A LAND OF WHICH
THE INGOTS COME
"There is a land of which the ingots come"
This quote appears in a passage from the
Book of Job (Bible) when
the man Job holds a conversation with three friends....
Mr. Sitchin begins this chapter by introducing a man from the
of Uz, his name was Job. This he quotes from the Bible when
perfect and upright, was put to the test by Satan to the limits of
man’s faith in God.
Job enters into a conversation with three friends, who point to him
the wonders of the heavens and the earth, among them the "marvels of
metals and their sources and the ingenuity of finding them and
extracting them from the depths of the earth." Several verses are
quoted from the biblical Book of Job.
"Does man know all these places? Job asked, did man by himself
discover all the metallurgical processes? Indeed he challenged his
three friends, where does this knowledge of metal and minerals come
After his friends reply,
"Clearly, Job conceded, all this
Knowledge comes from God - the one
who had both enriched him and deprived him and who would restore
Job and his
Three Friends. A painting by Dore.
"The inclusion of the
marvels of mining in Job’s discourse with his friends may have not
been accidental. Though nothing is known of the identity of Job
himself or of the land where he had lived, the names of the three
friends provide some clues. The first one was Elipaz of Teman, from
southern Arabia, his name meant "My God is Pure Gold." The second
one was Bildad of Shuha, a country believed to have been located
south of Carcemish, the Hittite city; the land’s name meant "Place
of the deep pits." The third one was Zophar of Na’amah, a place
named after the sister of Tubal-Cain, "the master of all smiths"
according to the Bible. All three, thus, had come from lands
associated with mining.
"....Job’s time is certainly long after Man’s first use of copper by
hammering lumps of native copper into useful shapes, and well into
the period when metals were obtained by ores that had to be smelted,
refined, and cast.
"....Greek poets and philosophers, followed by Roman ones,
perpetuated Plato’s division of human history according to four
metal ages of Gold, Silver, Bronze (copper), and Iron, in which
represented the ideal age when Man had been closer to his gods. A
biblical division included in Daniel’s vision begins with clay
before the list of metals and is a more accurate version of Man’s
"....The early use of copper was therefore of copper-stones, and for
that reason many scholars prefer to call the transition from the
stone ages to the metal ages not a Copper Age but a Chalcolithic,
"....Believed to have begun in the highlands surrounding the
Crescent of the Near East, this metalworking of copper (and
eventually of gold) was possible due to the circumstances particular
"Gold and Copper are found in nature in their "natural state," not
only as veins deep within the rocks inside the earth, but also in
the form of nuggets and lumps (even dust in the case of gold) that
the forces of nature - storms, floods, or the persistent flow of
streams and rivers - have shaken loose out of the rocks as they
became exposed.... Placer mining, most authorities believe that such
mining was practiced in the highlands surrounding the Fertile
Crescent of Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean eastern coasts as
early as the fifth millennium B.C., and certainly before 4000 B.C.
"....It is noteworthy that although both gold and
copper were thus
available in their natural state, and gold was even more suitable
for use because unlike copper it does not oxidize, Near East man of
those early millennia did not utilize gold but limited his use to
copper. The phenomenon usually goes without explanation; but it is
our opinion that the explanation is to be found in the notions
familiar from the New World - that gold was a metal belonging to the
gods. When gold came into use, at the beginning of the third
millennium B.C. or several centuries earlier, it was for enhancing
the temples (literally "God’s House") and for
making golden vessels
for the service of the gods therein. It was circa 2500 B.C. that
gold came into total use, indicating a change of attitudes whose
reasons are yet to be explored.
"Sumerian civilization blossomed out circa 3800 B.C. and it is
evident from archaeological discoveries that its beginnings, both in
northern and southern Mesopotamia, were in place by 4000 B.C.; that
is also the time when mining, the processing of ores and
metallurgical sophistication, appeared on the scene - a complex and
advanced body of knowledge that (as in the case of all other
sciences) the ancient peoples said it was given them by the
Anunnaki, the gods who had come to Earth from Nibiru. Reviewing the
stages in man’s use of metal, L. Aitchison (A History of Metals)
noted with astonishment that by 3700 B.C. "every culture in
Mesopotamia was based in metalworking"; he concluded with obvious
admiration that the metallurgical heights then reached "must
inevitably be attributed to the technical genius of the Sumerians."
"Primitive hammering gave way to the art of casting; and the very
complex process known as Cire perdue ("lost wax"), which enabled the
casting and making of beautiful and useful objects (such as
statuettes of gods and animals or temple utensils) was invented - in
Sumer. The progress made there spread worldwide.... "it reached
Egypt some three hundred years later and by 2500 B.C. the entire
region between the Nile cataracts and the Indus is metal minded....
The Chinese did not become true metallurgists until the
period, 1800-1500 B.C.... In Europe the earliest metal objects are
hardly earlier than 2000 B.C."
"Before the Deluge, when
the Anunnaki had been mining gold in
Southern Africa for their own needs in Nibiru, the smelted ores were
shipped in submersible boats to their E.DIN. Sailing through what is
now the Arabian Sea and up the Persian Gulf they delivered their
cargo for final processing and refining at BAD.TIBIRA, an
antediluvial "Pittsburgh." The name meant "Place established for
"....After the Deluge it
took nearly seven millennia for the plain
(of Tigris-Euphrates) to become dry enough for people to resettle
there and launch the Sumerian civilization.... The Sumerian
metallurgical center was established where Bad-Tibira
had once been.
The fact that other people in the ancient Near East employed not
only Sumerian technologies but also Sumerian terminologies attest to
the centrality of Sumer in ancient metallurgy.
"....It is known from records and finds that Sumerian traders
reached out to very distant sources for metals, offering in exchange
not only Sumer’s staples - grains and woollen garments - but also
finished metal products.
"....Sumerian pictographic writing included an impressive array of
symbols pertaining to mining, many showing variety of mine shafts
according to their structures or minerals mined therein.
"Where all these mines were located - certainly not in
- is not always clear, for many place names remain unidentified. But
some royal inscriptions indicate far and distant lands. A good
example is [a] quote (appearing on book) from Cylinder A, column xvi
of Gudea, king of Lagash (third millennium B.C.) in which he
recorded the rare materials used in building the E.NINNU temple for
"One of the key passages in the text (which
Gudea repeated in
Cylinder B, to make sure posterity remembers his pious
achievements), is the use of "copper mixed with
tin" to build the
"As Gudea has correctly
stated, bronze was a "mixture" of copper and tin, not a natural
element; it was the product of alloying copper and tin in a furnace,
and thus a totally artificial product.... Bronze, however, was a
technological achievement in other ways too. It could be shaped only
by casting, not hammering or annealing; and the tin for it must be
obtained from its ores from a process called smelting and recovery,
for it is very rarely found in nature in its native state. It must
be recovered from an ore called cassiterite. This ore is generally
found in alluvial deposits that resulted from the washing out of
vein or lode tin from its rocks by natural forces such as heavy
rains, floods, and avalanches. The tin is recovered from the
cassiterite by smelting, usually in combination with limestone in
the first phase of recovery. Even this oversimplified description of
the metallurgical processes involved will suffice to make clear that
bronze was a metal that required advanced metallurgical know-how at
every stage of its processing.
"To add to the problems, it was also a metal difficult to find....
Some Sumerian texts mention two "tin mountains" in a far land whose
identity is unclear.... It has been ascertained that in their search
for this vital metal Sumerian traders, via intermediaries in Asia
Minor, reached out to tin-ore sources along the Danube, (an other
areas of Europe) especially in the provinces known nowadays as
Bohemia and Saxony (where the ores have been long exhausted).
has observed that the "finds in the Royal Cemetery of Ur (2500 B.C.)
show that Ur smiths.... understood the metallurgy of bronze and
copper perfectly. Where the tin ore they used came from, is still a
mystery." The mystery, indeed, still persists.
"....For all these reasons, and perhaps because
the gods - the
Anunnaki - had to teach ancient man how to recover the tin from its
ore through smelting, the metal was considered by the Sumerians to
be a "divine" metal. Their word for it was AN.NA, literally
"Heavenly Stone." (Likewise, when iron that required ore smelting
came into use, it was called AN.BAR, "Heavenly Metal").
alloy of copper and tin was called ZA.BAR, "Gleaming Double Metal."
"The term for tin, Anna, was borrowed by
the Hittites without much
change. But in the Akkadian language, the language of the
Babylonians and Assyrians and the other Semitic-speaking peoples,
the term underwent a slight change to Anaku. The term is usually
taken to mean "pure tin" ("Ana-ku"); but we wonder whether the
change may have reflected a closer, more intimate association of the
metal with the Anunnaki gods, for it has also been found spelled
Annakum, meaning that which belongs to or comes from
"The term appears in the Bible several times. Ending with a soft
it meant a tin-plumbline, as in the prophecy of Amos envisioning the
Lord holding an Anakh to illustrate his promise not to deviate
anymore from his people Israel.... Anak also meant "giant" - a
Hebrew rendering (as we have suggested in a previous volume) of the
Mesopotamian "Anunnaki." It is a rendering that raises intriguing
association with the legends of both the Old World and the New World
attributing this or that feat to the "giants."
Sargon of Akkad
"All these associations
of tin with the Anunnaki may have stemmed from their original role
in granting mankind this metal and the know-how it required. In
fact, the slight but significant modification from the Sumerian
AN.NA to the Akkadian Anaku suggests a certain time frame. It is
well documented from archaeological discoveries as well as texts,
that the great surge into the Bronze Age slowed down circa 2500 B.C.
The founder of the Akkadian dynasty, Sargon of Akkad, valued the
metal so much that he chosed it rather than gold or
commemorating himself, circa 2300 B.C.
"Metallurgical historians find confirmation of the dwindling
supplies of tin in the fact that the percentage of
tin in bronze
kept being lowered, and in the discovery from texts that most of the
new bronze objects were made from old bronze, by melting down
earlier objects and mixing the molten alloy with more copper,
sometimes reducing the tin content to as little as 2 %. Then, for
unexplained reasons, the situation changed abruptly. "Only from the
Middle Bronze Age onwards, say from 2200 B.C.," Forbes wrote, "are
true bronze forms used and higher percentages of tin appear more
regularly, and not only for intricate forms as in the earlier
"Having given mankind bronze with which to launch the great
civilization of the fourth millennium B.C., the Anunnaki seemed to
come to the rescue again over a millennium later. But while the
unknown sources of tin in the first instance may have been Old World
ones, the source in the second instance is a complete mystery.
"Here, then, is our daring thought: The new source was the New
"If as we believe, New World tin had reached the
civilization centers, it could have come from one and only one
place: Lake Titicaca.
"This not because the name, as we have shown, signifies
lake of "the
tin stones"; but because this part of Bolivia is still, millennia
later, a major source of the world’s tin. Tin, though not rare, is
considered a scarce mineral, found only in a few places in
Among other countries which produce tin, including
"In only two places has tin ore been found in its original lodes:
Cornwall and Bolivia. The former has been exhausted; the latter
still supplies the world from mountains that seem to be truly "tin
mountains" as described in the Sumerian text of Inanna.
"These rich but difficult mining sources, at elevations exceeding
12,000 feet, are concentrated primarily southeast of La Paz, the
Bolivian capital, and east of Lake Poopo. The much easier to attain
alluvial cassiterite in riverbeds has come from the eastern coastal
area of Lake Titicaca.
abandoned Tin Mines
Low-Earth-Orbit View of Lake Poopo, east of which tin is
Capital of Bolivia
Ruins, near Lake Titicaca.
"Some of the most
reliable research concerning Bolivian-Titicaca tin mining in
antiquity was done by David Forbes
(Researches on the Mineralogy of South America); conducted more than
a century ago.... Among amazing findings of tin, gold nuggets (on
the banks of Tipuani, a tributary of the Beni river),
and nuggets and beads of metallic tin; this meant, convincingly,
that whoever worked that area for its gold also knew how to process
the tin-ore for its tin.... He stated that the "mystery" of the
occurrence of the metallic tin in these areas "cannot be explained
by purely natural causes." Near Sorata he found a bronze
which on analysis showed the alloy to be over 88% copper and just
over 11% tin, "which is quite identical with many of the ancient
bronzes" of Europe and the Near East. The sites appeared to be "from
extremely ancient periods."
"Forbes was also surprised to realize that the Indians living around
Lake Titicaca, descendants of the Aymara tribes, seemed to know
where to find all these intriguing sites.
"The Spanish chronicler
Barba (1640) stated that the Spaniards had
found both tin an copper mines worked by the Indians; the tin mines
were near Lake Titicaca. Posnansky found such
pre-Inca mines six
miles from Tiahuanacu."....
"What sort of metal was the prehistoric man of the Andes
seeking in the depths of the mountains in so remote a period?" Posnansky asked. "Was it gold or
silver? Certainly not! A metal of
much more use caused him to ascend to the highest peaks of the
Andean mountain range: it was tin." And the
tin, he explained, was
needed to alloy with copper to create: "the noble bronze." That this
was the purpose of man at Tiahuanacu, he stated, was confirmed by
the discovery, within a radium of thirty leagues from Tiahuanacu,
many tin mines.
"But did Andean man require this tin to make his own bronze tools?
Apparently not. A major study by the leading metallurgist Erland
Nordenskiold (The Copper and Bronze Ages in South America)
established that neither age had taken place there: There had been
in South America no trace of a developed bronze or even copper age,
and the reluctant conclusion was that whatever bronze tools had been
found, were in fact based on Old World shapes and Old World
technologies.... "it must be confessed (he continued), that there is
considerable similarity between the metal technique of the New World
and that of the Old during the Bronze Age." Significantly, some of
the tools included in his examples had handles shaped as the head of
the Sumerian goddess Ninti with her symbol of the twin umbilical
cutters, later the Mistress of the Sinai mines.
"The history of bronze in the New World is thus
linked to the Old
World, and the story of tin in the Andes, where New World bronze
originated, is inexorably linked to Lake Titicaca. In that,
Tiahuanacu had a central role, tied to the minerals surrounding it;
otherwise, why was it built there at all?
"The three civilization centers of the Old World arose in
river valleys; the Sumerian in the plain between the Tigris and
Euphrates, the Egyptian-African along the Nile, that of India along
the Indus river. Their base was agriculture; trade, made
the rivers, provided the industrial raw materials and enabled the
export of grains and finished products. Cities sprung up along the
rivers, commerce required written records, trade flourished when
society was organized and international relations developed.
does not fit that pattern. It gives the appearance of
being, as the popular saying goes, "all dressed up with no where to
go." A great metropolis whose culture and art forms influenced
almost the whole Andean region - built in the middle of nowhere on
the shores of an inhospitable lake at the top of the world, and even
if for the minerals, why there? Geography may provide an
"It is customary to begin every description of Lake Titicaca by
stating that it is the highest navigable body of water in the world,
at an altitude of 13,861 feet. It is a rather large lake, with a
surface area of 3,210 square miles. Its depths varies from a
thousand feet to a hundred. Elongated in shape, it has a maximum
length of 120 miles and a maximum width of 44 miles....
After explaining all the surroundings of the lake, ranges, flowing
rivers, shore shapes, including also the town of Puno, the largest
lakeside and port of the lake, and the nearby enigmatic ruins of Sillustani, plus the two important islands of the lake:
the Moon and Titicaca Island, where it all started and where
Capac was given the golden wand with which to found Cuzco and begin
Mr Sitchin continues:
"It is at the southern shore of the lake that the water-filled
cavity between all these mountain ranges continues as dry land,
creating the valley or plateau on which Tiahuanaco is situated. No
where else all around the lake is there such a level plateau. No
where else is there a nearby lagoonlike body that connects with the
rest of the lake, making waterborne transportation feasible. No
where else around the lake is there a site like this, with passes
through the mountains in the three landward directions and by water
"And no where else are the prized metals right at hand -
silver, and copper and tin.
Tiahuanacu was there because it was the
best place for it to be for what it was: the metallurgical capital
of South America, of the New World.
"All the various spellings that have been employed -
Tiahuanaco, Tiwanaku, Tianaku - are only efforts to capture the
pronunciation of the name as it has been transmitted and retained by
the native population. The original name, we suggest, was TI.ANAKU:
the place of Titi and Anaku - TIN CITY.
"Our suggestion that
Anaku in the place’s name stems from the
Mesopotamian term which meant tin as the metal granted by
Anunnaki invokes a direct link between Tiahuanacu and
and the ancient Near East. There is evidence to support such a
"Bronze accompanied the sprouting of the Near East civilizations and
came into full metallurgical utilization there by 3500 B.C. But by
2600 B.C. or so, the supplies of tin dwindled and almost petered
out. Then, suddenly, fresh supplies appeared circa 2200 B.C.;
Anunnaki, somehow, had stepped in to end the tin crisis and save the
very civilizations they had given Mankind. How was that achieved?
"Let us look at some known facts.
"Circa 2200 B.C., when tin supplies in the Near East
abruptly, an enigmatic people appeared in the Near
Their neighbors called them Cassites ("Kosseans" to the Greeks of
later times). There is no explanation for the name that scholars
know of. But it strikes us the possible source of cassiterite by
which tin-ores have been known since antiquity; it implies a
recognition of the Cassites as the people who could supply the ore
or who had come from where the ore is found.
"Pliny, the first century Roman savant, wrote that
tin, which the
Greeks called "cassiteros," was more valuable than
lead. He stated
that is esteemed by the Greeks since the Trojan war (and is indeed
mentioned by Homer by the name cassiteros)....
Following are guidelines of the main points to give evidence of the
link Mr. Sitchin mentions above, however, in his book a few pages
are dedicated to explain the details.
In Mr. Sitchin’s words:
-The Early Mediterranean Greeks came into contact with
(or were, perhaps, Indo-European cousins of theirs).
-The islands that the Greeks call
Cassiterites, "in consequence of
their abundance of tin," he (Pliny) wrote, are out in the Atlantic
facing the cape called The End of Earth; "they are the
of the Gods, which some people have designated as the Isles of
Bliss." It is an intriguing statement, for if the Hittites from whom
the Greeks had learned all that spoke of the gods as being
Anunnaki, we have here a term with all the connotations of Anaku.
illustration of Pliny’s HISTORIA NATURALIS.
"The reference, however,
is usually taken to mean the Scilly Islands off Cornwall, especially
since the Phoenicians are known to have reached that part of the
British Isles for its tin in the first millennium B.C.; the Prophet Ezequiel, their contemporary, specifically mentions tin as one of
the metals that the Phoenicians of Tyre had imported in their
The Phoenicians (after the Assyrians ended the
independence of the Phoenician city-states in the eastern
Mediterranean in the ninth century B.C.), established a new center,
Carthage.... in the western Mediterranean in North Africa.... they
circumnavigated Africa (in 600 B.C.) in search of gold for the
Egyptian king Necho.... and in 425 B.C. under a leader named
they sailed around west Africa.
and a French boat being refloated after running aground,
Scilly Islands, off Cornwall.
the ancient Port of Tyre
Carthage, Tunisia today.
The evidence of the
presence of Mediterranean artifacts is more compelling in
America than in North America.
"One of the few academicians who has stuck his neck out in this
direction is Professor Cyrus E. Gordon (Before Columbus
and Riddles in History).... he gave considerable credence to the so-called
Paraiba Inscription that turned up in that north Brazilian site in
1872. Its disappearance soon thereafter and the vague circumstances
of its discovery have induced most scholars to consider it a
forgery, especially as its acceptance as authentic would undermine
the notion that there had been no contacts between the Old and New
"....It is certain that the Cassites were not
disguise. Near Eastern records place them to the East of Sumer, in
what is nowadays Iran. They were related to the Hittites of Asia
Minor as well as to the Hurrians (the biblical Horites, "People of
the Shafts") who acted as a geographical and cultural link between
Sumer in Southern Mesopotamia and the Indo-European peoples to the
north. They and their predecessors, including the Sumerians, could
have reached South America by sailing westward, around the tip of
Africa and across the Atlantic to Brazil; or eastward, around the
tip of Indochina and the island archipelago and across the Pacific
to Ecuador and Peru. Each route would have required navigational
feats and maps of sea routes.
Such maps, it must be concluded
Mr. Sitchin at this point explains the times of Columbus, then he
"Indeed, by now a
surprisingly large number of maps from
pre-Columbian times have been found.... The best known of these
improbable yet extant maps is that of
Piri Re’is, a Turkish admiral,
bearing a Moslem date equivalent to A.D. 1513.... But where did he
obtain his data? C.H. Hapgood, in one of the best studies of the
Piri Re’is map and its antecedents (Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings),
has concluded that "the evidence presented by the ancient maps
appears to suggest the existence in remote times.... of a true
civilization of an advanced kind"; more advanced than Greece or
Rome, and in nautical sciences ahead of eighteen-century Europe. He
recognized that before them all was the Mesopotamian civilization,
extending back at least 6,000 years; but certain features on the
maps, such as Antarctica, made him wonder who had preceded the
"While most studies of these maps concentrate on their Atlantic
features, the studies by Hapgood and his team established that
the Piri Re’is map also depicts correctly the Andean mountains, the
rivers including the Amazon that flow from them eastward, and the
South American Pacific coast from about 4 degrees south to about 40
degrees south - ie., from Ecuador to Peru to midway in
Amazingly, the team found that "the drawing of the mountains
indicates that they were observed from the sea, from coastwise
shipping, and not imagined." The coasts were drawn in such detail
that the Paracas Peninsula could be discerned.
"Stuart Piggot (Aux portes de l’histoire) was one of the first to
note that that stretch of Pacific coast of South America also
appeared on the European copies of Ptolemy’s Map of the World. It
was shown, however, not as a continent beyond a vast ocean, but as a
Tierra Mitica, mythical land, extending from the tip of southern
China beyond a peninsula called Quersoneso de Oro, the Peninsula of
Gold, all the way southward to a continent we now call
"This observation prompted the noted South American archaeologist
D.E. Ibarra Grasso to launch an extensive study of ancient maps; his
conclusions were published in his La Representacion de America en
mapas Romanos de tiempos de Cristo. As other researchers he
concluded that the European maps leading to the Age of Discovery
were based on the work of Ptolemy, which in turn was based on the
cartography and geography of Marinus of Tyre and even earlier
"Ibarra Grasso’s study shows convincingly that the outline of the
western coast of this "appendix" called Tierra Mitica conforms to
the shape of the western coast of South America where it juts out
into the Pacific. This is where legends placed the prehistoric
landings all along!
"The European copies of Ptolemy’s maps included a name for a place
in the midst of that mythical land, Cattigara; the location,
Ibarra Grasso wrote, is "where in fact Lambayeque is situated, the
principal center of gold metallurgy in the whole American
continent." Not surprisingly, it is where Chavin the Huantar, the
prehistoric processing center, was established, where the
African Olmecs, the bearded Semites, and the
Indo-Europeans had met.
"Did the Cassites also land there, or in the
Bay of Paracas, nearer
A Town in
Northern Peru, Lambayeque
of Paracas Peninsula, Peru
"The Cassites have left
a rich legacy of metallurgical craftsmanship spanning the third and
second millennia B.C.... They decorated their artifacts, as often as
not, with images of their gods and of their legendary heroes, among
whom a favorite was that of Gilgamesh wrestling with the lions.
"Incredibly, we find identical themes and artistic forms in the
Andes.... Who ever had come from the Old World to tell and depict
the tale here, did so also at Tiahuanacu: among the bronze objects
found there, a bronze plaque, as at Luristan of the Cassites,
clearly depicted the Near Eastern hero in the same scene.
Chavin de Huantar the Indo-European deity was the
Bull God, a
mythical animal for the other sculptors there. But although the bull
was not present in South America until some were brought by the
Spaniards, scholars have been surprised that some Indian communities
near Puno on Lake Titicaca and even at
Pucara (a legendary stop on
the route of Viracocha from the lake to Cuzco) worship the bull in
Statue of the
Hindu Bull God, "Nandi"; in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Although this
is not an item mentioned by Zecahria Sitchin in his book at
this point, the bull was indeed venerated in several areas
in various ways.
originated in pre-Hispanic times....
and the southern Andes, this god was depicted with a lightning bolt
and holding a metal wand - an image carved on stone, depicted on
ceramics and on textiles.
It is a combination of symbols well known
from the ancient Near East, where the god called Ramman ("The Thunderer") by the Babylonians and Assyrians, Hadad ("Rolling Echo")
by the West Semites, and Teshub ("Wind Blower") by the
Hittites and Cassites, was depicted standing upon a bull, his cult animal,
holding the metal tool in one hand and a forked lightning in the
the Old World pantheons originated, called this god Adad or
("He of the Far Mountains"), and depicted him with the metal tool
and forked lightning. One of the epithets for him was ZABAR DIB.BA -
"He who bronze obtains and divides." An illuminating clue.
"Was he not Rimac of the southern coasts of Peru,
Viracocha of the
Andean highlands, whose image with the metal tool and forked
lightning appeared all over, whose symbol of a lightning appeared by
itself in many monuments? He may have even been shown standing upon
a bull in a stone carving, found southwest of Lake Titicaca by
Ribero and von Tschudi.
"....Some time in those remote days
his symbol of the forked lightning, for all to see from the air and
from the ocean on a mountainside on the Bay of Paracas, the very bay
the Hapgood team identified on the Piri Re’is map, the bay that was
probably the anchorage harbor for the ships carrying the tin and
bronze of Tiahuanacu to the Old World.
It was a
symbol proclaiming to
gods and men alike:
"THIS IS THE REALM OF THE STORM GOD!
Part of the
Andean Ranges, "even a vulture knows not the way
thereto, and a falcon’s eye has not discerned it."
"For as the
book of Job
had stated, there was indeed a land of which the ingots come, whose
underground is upheavaled as with fire... a place so high among the
peaks that "even a vulture knows not the way thereto, and a falcon’s
eye has not discerned it."
It was there that the god who provided
the vital metals,
"set his hands to the granite... overturned
mountains at their roots... cut galleries through the rocks."
GODS OF THE
"Some time after 4000 B.C. the great Anu, ruler of Nibiru, came to
Earth on a state visit.
"It was not the first time he had made the arduous space journey.
Some 440,000 Earth-years earlier - a mere 122 years in terms of
Nibiru - his first son, Enki, had led the first group of fifty
Anunnaki to Earth to obtain the gold with which this seventh planet
On Nibiru, nature and technological usages had combined
to thin out and damage the planet’s atmosphere needed not only for
breathing but that also had acted to envelope the planet into a
greenhouse, preventing its inner-generated heat from dissipating.
And only by suspending gold particles high above Nibiru, its
scientists concluded, could Nibiru be saved from becoming a frozen
and lifeless globe.
Mr. Sitchin, in this chapter recaptures the whole history of
Anunnaki which he has presented in his three previous books, which
are transcribed on this site by quoting his own words in numerous
excerpts. However, he expands several points which you will find in
the following paragraphs.
Deluge, Nibiru had come once again near Earth, and vital
materials had been received from it; but little of value was sent
back. In the olden gold sources it was now necessary to locate
hidden lodes, tunnel into mountainsides, cut shafts into the Earth,
blast the rocks. Mankind had to be provided with tools - hard tools
- to be able to extract what the Anunnaki could locate and blast
with their ray guns.
Fortunately the avalanche of water had also
done some good, for it had exposed lodes, wash them out, filled riverbeads with golden nuggets mixed with mud and gravel. Getting
hold of this gold could open up new sources - easier to work but
more difficult to reach and transport; for the place where this kind
of nugget gold was plentiful was on the other side of the Earth:
there, along mountain chains that face the great ocean, untold
golden riches had been exposed. It was just there for the taking -
if the Anunnaki would go there, if a way could be found to ship that
"And now that Nibiru had neared Earth again, the great
Anu with his
spouse Antu had come to Earth for a state visit, to see for himself
where matters stood. What had been achieved by granting Mankind the
two divine metals, AN.NA and AN.BAR with which to make the hard
tools? What had been achieved by expanding the operations to the
other side of the world? Were the storages filled with gold, as had
been reported, ready to be shipped to Nibiru?
"We can understand the urgency of bringing metallurgy at
perfection: it had to do with Anu’s forthcoming state visit. Perhaps
to impress on him that all was going well, that very city, Uruk, was
built in his honor, and metallurgical achievements were shown off.
"....If by the time of this state visit, the Anunnaki had already
been seeking gold in the New World, would Anu and Antu have sought
to include the new lands in their itinerary? Would the Anunnaki on
Earth seek to impress them with their new achievements, the new
prospects, the promise of providing Nibiru with the vital metal in
sufficient quantities, once and for all?
"If the answer is yes, then the existence of
Tiahuanacu and much
else about it could be explained. For if, in Sumer, a special city
with a brand-new sacred precinct, with a golden enclosure, and an
Avenue of the Gods and Holy Quays was established for the visit to
the Olden Land, we could presume the similar establishment of a new
city with a bran-new golden enclosure and a sacred avenue and sacred
quays in the heart of the New Lands.
And, as at Uruk, we would
expect to find an observatory for determining the moment of the
appearance of Nibiru in the evening skies, followed by the rising of
the other planets.
"Only such parallelism, we feel, can explain the
need for the
observatory that the Kalasasaya had been, for its precision, and for
its date: circa 4000 B.C. Only such a state visit, we suggest, can
explain the elaborate architecture of Puma-Punku, its royal-like
piers, and, yes, its gold-plated enclosure. For that is precisely
what archaeologists had found at Puma-Punku....
"....Some of the
gigantic statues of the Great God at Tiahuanacu,
were inlaid with gold. Posnansky discovered and photographed the
attachment holes, "some two millimeters in diameter, round about the
reliefs." A principal gate at Puma-Punku that he named
Gate of the
Moon had its relief of Viracocha as well as the god’s face in the
meander under it "inlaid with gold.... which made the principal
hieroglyphs stand out with great brilliance."
"No less significant was the discovery of
Posnansky that where these
figures depicted the god’s eyes, the gold inlay and nails "secured
into the slits of the eyes small round plates of turquoise. We have
found" Posnansky reported, "many of these pieces of turquoise
perforated in the center, in the cultural strata of Tiahuanacu" - a
fact that led him to believe that not only the reliefs on the gates,
but also the gigantic stone statues of gods that have been found at
Tiahuanacu, were inlaid with gold on their faces and their eyes
inlaid with turquoise.
"This discovery is most remarkable, for
there is no turquoise - a
semiprecious blue-green stone - anywhere in South America. It is a
mineral whose earliest mining, at the end of the fifth millennium
B.C. is believed to have taken place in the Sinai peninsula and
"....Virtually all the statues found at Tiahuanacu depict the gods
shedding three tears from each eye. The tears were inlaid with gold,
as can still be seen on some of the statues now on display at the
Museo del Oro in La Paz.
pictures on the book "The Lost Realms," present better
face details than these ones).
"....The Andean people
(like the Aztecs) called gold nuggets "tears of the gods." Since all
these statues depicted the same deity as on the Gate of the Sun,
where he is also shedding tears, he has come to be called "The
Weeping God." In view of our evidence, we feel justified calling him
"God of the Golden Tears." A gigantic carved monolith found at a
satellite site (Wancai) depicts the deity with a conical and horned
headdress - the typical headdress of Mesopotamian gods - and with
lightning bolts instead of tears, clearly identifying him as the
"....The finds at around Tiahuanacu of golden and bronze artifacts
leave no doubt that gold preceded bronze (i.e., tin) in that area.
Posnansky was emphatic in relating bronze to the third period of
Tiahuanacu, and showed incidences where bronze clamps were used to
repair structures from the golden era. Since the mines in the near
mountains show clear evidence that tin ores and gold were obtained
at the same sites, it was probably the discovery of gold followed by
its placer mining in the Titicaca region that brought out the
existence of cassiterite: the two are found intermingled in the same
riverbeds and streams.
"....A look at a map of South America mineral resources provides a
clear picture. Three bands of varying width of gold,
copper lodes snake their way along the Andean ranges in the
northwestern-southeastern slant, all the way from Colombia in the
north to Chile and Argentina in the south. Dotted along the way are
some of the world’s most renowned sources for these metals, some
regarded as almost pure mountains of the minerals. The slow forces
of nature, and no doubt the immense avalanche of water of the
Deluge, have forced the metals and their ores out of their rock-embeded
lodes - exposing them, washing then down mountainsides and into
"Some of the richest lodes of gold, partly washed down riverbeds,
lie east and north of Lake Titicaca. It is there, in the
Real that embraces the lake from its northeast to its southeast that
a fourth band joins the others: a band of tin in the form of
cassiterite, (these bands also contain: platinum, bismuth,
manganese, wolfram, iron, mercury, sulphur, antimony, asbestos,
cobalt, arsenic, lead, zinc), and quite important for modern and
ancient smelting and refining, coal and petroleum.
Mr. Sitchin explains in a previous paragraph, that it
DNA entwined within itself with its counterpart RNA the genetic life
and heredity of everything that lives on Earth.
".... It becomes prominent in the lake’s eastern shore, bends
westward along the Tiahuanacu basin, then runs southward almost
parallel to the Desaguadero River. It joins the other three bands
near Oruro and Lake Poopo, and vanishes there.
Anu and his spouse arrived to see all the mineral riches, the
sacred precinct of Tiahuanacu, its golden enclosure, its quays, were
all in place. Whom did the Anunnaki enlist and bring over, at about
4000 B.C., to build all that? By then, the highland peoples in
had already a tradition of rudimentary metallurgy and stoneworking,
and they could have been among the artisans brought over. But the
true metallurgical technology including that of casting, of high
rise-construction, of building according architectural plans, and
following stellar orientations, was in the hands of the Sumerians.
"The central effigy in the semisubterranean sacred enclosure is
bearded, as are many of the stone heads attached to the enclosure’s
wall that portray unknown dignitaries, many are turbaned, as
Sumerian dignitaries had been.
at Tiahuanacu, Bolivia
"One must wonder where
and how the Incas, continuing the custom of the ancient Empire,
acquired the Sumerian (i.e, Anunnaki-given) rules of succession. Why
was it that in their incantations the Inca priests invoked Heaven by
uttering the magical words Zi-Ana and Earth by the words
Zi-ki-a totally meaningless terms in either Quechua or Aymara (according to
S.A. Lafone Quevedo, Ensayo Mitologico) - but words that in
mean "Heavenly Life" (ZI.ANA) and "Life of Earth and Water" (ZI.KI.A).
And why did the Incas retain from ancient empire times the term
for metals in general and copper in particular - a term that in
Sumeria, as AN.TA, would have been of a class with
AN.NA (tin) and AN.BAR (iron).
relics of Sumerian metallurgical terms (which were borrowed
by their successors) are augmented by the discovery of Sumerian
mining pictographs.... symbols incised on rocks on the banks of the
Manizales river in Colombia’s central gold region, and in the
eastern region symbols were found carved on rocks above caves that
have been artificially deepened. Many petroglyphs in the Andean gold
centers, the routes to them, or at places where the term Uru appears
as a name-component include symbols that resemble Sumerian cuneiform
script or pictographs, such as the radiating cross found among
petroglyphs northwest of Lake Titicaca - a symbol that the Sumerians
had used to represent the planet Nibiru.
"Add to all that the possibility that some of the
over to Lake Titicaca may have survived to present times. Nowadays
only a few hundred of them are left; they live on some islands in
the lake, sailing upon it in reed boats. Aymara and
that now make up most of the area’s inhabitants consider them
remnants of the area’s earliest dwellers, aliens from another land,
whom they call Uru. The name is taken to mean "the Olden Ones"; but
have they been so called because they came from the Sumerian capital
"According to Posnansky, the Urus named five deities or
Pacani-Malku, meaning Olden or Great Lord; Malku, meaning Lord; and
the gods of the Earth, the Waters, and the Sun. The term malku is of
obvious Near Eastern origin, where it meant (as it still does in
Hebrew and Arabic) "king." One of the few studies of
the Urus, by W.
La Barre (American Anthropologist vol. 43), reports that
"we, the people of the lake, are the oldest on this
Earth. A long time we are here, from before the time when the Sun
was hidden ... Before the Sun hid himself we were already a long
time in this place. Then the Kollas came ... they used our bodies
for sacrifices when they laid the foundations for their temples ...
Tiahuanaco was built before the time of darkness."
"We have already established that
the Day of Darkness, "when the Sun
was hidden," occurred circa 1400 B.C.
Besides the similarities of names, building patterns of the temples
and sites, remembrance of Lake Titicaca’s inhabitants today, Mr. Sitchin mentions many more, among them:
"There were the many customs that led the arriving Spaniards to see
in the Indians descendants of the Ten Tribes of Israel. There were
the coastal cities and their temples that brought to explorers’
minds the sacred precincts and ziggurats of Sumer. And how account
for the incredibly ornate textiles of the coastal tribe of the
people near Tiahuanacu, unique in the Americas, except by comparison
with the Sumerian textiles, especially those of Ur, that were
renowned in antiquity for their exquisite design and colors?
Ancient HandmadeTextile, from Paracas, Peru. Above,
Modern Handmade Textiles, Peru.
gods with conical headdresses, and a goddess with the Umbilical
Cutter of Ninti? Why a calendar as in Mesopotamia, and a
in Sumer, with Precession and twelve houses?
"Without rehashing all the evidence that has filled the previous
chapters, it seems to us that all the pieces of the puzzle of Andean
beginnings fall into place if we acknowledge the hand of the Anunnaki
and the presence of Sumerians (along or with their neigbors)
region circa 4000 B.C. The legends of the ascent heavenward of the
Creator and his two sons, the Moon and the Sun, from the sacred rock
on the Island of the Sun (Titicaca Island) may well be
of the departure of Anu, his son Sin and his grandson
having made a short trip by boat from Puma-Punku to a waiting
airborne-craft of the Anunnaki.
"On that memorable night at
Uruk, as soon as Nibiru had been
sighted, the priests lit torches that were a sign to nearby
"....Whether or not people then realized that they were viewing a
celestial sight that occurs once in 3,600 Earth-years, they
certainly knew it was a phenomenon once in their lifetimes. Mankind
has not ceased to yearn for the return of that planet, and it justly
recalls that era as a Golden Age: not only because it was physically
so, but also because it culminated a period of peace and
unparalleled progress for Mankind.
"But no sooner (in Anunnaki terms) had
Anu and Antu returned to
Nibiru than the peaceful division of Earth among
the Anunnaki clans
Mr. Sitchin reminds us of the times of the
Tower of Babel, the
splitting of civilization, the peoples of the Nile who flourished
circa 3100 B.C., Thoth, Marduk/Ra’s brother, now a god without a
Then he continues:
"....It is our suggestion that accompanied by some of his
followers he (Thoth) chose an abode in the New Realms - in
"And we further suggest that it happened not just "circa 3100 B.C."
but exactly in 3113 B.C. - the time, the year, and even the day from
which the Mesoamericans began their Long Count.
"The Western Christian calendar counts the years from the birth of
Christ. The Moslem calendar begins with the Hegira, the migration of
Mohammed from Mecca to Medina.... we shall mention the
Calendar, which is in effect the ancient (and first-ever) Calendar
of Nippur, the Sumerian city dedicated to Enlil. Contrary to the
common assumption that the Jewish count of years (5,748 in 1988) is
from the "beginning of the world," it is actually from the
of the Nippurian calendar in 3760 B.C. - the time, we assume, of
Anu’s state visit to Earth.
"Why not then accept our suggestion that the arrival of
Quetzalcoatl, i.e., the Winged Serpent, in his new realm was the
occasion for starting the Long Count of the Mesoamerican calendar -
especially since it was this very god who had introduced the
calendar to this lands?
Marduk/Ra’s brother, sons of Enki, represented by the
representations of Quetzalcoatl. His birth at left, and
as the Winged Serpent above.
"Having been overthrown
by his own brother, Thoth (known in Sumerian texts as Ningishzidda -
Lord of the Tree of Life) was a natural ally of his brother’s
adversaries, the Enlilite gods and their Chief Warrior, Ninurta. It
was Thoth who had designed a ziggurat-temple for Ninurta to be built
by Gudea, he may have also specified the rare materials for it, and
had a hand in assuring the supplies.
As a friend of the Enlilites,
he had to be friendly with Ishkur/Adad and the Andean realm that was
put under his control in the Titicaca region; he was probably even a
welcomed guest there.
"Indeed, we can discern evidence that a
Serpent God and his African
followers probably lent a hand in developing some of the
metal-processing sites around Tiahuanacu.
"Posnansky, stung by criticism of his "fantastic"
antiquity, did not
attempt to date the transition from Period I, when sandstone was
used for construction and statuary, to the most sophisticated Period
II when hard andesite stone began to be used. But the fact that the
changeover also marked the shifting of Tiahuanacu’s focus from gold
to tin suggests to us the 2500 B.C. period. If, as we surmise, the
Enlilite gods in charge of Near Eastern highland domains (Adad,
Ninurta) were away in the New Realm, busy establishing the
colony, it explains why, at about that time, Inanna/Ishtar usurped
the power in the Near East and launched a bloody offensive against
Marduk/Ra to avenge the death of her beloved spouse Dumuzi, (caused,
she claimed, by Marduk).
"It was at that time, and probably as a consequence of the
instability in the Old Realms, that the concerned gods decided to
create a new civilization away from it all - in the Andes.
Tiahuanacu was to focus on supplying tin, there were almost
inexhaustible sources of gold all along the Andean slopes. All that
was needed was to give the Andean Man the necessary know-how and
tools to go after the gold.
"And so it was, circa 2400 B.C. - just as
Montesinos had concluded -
that Manco Capac was given the golden wand at Titicaca and sent to
the gold region of Cuzco.
"What was the shape and purpose of this magical wand? One of the
most thorough studies on the subject is Corona Incaica by Juan Larrea.
Analyzing artifacts, legends, and pictorial depictions of
Inca rulers, he concluded that it was an axe, an object called
that when first given to Manco Capac was named Tupa-Yuari,
Royal Axe. But was it a weapon or a tool?
"To find an answer, we go to ancient Egypt, the Egyptian terms for
"gods, divine" was Neteru, "Guardians." That however was exactly the
term by which Sumer (actually, Shumer) was called - "Land of the
Guardians"; and in early translation of biblical and pseudo-biblical
texts into Greek, the term Nefilim (alias Anunnaki) was rendered
"Guardians." The hieroglyph for this term was an axe;
Budge (The Gods of the Egyptians) in a special chapter titled "The
Axe as a Symbol of God" concluded that it was made of metal....
"....The tales of Manco Capac and the Ayar brothers in all
probability also mark the end of the Mesopotamian and gold phases of
Tiahuanacu.... the Cassites arrived and moved the tin or ready
bronze via the transpacific route. In time other routes developed.
The existence of settlements with an astonishing abundance of
bronzes points to a route along the Beni River eastward to Brazil’s
Atlantic coast, thence with the help of ocean currents all the way
to the Arabian Sea, and Red Sea to Egypt, or the Persian Gulf to
Mesopotamia. There could and probably was a route via the Ancient
Empire and the Urubamba river, as suggested by the megalithic sites
and the discovery of a pure lump of tin at Machu Picchu. This route
led to the Amazon and the northeastern tip of South America, thence
across the Atlantic to West Africa and the Mediterranean.
"....A third and quicker alternative was offered by its narrow neck
that provided a virtual land-bridge between the Pacific Ocean and
the Atlantic via the Caribbean Sea - a route essentially followed,
in reverse, by the conquistadores.
"The third route, that of the
Olmec civilization, must have become
the preferred route after 2000 B.C., as evidenced by the presence of
Mediterraneans; for in 2024 B.C. the Anunnaki led by
fearing that the spaceport in Sinai would be overrun by followers of
Marduk, destroyed it with nuclear weapons.... Losing no time,
marched in with an army of Canaanite and Amorite followers,
declaring kingship in Babylon.
"It was then we believe, that the decision was made to grant
African followers of Thoth/Quetzalcoatl civilization in his
"One of the rare academic studies admitting that the
negroid Africans was Africa and the Discovery of America by
Wiener, professor of Slavic and other languages at Harvard
"....More than half a century had to pass before another major
academic study, Unexpected Faces in Ancient America by Alexander von Wuthenau, tackled the problem head on.... he surmised that the first
links between the Old and New World developed during the reign of
the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses III (twelfth century B.C.) and that the
Olmecs were Kushites from Nubia (Egypt’s principal source of gold).
Some other black Africans, he felt, could have come over on
"Phoenician and Jewish ships" between 500 B.C. and A.D. 200....
"....This conclusion was prompted by the notion that the
heads were from about that time; but now we know that Olmec
beginnings go back to circa 2000 B.C. Who, then, were these
"....When one compares the faces on the
colossal Olmec heads with
those of West Africans (as this one of Nigeria’s leader,
Banagida) (appearing on book), the gap of thousands of years is
bridged by the obvious similarity.
compares these colossal heads to West Africans. The
similarity with the Nigerian leader J.B. Banagida (not
appearing here), is outstanding.
"It is from that part of
Africa that Thoth could have brought over his followers expert in
mining, for it is there that gold and tin, and copper to alloy
bronze with, have been abundant. Nigeria has been renowned for its
bronze figurines - cast in the telltale Lost Wax process - for
millennia; recent research has carbon-dated some of the sites, in
which the most ancient ones have been found to date to about 2100
"....In time, as we have shown, these operations and the miners, the
Olmecs, moved south, first to Mexico’s Pacific shores, then across
the isthmus into northern South America, their ultimate destination
was the Chavin area; there they met the gold miners of Adad, the
people of the golden wand.
Copper Mine, facing the Caribbean Sea
Ancient Mayan, on the Coast of the Caribbean Sea.
"The golden age of the
New Realms did not last forever. Olmec sites in
destruction; the Olmecs themselves and their companions met a brutal
end. Mochica pottery depicts enslaving giants and
warring with metal blades. The Ancient Empire witnessed tribal
clashes and invasions. And in the highlands of Titicaca,
legends recalled invaders who marched up the mountains from the sea
coast and slew the white men who were still there.
"Were these reflections of the conflicts among
the Anunnaki, in
which they increasingly involved Mankind? Or did it all begin to
happen after the gods had left - sailing off upon the sea, ascending
"Whichever way it happened, it is certain that in time the links
between the Old Realms and the New Realms were broken off.
Old World the Americas became only a dim memory - hints by this or
that classical writer, tales of Atlantis heard from Egyptian
priests, even perplexing maps that trace unknown continents. Was it
all myth, were there really lands of gold and tin beyond the Pillars
of Hercules? In time, the New Realms became
the Lost Realms as far
as Westerners were concerned.
"In the New Realms themselves, the golden past became only a
legendary memory as the centuries rolled on. But the memories would
not die, and the tales persisted - of how it all began and where, of
Quetzalcoatl and Viracocha, of how they will one day return.
"As now we find colossal heads, megalithic walls, abandoned sites, a
lonely gate with its Weeping God, we must wonder: Were the American
peoples right in telling us that these gods were among them, in
expecting them to return?
"For until white man came again and only wrought havoc, the
of the Andes, where it all began, could only look at the empty
golden enclosures and hope against hope to see once again their
winged God of the Golden Tears.
The Lost Realms
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