by Immanuel Velikovsky
In The Age Of Man?
This article by Dr. Velikovsky
appeared in the KRONOS Journal in about 1978
Dinosaurs were found in the Laramie
basin in Wyoming together with land plants "remarkably modern in
their aspect"; these land plants bespoke a much more recent age than
the Age of Reptiles, which, it is assumed, came to its end
about 70 million years ago.
The plants were referred by paleobotanists to at least the Tertiary epoch, or the Age of
"The Laramide group has given rise to one of the two most
prolonged controversies in the history of American geology."
Dunbar, Historical Geology (1949), p. 375.]
But the paleozoologists persisted in ascribing the plants to the Age of
Reptiles, and finally coerced the botanists into accepting their
In the redstone wall of Supai Canyon in the region of the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona were
discovered figures of animals cut by some prehistoric man.
that some prehistoric man made a pictograph of a dinosaur on the
walls of this canyon upsets completely all of our theories regarding
the antiquity of man."
"The fact that the animal is upright
and balanced on its tail would seem to indicate that the prehistoric
artist must have seen it alive."
Dinosaurs were in the vicinity, as
is established by footprints discovered not more than one hundred
miles from the picture.
[S. Hubbard, The Doheny Scientific Expedition to the Hava
Supai Canyon, Northern Arizona, 1925 (1927), p. 5. E. George,
referring to these drawings in his The Adventures of Mankind
(1931), says: "Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, President of Anthropology,
has given a lecture on these discoveries. Though his facts seem
almost fantastic, they demand attention. They are actually nothing
more or less than an image of a dinosaur supporting itself on its
hind legs and balanced by its enormous tail. And a second drawing
shows a saurian attacking a man. ... Third drawing portrays a human
figure beside a mastodon."]
The paleontologist's scheme requires the extinction of dinosaurs
sixty to seventy million years before man appeared on the Earth.
"Either man goes back in Geologic time to the Triassic Period, which
is millions of years beyond anything yet admitted, or else there
were 'left over' dinosaurs which came down into the age of the
mammals. Yet even this last conclusion indicates a vast antiquity."
What kind of man was the artist?
"He used tools. He had the
patience to chip an outline in hard stone with a crude flint and he
had the perseverance to finish the job. He had an eye for form and a
sense of proportion. He had the good judgment to select a medium
which has preserved his work."
Close to the picture of the dinosaur appears a drawing of an
elephant attacking a large man. Elephants were not
found in America when it was discovered by Columbus, but
remains of elephants,
"are very common all over North America,
and they are found from Alaska to Mexico. Three species are
represented: the mammoth, the mastodon and the imperial elephant (elephas
imperator) of California."
On the wall of the
Canyon is the picture of the last species. The restored skeleton
stands fourteen feet high (almost 5 m.)
Next to these pictures an ibex is drawn; prehistoric
pictures of the ibex, rather artistically executed, are also found
in other places in the region of the Grand Canyon.
"The interesting thing about this is that no ibex, not even fossil
ones, have ever been found in America. These drawings would seem to
indicate that they must have been a common animal in the Grand
Canyon region, in the prehistoric past."
"Must we not
readjust many of our ideas regarding the antiquity of man, and his
contact with the prehistoric animals ... ?"
It is not enough that a prehistoric man depicted animals long
extinct and even of antediluvial origin. On the same wall
where dinosaur, elephant, and ibex appear, the artist left
pictographs or some inscription of prehistoric times.
remarkable of these was a row of symbols, deeply incised, which
resembled the Greek sign of Mars showing shield and spear.
... The 'desert varnish' had commenced to form in the cut,
indicating an unbelievable antiquity."
If the man knew how to
express himself not only in pictures but also in writing, then the
term "prehistoric" is hardly justified.
In 1926 a stone bearing an inscription in characters similar to
those of the Supai Canyon was found near Granby,
"The sculptured stone ... shows, carved in
high relief, the figures of two dinosaurs and an elephant. ... The
dinosaurs suggest either the brontosaurus or the diplodocus."
Human beings did not exist in the age of the reptiles; if they did
exist, they were not literate people. Or were they?
It was the contention of Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky in other of his
writings that the last remnants of the dinosaurs did not finally go
extinct until about 1600 BCE when the last great "cosmic
catastrophe" affected the Earth. And it is my opinion that the Loch
Ness Monster is the last remaining "famous" dinosaur on the face of
this planet. Human footprints and dinosaur tracks have been found in
close proximity in the Glen Rose area of North-Central Texas. RS]
Brontosaurus Was A Mammal
This article by Dr. Velikovsky
appeared in the KRONOS Journal in about 1978
Millions of years are required for a
piece of wood to become a piece of coal. But to make of it a piece
of coal when ablaze, only a few hours are needed. When footprints of
prehistoric animals are found in the coal surface of quarries, it is
not necessary to assume that millions of years must be involved in
Continents appeared and disappeared; mountains rose and fell; rivers
lost their beds; and deep within the Earth, all geological strata
boiled and turned over.
An animal fled upon the ground to save itself, or hid in a cave. The
woods burned; the air high above was in flames; the ground became
soft from the inside. The animal perished, but before perishing it
left its mark -- its footprints.
The antiquity of the geological strata in which fossils are found is
measured by tens and hundreds of millions of years. However, all
conclusions of geology must be revised in a very definite manner. It
is possible that not tens of millions of years lay between the full
extinction of the large Dinosauria and our age, but only some
thousands of years. The evolution of species, as it would proceed in
a world not disturbed by catastrophes, would require for its course
quite a different span of time than if cataclysms intervened;
cataclysms could do in only hours or weeks for what evolution would
require millennia to accomplish.
The huge extinct animals -- dinosaurs -- are
classified as reptiles, and their time is called the
Age of the Reptiles. It was supposed that in this early age
no mammals existed; then skeletons of small wolf-like animals were
discovered together with the bones of dinosaurs.
Brontosaurus is classified as one of the amphibious
dinosaurs. It is more than sixty feet long and stands fourteen
feet high. It has upright legs, with five tarsal bones and five
digits on its feet, a roomy chest enclosed by well-curved ribs and
should-blades, a large pelvis with a wide aperture; the teeth of
this animal are confined to the front of the jaw. Brontosaurus
is estimated to have weighed thirty tons.
Reptiles are crawling creatures and do not have
upright legs; the four legs of the brontosaurs are unlike the legs
of reptiles. Reptiles have a narrow pelvis, through the aperture of
which they lay eggs; they do not bear their living young. The
large pelvis of Brontosaurus suggests that this monster might
have given birth to its young and did not lay eggs.
Diplodocus, another gigantic amphibious dinosaur, may
also have been a mammal; likewise a beast (Triceratops)
resembling the unicorn, with a large pelvis, too, seems to have been
not a reptile but a mammal.
"To the lay observer of the many
restorations which we have of the long-vanished forms, tinged
perhaps in part by the artist's knowledge of existing types, they do
in frequent instances correspond so closely with existing mammals,
notably Triceratops with the rhinoceros, that
knowledge of their true place in nature cannot be assumed as
Lull in "Organic Adaptations to Environment," by G.E. Nichols,
et al., Chapter VII, "Dinosaurian Climatic Response" (Yale Univ.
Press, 1924), pp. 225-226: The ceratopsians now appear to have been
definite egg-layers. "One dinosaur that is unquestionably associated
with its eggs is the small Mongolian Protoceratops. It is
significant that the eggs are very large -- far larger relatively
than those of reptiles -- so the offspring began life larger than
many contemporary mammals and lizards." -- see Desmond, p.
202 and R.T. Bakker, "Dinosaur physiology and the origin of
mammals", Evolution, 25 (1971), pp. 636-658. The Triceratops
may still have been a mammal, however, since a present day group of
mammals -- the monotremes -- do lay eggs. The duckbill
platypus is the most typical and best known of the monotremes.]
The theriodont, a stout-body animal, skeletons of
which have been found mainly in South Africa, is also regarded as a
reptile of the Age of Reptiles.
Not only did it carry its
body on upright legs, but its teeth were differentiated into
incisors, canines, and molars, as is the case in mammals, but not in
"One of the most striking features in the skull of the
theriodonts was the specialization of the teeth. In most
reptiles the teeth are more or less alike, and they keep coming in
during the life of the animal as fast as their predecessors are worn
away or broken. In the theriodonts, however, there
were some small front teeth, evidently for chewing and grinding, and
between them some elongated, dagger-like teeth, evidently for
slashing and tearing. Here we see an exact counterpart of the front
incisors, the long pointed canines, and the grinding teeth (the
pre-molars and molars) of the mammals."
[E.H. Colbert, The
Dinosaur Book, (American Museum of Natural History, N.Y., 1945),
"It is not however the evidence of the skull and teeth alone that
points to the direct descent of mammals from the theriodont
reptiles. For in these remarkable reptiles, the vertebrae of the
backbone, the shoulder-blade, the hip bones, the limbs and the feet,
all show many characteristics that clearly foreshadowed the typical
It is conceivable that mammals and reptiles
are erroneously placed in the same class of Dinosauria.
Camptosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Trachodon
are clearly not mammals; the difference between their
narrow pelvis and the wide pelvis of Brontosaurus
is obvious even to non-students of paleontology. The latter may
possibly have given birth to living creatures, who nursed at their
udders; the former laid eggs.
If only the fossils of whales had been found, and the living animal
were not know, the form of its skull with jaws and teeth, its body
skeleton and tail, would suggest that it was a fish and not a
mammal. But whales larger than the largest dinosaurs are found
alive, and we know that they are mammals.
No fossil eggs of the brontosaur have been found; but
fossil eggs of a narrow-pelvis dinosaur have turned up, for
instance, in the Gobi Desert.
I do not think that a
fossil egg of the brontosaur will ever be discovered.
Of The Dinosaurs
This article by Dr. Velikovsky
appeared in the KRONOS Journal in about 1978
It is not known what was the cause of
the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Did they exterminate one another? Some were carnivorous; the
tyrannosaur, with sharp curved claws, sharpened teeth, little
forefeet and narrow pelvis, or the allosaur, with
bones hollow like those of birds. They fought with the herb-eating
Brontosaurus and Diplodocus, attacking
with claws and sharp teeth. Some of their skeletons were found in a
position that suggests a battle. In the hall of the Dinosauria
of the Jurassic period, in the American Museum of Natural
History, the final scene of such a battle is reconstructed,
showing a carnivorous dinosaur -- Allosaurus --
tearing the carcass of the fallen brontosaur.
What was the weapon of Diplodocus and Brontosaurus? These animals seventy and eighty feet long had
no horns, no claws, and no teeth suited for offense of defense.
"They were apparently unarmed and weaponless, unless the terminal
ten feet of the tail, which was sometimes slender like a whiplash,
might be interpreted as a weapon."
[R.S. Lull, "Dinosaurs",
It is sometimes supposed that the cause of the extinction of the
dinosaurs, carnivorous and herbivorous alike, might have been in
their increased bulk. It is not even clear how the brontosaurs could
bear their many tons' weight of body on straight legs.
increased bulk necessitated their forsaking the strictly terrestrial
habitation and becoming partly if not wholly water-borne."
creatures waded, as their heavily ballasted limbs imply, or swam ...
but show no distinctively natatory adaptation." [Lull]
For this reason the large brontosaurs and diplodocs
are thought to be related to the class of amphibia, or
reptiles, living party in water and partly on the
land. The skeletons have no signs of adaptation to life in water,
but their great weight on land demands this explanation about the
amphibious behavior of these animals; in water their bodies would be
less heavy. However, Brontosaurus was not an
amphibian, but a land animal.
It is conjectured that the brontosaurs grew too heavy to walk on
land; but why did they grow so heavy, if the law of evolution is a
principle of adaptation to existing conditions?
"The cause of
extinction is by no means clear."
The extinction was not gradual.
"The most dramatic and in many
respects the most puzzling event in the history of life on the earth
... is the change from the Mesozoic, Age of
Reptiles, to the Tertiary, Age of Mammals.
It is as if the curtain were rung down suddenly on a stage where all
the leading roles were taken by reptiles, especially dinosaurs, in
great numbers and bewildering variety, and rose again immediately to
reveal the same setting but an entirely new cast, a cast in which
the dinosaurs do not appear at all, other reptiles are mere
supermumeraries, and the leading parts are all played by mammals of
sorts barely hinted at in the preceding acts."
quoted by Shuchert and Dunbar, Outlines of
Historical Geology (N.Y., 1941), p. 230]
But a hint is given in the fact that the so-called Laramide
revolution, accompanied by a folding of the Earth's crust and
the uplifting of mountains, marks the end of the Mesozoic era, or
the era of the dinosaurs. It is characteristic:
The Mesozoic age
terminated in a revolution that uplifted continents and dropped them
in other places; and "the period of the extinction of the dinosaurs
was coincident with the world-wide Laramide revolution."
Colbert, Wandering Lands and Animals (N.Y., 1973), p. 207
-- "Perhaps the extensive extinctions at the end of Cretaceus time
are to be correlated in some way with the beginning of worldwide
mountain uplifts, which eventually were to result in the modern
great mountain systems -- the Himalayas and the Alps, the Andes and
the Rocky Mountains. This is known as the 'Laramide revolution'
in earth history. However that may be, the empirical evidence shows
that with the advent of Cenozoic history the mammals inherited the
It should be very simple to imagine that the same catastrophe
killed the dinosaurs. Cataclysms are not barred
from Geology but they are regarded as slow processes; as a factor in
biology, real cataclysms and revolutions have been disqualified
since the theory of Darwin about slow adaptations and evolutions
became the standard view. Therefore the Laramide revolution
folded the Earth's crust and uplifted mountains, but did not affect
the life of the dinosaurs, and the cause of their extinction is
still being sought.
The beginning of the antediluvian world of beasts may well have been
hundreds of thousands, or millions of years ago. This is not being
discussed here. But the end of the dinosaurs came well in the age of
man, even in the historical part of this age.
Regarding the problem of extinction, Lull notes that,
"individual species [of dinosaur] are reported from rocks as high as
the Lance [formation]. It is hardly conceivable that a few
stragglers should survive, even in the more remote portions of the
globe, for millions of years after the general extinction of the
group, yet this is precisely what our records seem to show, unless
there has been a misinterpretation of an extremely local remnant of
older strata, as in the Ojo Alamo described by Gilmore,
or the lack of recognition of true age, possibly of the lower
members of an apparently continuous formation, as in Patagonia."
Ibid., p. 275. "Gilmore has just described a form, which he calls
Alamosaurus, from the Ojo Alamo beds of New Mexico, an undoubted
sauropod, but in inexplicable association with Lance forms, long
after the general extinction of the race. He compares measurements
with those of Brontosaurus; the scapula of Alamosaurus was 65 inches
long to 45 inches for that of Brontosaurus; the ischia, on the other
hand, were nearly equal, showing again a brachiosaur-like beast." -- Lull, Organic Adaptation, op.cit., p. 276.]
The revolution which marks the finale of the Cretaceus period
was caused by one of the interplanetary contacts. Only a few
specimens of the Dinosauria survived the Deluge;
single individuals survived one or more of the later cataclysms.
In the great catastrophes, the large terrestrial animals had less
chance to survive than the small ones; they could hardly find caves
large enough to conceal them; if they found large caves, they
thronged into them, and suffocated there or were crushed by the
collapse of the caves. Many skeletons of dinosaurs are found in such
large caves. Small animals could enter clefts of the rocks, or holes
in the ground, and though they also were destroyed by myriads,
relatively more of them could survive.
In the conditions that followed the catastrophe, the very few large
dinosaurs which were left alive, were condemned to extinction as the
result of violent alterations in practically all geophysical
conditions; changes in magnetic fields, in temperature, in the
composition of the atmosphere, in the length of the day and of the
year, along with the change in the seasons, profoundly affected
Especially the increased weight of everything on the Earth, caused
the bodies of the few remaining brontosaurs to become heavier than
they could bear. Wading in water, though diminishing the load which
ballasts the legs, is no real adaptation: the feet are heavily
dragged and sink in the mud below the shallow water. Leaving the
water, the animals must have felt the great weight of their bodies
and the arresting effect of the mud.
If these animals were mammals, as I suppose, the
period of gravidity, because of the additional weight, must have
been most disastrous for the female.
Only the monstrous sea-mammals of that age escaped total
destruction, and their descendants live until today; these are the
whales. They reach over one-hundred feet in length,
and in weight they surpass the largest brontosaurs.
It is remarkable that travelers of the second and possibly the
first millennium before the present era, brought home these stories:
The ruler over the sea animals is
Leviathan. His fins radiate brilliant light, its
smell is foul. Leviathan spouts out water.
description, one may guess, is of a whale. Ziz is the ruler over the birds; it is monstrous
in size; its wings are so huge that unfurled they darken the
"Great bird Ziz slaps his wings and utters his cry, so
that the birds of prey, the eagles and the vultures, blench."
[L. Ginzburg, Legends of the Jews, I
(Philadelphia, 1942), p. 28.]
The span of the wings of the pterosaurs ranged from 27 feet upwards to an
incredible 69 feet, whereas the span of the wings of the large
eagles is less than 10 feet.
This "Ziz Bird" or "Zu Bird" is connected with the arrival
Planet X Nibiru. RS]
Behemot (not to be confused with the animal that
bears this name at present) is the most notable representative
of the mammal kind. Behemot matches Leviathan in strength. It had to be prevented from
multiplying and increasing, "else the world could not have
continued to exist". It is deprived of the desire to propagate
As the above-mentioned travelers could not have visited the
American Museum of Natural History on their voyages, nor any
other museum of paleontology, nor could they have read modern
books on dinosaurs and all their classes, it is puzzling to read
their description of the monstrous animals and of their
behavior, and also of the weapon used by the largest land
In mortal combat between the gigantic beasts, Leviathan
kills by a blow of its fins, and Behemot kills by
a lash of its tail. The modern paleontologists wondered at the
largest land animal's lack of weapons for attack or defense,
which would have made it easy prey for every attacker, and
supposed that the animal used its tail as its weapon.
Equally interesting is the description of the
female Reëm when heavy with young.
Ziz, and Behemot are not the only
monsters; there are many others, and marvelous ones, like
Reëm, a giant animal, of which only one couple, make
and female, is in existence... The act of copulation occurs
but once in seventy years between them... The act of copulation
results in the death of the male. He is bitten by the female and
dies of the bite.
The female becomes pregnant and remains in
this state for no less than twelve years. At the end of this
long period she gives birth to twins, a male and a female. The
year preceding her delivery she is not able to move... For a
whole year the animal can but roll from side to side, until
finally her belly bursts, and the twins issue forth. Their
appearance is thus the signal for the death of the mother reëm."
[Ginzburg, Ibid., pp. 28-31.]
The problem of the statics of the
dinosaurs, with their pillar-like legs, vexed modern scholars.
The larger species are classified as amphibians, though no
adaptation for life in water is found in their fossilized remains;
they are classified so because, by wading in water, they would have
a lesser load of body to carry. That this does not solve the
question is shown above. The animals were apparently not adapted to
the life conditions and did not survive.
To be more exact, the animals adapted themselves to conditions, but
the Earth changed these conditions completely, and more than once.
The variations of the force of gravitation became, more than
anything else, fatal to the large dinosaurs.