF PRESS CONFERENCE BELOW
The extraterrestrial hypothesis was
deliberately excluded from discussions by Symington and the
Report and Public Policy Implications of Extraterrestrial Life
While UFOlogists avoided analysis of the public policy implications
of extraterrestrial life, official documents would slowly emerge
detailing such implications. Undoubtedly the most important document
to publicly emerge is the 1961 Brookings Institute study
commissioned by NASA on behalf of the U.S. Congress.
Titled “Proposed Studies on the
Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs,” the
Brookings Report devoted several sections to discussing the public
policy implications of extraterrestrial life. The Brookings Report
delivered to the U.S. Congress in April 1961, described the
potential impact of extraterrestrial life or ‘artifacts’ being found
on nearby planetary bodies.
The Report stated:
While face-to-face meetings with it
[extraterrestrial life] will not occur within the next 20 years;
artifacts left at some point in time by these life forms might
possibly be discovered through our space activities on the moon,
Mars, or Venus. 
Viking Photo: Face on
The Report described the
unpredictability of societal reactions to the discovery of
Evidences of its [extraterrestrial]
existence might also be found in
artifacts left on the moon or
other planets. The consequences for attitudes and values are
unpredictable, but would vary profoundly in different cultures
and between groups within complex societies; a crucial factor
would be the nature of the communication between us and the
other beings. 
The Report also mentioned that
devastating societal effects could also result from contact with
more technologically advanced off world societies:
Anthropological files contain many
examples of societies, sure of their place in the universe,
which have disintegrated when they had to associate with
previously unfamiliar societies espousing different ideas and
different life ways; others that survived such an experience
usually did so by paying the price of changes in values and
attitudes and behavior. 
The Brookings Report went on to raise
the possibility of suppressing any announcement of extraterrestrial
life or artifacts for national security reasons:
“How might such information, under
what circumstances, be presented or withheld from the public?”
Significantly, the Brookings Report
pointed out that,
“of all groups, scientists and
engineers might be the most devastated by the discovery of
relatively superior creatures, since these professions are most
clearly associated with mastery of nature.”
The Brookings Report provides the first
officially sanctioned analysis of the public policy implications of
discovering extraterrestrial life and/or artifacts. The Report
confirms the unpredictability of societal responses around the
globe, and raises the possibility of societal collapse. The clear
conclusion is that the discovery of extraterrestrial life and/or
artifacts would be of the utmost national security concern.
Furthermore, the Brookings Report
alluded to the possible desirability of withholding from the public
any discovery concerning extraterrestrial life and/or artifacts on
national security grounds. It should be pointed out that the
Brookings Report itself, while not a classified document, was
mysteriously withheld from the general public until 1993 when it was
discovered at a Federal Archive in Little Rock, Arkansas.
The conclusions of the Brookings Report
and its non-availability for over thirty years, helps confirm that
an official effort was well underway to discourage discussion of the
public policy implications of extraterrestrial life.
The Brookings Report together with the Durant Report make it
possible to identify ten significant public policy questions
concerning extraterrestrial life that are raised by these official
Is an official cover-up of
extraterrestrial life justified on national security
To what extent would official
disclosure of extraterrestrial life destabilize global
What segments of American and
global society would be most affected by disclosure of
To what extent are the tools of
psychological warfare such as debunking and discrediting of
witnesses, to be used on the American and global public to
dismiss the seriousness of data concerning UFOs and
To what extent is the mass media
used to promote a cover-up of extraterrestrial life?
What is the constitutional
standing of classified executive orders concerning
To what extent does the public’s
‘right to know’ impact on official efforts to limit
information on extraterrestrial life on a ‘need to know’
To what extent would a cover-up of information on
extraterrestrial life involve draconian national security
To what extent should scientific
principles or technologies gained from extraterrestrial life
be shared with the general public?
Should public policy decisions
concerning extraterrestrial life or technologies be decided
in secretly appointed committees veiled from public scrutiny
or made transparent in a highly visible public process?
These public policy questions
and the issues they address arise directly out of officially
sanctioned investigations, the Durant Report and the
Brookings Report. The related public policy issues do not
require acceptance of data confirming the reality of
extraterrestrial life, only the possibility that
extraterrestrial life exists.
Consequently, there is an important need
to systematically study such public policy issues using a range of
disciplinary approaches incorporating both quantitative and
qualitative methods on the publicly available evidence on
extraterrestrial life and UFOs.
This needs to be done in a way that
satisfies two constituencies who strongly differ over the question
of whether the minimum threshold of evidentiary support for the
reality of extraterrestrial life has been attained.
The first constituency comprises
individuals and groups who do not accept that a minimum threshold of
evidence has been reached to prove that extraterrestrial life exists
beyond all reasonable doubt.
Prominent examples include supporters of
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), who
argue that the possibility of extraterrestrial life is sufficient to
justify the investment of appreciable resources in seeking evidence
through radio transmissions.
Such individuals and groups largely
accept the pioneering work of Frank Drake and his SETI
colleagues in calculating the likelihood of extraterrestrial life
existing in the Milky Way galaxy. 
However, many advocates of SETI openly
challenge the evidence proposed by UFO researchers as having proved
the existence of extraterrestrial life.
A second constituency is individuals and groups who argue that a
minimum evidentiary threshold has been reached but that the general
public and many scientists are not aware of this. This group
believes that vigorous education programs are needed to inform the
public of the available evidence, much of which has been ignored by
the mass media, universities and public officials.
More importantly, this second
constituency argues that public policy analysis needs to proceed
using the available evidence.
and Public Policy Concerning Extraterrestrial Life
Historically there have been a number of attempts to address key
public policy issues concerning evidence of extraterrestrial life
from the perspective of inadequate official investigations and
governmental suppression of UFO data.
These public policy issues have arisen
in an ad hoc manner in the context of proposed or ongoing UFO
investigations without any attempt to systematically address these
This has primarily resulted in attempts
by UFO researchers to get national governments to initiate official
investigations and to create the necessary governmental bodies to
achieve this task. This is exemplified in the
1978 UN General
Assembly Decision to set up a United Nations agency to investigate
UFO reports and the possibility of extraterrestrial life.
While lauded at the time as a great
achievement by UFO researchers, to date the UN has not implemented
this decision, nor made any effort to study the public policy issues
associated with the evidence. Consequently, up until recently, there
has been no attempt to systematically study public policy issues
concerning extraterrestrial life.
‘Exopolitics’ has been proposed as
a distinct disciplinary approach that attempts to provide such a
The first reference to ‘exopolitics’ as a distinctive approach to
studying public policy issues associated with extraterrestrial life
appeared in a seminal 2000 paper by
Alfred Webre where he wrote:
No mainstream politicians have
defined extraterrestrial presence as a live political or public
policy issue. No sizable number of citizens of any terrestrial
nation are moved to call upon their local politicians or the
political process to connect with the extraterrestrial presence,
or study it, or even acknowledge it officially… Exopolitics is a
fundamental organizing, mediating, social, and governmental
process in our interplanetary and interdimensional space.
The need for systematic discussion of
public policy issues concerning extraterrestrial life by
establishing a new discipline called ‘exopolitics’ was more formally
proposed in a January 2003 paper where I argued that evidence
concerning extraterrestrial life would:
"… lead to the birth of a new field
of public policy, ‘exopolitics’, which can be defined as the
policy debate over the choices governments and populations need
to make in formulating and implementing legislative and policy
responses to the presence of ETs in human affairs.”
More recently, a definition has been
proposed for helping better formalize exopolitical study:
“Exopolitics is the study of the
political actors, institutions and processes associated with
extraterrestrial life.” 
The advantage of this definition is that
it makes it possible for exopolitical discussion of public policy
issues without necessarily accepting that extraterrestrial life has
been discovered and/or is covered up for national security reasons.
This helps offset criticism that
exopolitics makes a priori assumptions that extraterrestrial life
exists which might be directed at alternative definitions of
exopolitics. So, for example, the Brookings Report can be cited as a
document making a number of exopolitical statements concerning
public policy implications of extraterrestrial life, without
accepting the reality of extraterrestrial life.
Similarly, SETI researchers speculating
about protocols for dealing with contact with extraterrestrial life
are implicitly analyzing exopolitical themes.
Most supporters of exopolitics accept that the existence of
extraterrestrial life has been abundantly demonstrated by a vast and
ever-growing pool of evidence accumulated over the last sixty years
provided by eyewitnesses, whistleblowers, scientists, ‘experiencers’
and leaked government documents. Consequently, most advocates of
exopolitical analysis claim it is finally time to focus on public
policy aspects of this accumulated evidence.
This is exemplified in the case of Paul Hellyer, the former
Defense Minister of Canada, who has spoken at a
number of exopolitical events on what he describes as some of the
“most profoundly important policy questions that must be addressed.”
Alternatively, it is possible, as already mentioned, for public
policy aspects of extraterrestrial life to be analyzed without
necessarily accepting the veracity of evidence supporting such life.
Consequently, while exopolitical analysis often proceeds from
accepting the persuasiveness of evidence establishing the reality of
extraterrestrial life and/or artifacts, exopolitics does not require
such an acceptance as a necessary condition.
A sufficient condition for exopolitical
study is acceptance that the possible existence of extraterrestrial
life has significant public policy implications.
Most exopolitical analysts contrast their approach with UFOlogists
who continue to advocate accumulating more evidence to provide a
scientific argument for proving to determined skeptics that UFOs are
real and that the extraterrestrial hypothesis a legitimate focus of
scientific inquiry. Exopolitics analysts conclude that much of the
skepticism concerning UFOs and extraterrestrial life crosses the
conceptual boundary between objective criticism and debunking.
This has led to claims that the
debunking performed by critics of UFOlogy and exopolitics, is part
of the debunking and ridiculing effort recommended by the
Durant Report, and implicitly legitimated by the
Brookings Report. In
short, the discussion of public policy issues concerning
extraterrestrial life is itself subjected to debunking as evidenced
in the 30 years of secrecy surrounding the Brookings Report and its
This has prevented the development of
the field of exopolitics for over five decades since UFO research
began in 1947.
The attempt to raise public policy discussion of extraterrestrial
life has led to much debate and controversy. Supporters of
exopolitics have been subjected to sustained criticisms for
proposing serious public policy discussion of the available
evidence. Many ‘UFOlogists’ remain highly critical of exopolitics as
an emerging disciplinary approach to public policy issues concerning
UFOlogists and other skeptics have
difficulty grasping that exopolitics is the forerunner to a
legitimate academic discipline that can be anticipated to be
eventually established in every major university for the systematic
study of such policy issues.
Critics of exopolitics often tend to
focus on some of the pioneers of exopolitical thought in terms of
their methods and ideas, rather than identifying the merits of
demarcating the conceptual boundaries for a scholarly approach to
public policy issues concerning extraterrestrial life.
the Discipline of Choice
The present historical situation is in some ways analogous to the
19th century where there was much debate on how to prepare
individuals for studying public policy issues in relation to careers
in international diplomacy, public office and/or as university
Gentlemen drawn from the Aristocratic
class formed a unique pool of amateur scholars who emphasized
classical studies as the best preparation for dealing with
policy issues. They recommended the historical works of Cicero,
Josephus, Herodotus, Thucydides and other ancient authors; and
requisite training in Latin, classical Greek or similar ancient
Amateur ‘gentlemen scholars’, as they
have been described, prescribed ample leisure time for study of
public policy issues and criticized those who required remuneration
from their studies. Nevertheless, largely out of the History
departments of many universities, the new discipline of Political
Science began to emerge in the 1860s; and these were staffed by
salaried professionals trained in the latest methods of political
scholarship and pedagogy. 
Political science developed as an
academic discipline since it fulfilled a functional need: the need
was to systematically study public policy issues, and how
individuals could be trained to professionally deal with these.
Political science is now the discipline of choice for those wanting
to systematically study public policy issues and to be
professionally trained to work with these in various careers.
Similarly, exopolitics will be the discipline of choice for those
desiring to study public policy issues associated with
extraterrestrial life, since it also fulfills a functional need. The
functional need is to understand how extraterrestrial life impacts
on public policy issues, and to professionally train individuals to
deal with these.
Exopolitics will be first established in
departments of political science as a legitimate sub-field, as is
currently the case with ‘international politics’, ‘foreign policy’,
‘comparative politics’, ‘political economy’, etc., in many political
science departments. The precursor to such academic studies is the
Exopolitics Certification Program created with faculty drawn from
the Exopolitics Institute. 
Eventually, exopolitics will emerge as a
distinct department with an interdisciplinary focus spanning public
policy issues relating not only to political science, but to
exoscience, exoreligion, exodiplomacy, etc.
Debunkers, UFOlogists, SETI researchers and other critics of
exopolitics are poor students of history not to have observed how
academic disciplines and sub-fields develop to fulfill functional
needs. Such individuals are remiss in not observing how exopolitics
will fill the functional need for the systematic study of public
policy issues concerning extraterrestrial life.
The choice of the word 'exopolitics' to
represent this nascent academic discipline has long-term strategic
value due to the functional need it fills. Furthermore, exopolitics
is the term of choice to deal with the public policy issues
identified earlier, and others that arise from documents and
evidence concerning extraterrestrial life and technologies.
Both UFOlogy and SETI will become redundant as fields of study since
the functional needs each serves will quickly be settled once the
existence of extraterrestrial life is accepted. The reality of UFOs
will be moot once they have been publicly identified as
‘extraterrestrial’, ‘interdimensional’ or ‘extratemporal’ in origin.
UFOs that are extraterrestrial origin
will no longer form a unique conceptual category of unidentified
flying objects, but will become identified as extraterrestrial
vehicles (ETVs). Similarly, continued efforts to “search for
extraterrestrial intelligence” will also become redundant.
Discerning the existence of extraterrestrial life through radio
communications will cease to have much of a functional need once
such life has been confirmed.
Those devoted to UFOlogy and SETI are missing a great opportunity to
contribute to establishing legitimate conceptual parameters for
exopolitical study. Experts in both fields of study can assist in
bringing clarity to the public policy implications of a phenomenon
they are also interested in. Exopolitics is here to stay as the
discipline of choice for understanding the public policy
implications of extraterrestrial life.
Exopolitics as a new branch of knowledge
will revolutionize academic studies and the world as we know it.
 Grateful thanks to Dana Tomasina
for proof-reading the final version of this article.
 See Frank Drake, “The Drake Equation: A Reappraisal,” in
First Contact: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence,
eds. Ben Bova & Byron Preiss (Bryon Preiss, 1991) 115-17.
 Kardashev, N. S. "Transmission of Information by
Extraterrestrial Civilizations," Soviet Astronomy, 8:2 (1964)
 Letter From General N.F. Twining to Commanding General, Army
Air Forces, 23 September 1947
 For comments by former military and government officials
concerning UFO’s see Don Berliner with Marie Galbraith and
Antonio Huneus, UFO Briefing Document: The Best Available
Evidence (UFO Research Coalition, 1995) 153-208.
Steven Greer, Disclosure:
Military and Government Witnesses Reveal the Greatest Secrets in
Modern History (Crossing Point Inc., 2001).
 France’s UFO files are available online at: http://www.cnes-geipan.fr
. The UK’s Ministry of Defense UFO files are available online
 For detailed analysis of what
occurred with the initial “Estimate of the Situation,” See
Michael Swords, “Project
Sign & Estimate of the Situation,” Journal of UFO
 Donald Keyhoe, Aliens from Space (Signet Books, 1973) 14.
 Donald Keyhoe’s first book was The Flying Saucers are Real
(Fawcett Gold Medal, 1950).
 Cited from online version of
 Donald Keyhoe, The Flying Saucer Conspiracy (Henry Holt &
 Allen Hynek, The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry
(Henry Regnery Company, 1972), 10.
 Allen Hynek, The UFO Experience, 10.
Don Berliner, et al., UFO Briefing Document.
 For media coverage of the November 12, 2007 National Press
Club Conference on UFO’s go to:
Brookings Report, 215.
 Brookings Report, 215.
Brookings Report, 215.
 Brookings Report, 215.
Brookings Report, 225.
 See Richard Hoagland and Mike Bara, Dark Mission: The
Secret History of NASA (Feral House, 2007) 81.
 See Frank Drake, “The Drake Equation: A Reappraisal,” in
First Contact, eds. Bova & Preiss, 115-17.
 See Isaac Asimov, “Terrestrial Intelligence,” & Arthur C.
Clarke, “Where Art They” in First Contact, eds., Bova and Preiss,
29 & 310.
 See Donald Keyhoe, Aliens from Space.
 For discussion of an evolution in approaches to public
policy issues concerning extraterrestrial life, see Michael
Salla, “The History of Exopolitics: Evolving Political
Approaches to UFOs and the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis" Exopolitics
Journal 1:1 (2005) 1-17.
UN General Assembly Decision 33/426, 1978
 First published in June 2000 and republished in the
Exopolitics Journal 2:2 (2007): 142-50.
 See, Michael Salla, “The Need for Exopolitics, Implications
of Extraterrestrial Conspiracy Theories for Policy Makers and
Global Peace,” (January 2003). Paper published as chapter one in
Implications of Extraterrestrial Life (Dandelion Books, 2004).
 This is a revised version of a standard definition I
proposed in 2005 in my paper, "The History of Exopolitics”
Exopolitics Journal 1:1 (2005) 1-17.
Michael Michaud, “A Unique Moment in Human History,” in
First Contact, eds., Bova and Preiss, 243-61.
 See Michael Salla, “Using
Space Weapons Against ET Civilizations,” Nexus
Magazine 14:2 (2006).
 See Michael Salla, Corso’s Critics "Colonel Philip Corso
and his Critics: Crossing the Rubicon between Objective
Criticism and Debunking" - Parts 1 & 2 Exopolitics
Journal 1:2 & 1:3
 For example, see Kevin Randle, Exopolitics, available
online at: http://kevinrandle.blogspot.com/2005/11/exopolitics.html
 See Michael Parenti, “Patricians, Professionals and
Political Science,” American Political Science Review, 100:4
2006) 499. Available online at: http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/APSRNov06Parenti.pdf
 See Michael Parenti, “Patricians, Professionals and
Political Science,” American Political Science Review, 100:4
2006) 499. Available online at: http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/APSRNov06Parenti.pdf
 See: http://exopoliticsinstitute.org/certificates/