as to assume that we're the first homo-sapiens
to walk the earth?"
The beginning of man on earth is a complete mystery. The present article, however, is not about how man came to be, but about shortly after that. It is about the dawn of humanity, a missing chapter in the human history.
This chapter is of a forgotten people that mapped the earth and the sky long before there were ancient Egyptians or Jews.
These mysterious first people are not to be confused
with Australopithecus, Homo Habilis, or Homo Ergaster. They are,
instead, the people remembered by ancients as 'gods'; the people
that first engineered societies leaving baffling traces on earth.
Since then, our attitudes towards the past changed.
But the question remains:
Scientific and technological progress does not have to take thousands of years.
The pace of progress could be exponential, slow, or even regressive:
The idea that scientific and technological development takes millennia is a baseless fact.
This idea, if not just an impression, is just our
assessment of the known history. Technological progress is
inevitable and desirable for any civilization. It could take a
couple of centuries to millennia depending on circumstances.
As we go on progressing, our expectations of the future change depending on the breakthroughs we come across and the pace of the scientific development. Similarly, our vision of the past changes too as we gain new ways and means of investigating facts.
The current worldview of the past is that things were
primitive, and that mankind emerged from a state of barbarism to
become smarter and more capable. However, new emerging evidence
Yet, across the two millennia, his account was considered fictional if not misunderstood. Not until 1882 that the U.S. Congressman Ignatius Loyola Donnelly published his book 'Atlantis - The Antediluvian World' in which he gathers all sort of the then-available evidence in favor of an early mighty civilization that was far more advanced than it had any right to be. He mainly studied ancient myths and believed Plato's account to be historically accurate.
Forty-seven years later, a medieval map called Piri Reis was found at the Imperial Palace library in Constantinople (Istanbul) in1929.
This map inexplicably depicts the cost of South America and Antarctica with unprecedented fine details corresponding to nowadays longitude and latitude albeit the map dates back to 1513.
It was until after the Piri Reis map had made its appearance that other maps of high precision started emerging in the following years, eg:
Upon its discovery, it was thought that the map had been based on Columbus explorations without regard to the fact that Columbus never surveyed South America.
Later on, Charles Hapgood studied the map intensively to come up with the conclusion that an advanced civilization in the remote past had existed and had mapped the earth beforehand (Hapgood, 1966).
Hapgood's unorthodox theory of earth crustal displacement also accounts for a preexistent civilized culture in Antarctica. Albert Einstein remarked that Hapgood's ideas had scientific worth (Einstein, 1953). Years later in 1978, Brad Steiger's book 'Worlds Before Our Own' rekindled the issue.
Steiger studied the OPA (Out-of-place artifacts). The underlying counter-assumption to his findings says that: if humans were primitive in the past, common sense then says that the deeper one digs down into the earth, the more un-advanced artifacts one finds.
Steiger found that some advanced human artifacts are located in the lowest primordial geologic strata whereas primitive ones are located in upper strata and thus labeled Out-of-Place Artifacts. He also presented evidence that strongly suggests the cohabitation of dinosaurs and humans.
Steiger's unconventional book fueled other subsequent works such as,
The book was also met with a great deal of criticism.
Nowadays these emerging ideas along with supporting evidence call into question the current worldview of the first people. Let us now move to the implications of this view.
When one subscribes to the current eccentric theory of history, one is then driven to speculate two possible past events that put an end to these people.
The first case seems less probable than the second although there might be some clues that imply ancient warfare.
The assumption of uniformitarianism makes scientists attribute the current features of the earth surface to a slow process that took millions of years.
The alternative view however suggests that these
features are actually the result of a worldwide cataclysm that took
place mere thousands years ago. In this article, 3 pieces of
evidence in favor of the cataclysm will be provided.
Myths are the fossils of history (Gray, 2004:15).
They preserve history in ways that would not make sense to us. The dialogues of Plato regarding Atlantis are but the most vivid memory of antediluvian societies we have nowadays. Some myths do still recall some faint memories of the golden age but these memories are depicted in the guise of magic and supernatural powers.
Take the example of the Sanskrit epic of Vimanas about a mythological flying machine.
Recently, some researchers have immersed themselves
into studying ancient myths from this perspective, e.g. Max Igan,
2005, and they have found rather curious results.
The chemist and Nobel medalist Dr. Melvin Cook concludes that the earth underground oil deposits were formed as a result of a sudden and rapid burial of organic materials just a few thousands years ago (Cook, 1966; 1967).
It could be the case that the oil deposits are ancient buried cities that turned into oil due to the sudden sedimentation and high pressure since the deluge would have had wrecked everything. In that sense, we might be burning the evidence every time one goes in their car to run an errand. The matter of concrete evidence is clearly a weak spot to this line of enquiry; however, how much do we really know about earth?
Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence to begin with.
The evidence could be staring us in the face but we
are just blind to it considering the way we perceive and interpret
facts. Plus, we are not even looking for the evidence because we
lack perspective. We thus remain quite heedless to any emerging
evidence if not we willingly cover it. There are though some
tantalizing hints that ought to be considered seriously.
For thousands of years, the Great Pyramid of Khufu had been the tallest structure on earth until the Empire State Building skyscraper was completed in 1931, and still is,
It is aligned to true geodetic North and its location is found to be the center of the earth landmass.
This sort of precision entails a comprehensive knowledge of earth geography, e.g. Mercator projection, which is something very unexpected of ancient Egypt (Bauer, 2007:86).
In addition to that, engineers and scientists conclude that it is impossible to replicate the great pyramid despite the sophisticated technology we have nowadays given the structure's immensity and staggering precision (Fix, 1984; West, 1993; Hancock, 1995; Rux, 1996: 265; Dunn, 1998; Amato, 2007:4; Atiya & Lamis, 2007:3; Beaudoin & Joseph, 2007:54; Sheldon, 2009:146-147; Cadose, 2012:75).
The engineer Markus Schulte, however, speculates that if it were possible to replicate the Great Pyramid alone, it would nowadays cost us some $35 billion (Malkowski, 2010:117).
Investing such money in such colossal structure, that
is not even habitable, and without any expected profit, is something
we certainly do not do today. So the question of 'how was it built?'
is of less importance to, 'why was it built?'
The theory suggests that the three pyramids at Giza
mirror the three stars in the Orion constellation, also known as
Orion's belt, and the position of the Nile River in relation to the
pyramids mirrors the position of the Milky Way galaxy in relation to
the Orion constellation. Further, Bauval observes that the shaft
within the Great Pyramid was, in the past, oriented towards the
middle star of Orion's belt which is the start representing the same
Bauval's theory does not make much sense without taking into consideration the astronomical phenomenon called precession of the equinoxes, also called the Great Year or the Platonic Year.
This phenomenon is plainly earth's third cycle after the daily and annual ones. The cycle is either caused by the slow wobbling of the earth due to the moon gravitational pull or by the whole solar system moving in a helical orbit. Its implication is that the night sky stars move backward across the eons. As a result, the position of constellations in the night sky for the ancient is not the same as of their position nowadays.
Every time the sun rises in the morning of the vernal equinoxes (March 20th and September 22nd), the background constellation on the horizon of that morning is one of the Zodiac constellations.
One cycle is completed when the entire zodiac constellations come to pass.
The NASA estimates the cycle to last 25,800 years
making each constellation last 2,125 years in the morning of the
In the morning of the equinoxes, the Sphinx in the present era faces the constellation of Pieces and is slightly shifting towards the constellation of Aquarius, but by running a computer backward simulation of earth's precession, we find that the Sphinx at some point in the remote past used to face the constellation of Leo from 10,970 to 8810 B.C.
Now the eureka moment is when we line up the shaft
inside the Great pyramid with the middle star of Orion's belt in
that epoch and at last we have an exact date of around 10,450 B.C.
So all of a sudden the pyramids are no longer tombs but a gigantic
clock that has a date frozen into its structure.
However, long before that ancient Mesopotamia, Maya and Egypt somehow knew about the cycle and we do not know whether this knowledge was handed down from earlier times or they scientifically discovered it.
This cycle tracks time on a large span and it is,
Using the cycle as an astronomical clock with the
help of an eternal structure that defeats the eons of time and all
of that with staggering precision is something very remarkable that
presupposes a thorough knowledge of astronomy and engineering.
However, there is no single mention of:
Some evidence even suggests that the site predates the legendary flood.
Incrustations of natural salt were found inside the great pyramid when it was opened for the first time (Dinwiddie, 2001:164). Furthermore, in the 1750's, the naval captain and explorer Frederic Norden reported the existence of a great number of oysters and seashells in the vicinity of the pyramids and the Sphinx.
In his Histories, Herodotus also reports that he observed in the surrounding area of the pyramids seashells and signs of salt water calcification back then (Herodotus, ca. 450 B.C., Book II:12). All that seems to suggest that maybe the Giza plateau was once underwater.
Then what about the strong tie between ancient Egyptians and the Giza plateau?
Aside from ancient Egypt, most ancient civilizations exhibit a sort of obsession and admiration for pyramid-like structures which could originally be ascribed to the three pyramids at Giza. Further, the failed attempts to reproduce the pyramids on a small scale, like the case of the three Queen's Pyramids, explain how impressed ancient Egyptians were with the colossal three edifices.
It is not so crazy after all to assume that ancient
Egyptians founded their entire civilization in the vicinity of the
Giza plateau only to be identified with the immensity of the
In general, 10,000 B.C. is a very significant date in our conventional wisdom.
It is the date when the late ice age ended. It marks the first appearance of wooden buildings, human settlements in the Americas and the domestication of animals.
Remains of humans in caves and a remarkable transformation marked with the introduction of farming all date back to the same era. All these sudden developments could signify two possible scenarios.
The first suggests that humans were witnessing the
most significant step in their long chain of evolution. The second
suggests humans were actually recovering from a worldwide cataclysm.
Keeping track of one another would not be possible due to the absence of means of communication.
The latter may explain the absence of historical accounts before the city of Uruk made its appearance ca. 4500 B.C. So, instead of progressing forward, humans would have to go through a phase of silence characterized by the struggle with nature and the use of archaic tools before they start coming together to build urban centers.
The book 'Noah to Abram: The Turbulent Years: New Light on Ice Age, Cave Man, Stone Age, the Old Kingdoms' by Erich A. Von Fange highlights the striking similarities between the knowledge we have about early archaic human cultures of the Lower Paleolithic period (Oldowan, Acheulean and Mousterian tool cultures) and the case of a post-cataclysm man trying to survive upon the ruins of their ancestors.
Given the growing body of evidence, the second view is now becoming more recognized in outer circles.
The Roland Emmerich movie 10,000 BC (2008), for example, opted for the cataclysm scenario for which it received sharp criticism from the academic circle and was dubbed archaeologically and historically inaccurate.
So, going back to the pyramids, do they mark the date of the past global catastrophe? Just a little while after 10,000 B.C., all cultures seem to have started emerging simultaneously with no substantial signs of preliminary phases.
They went from being hunter-gatherers to becoming citizens with rights and responsibilities.
The sudden appearance of cities was probably backed up by solid knowledge of sophisticated social structure.
The presence of a high culture the like of ancient Egypt in such epoch is in itself enigmatic. Furthermore, the superiority of ancient Egypt over ancient Greece is indisputable although Egypt is older.
Herodotus and many other modern historians have pointed out this contradiction (McCants 1975:62). Even earlier than Herodotus, Solon's account embodies a small talk between the two cultures.
Solon (d. ca. 559 B.C.) was an Athenian statesman and a distant ancestor to Plato.
He had a conversation with an ancient Egyptian priest in which he was told:
The key to this mystery is that it is highly probable that some people may have kept valuable knowledge originating form the first people which allowed them to prosper faster and earlier than others.
For example some Egyptologists came to the conclusion
that ancient Egyptian high priests possessed some powerful secret
knowledge to which the triumph of ancient Egypt was attributed (Nuttall,
1839:668; West, 1979 :24; Linke, 2012:28; Hancock, 1995:361; Marks,
2001), like the knowledge of electricity (Childress, 1996:18).
In astronomy for instance, the artificial division of the celestial longitude zones into 12 Zodiac constellations of 30 degrees each along with the awareness of the celestial precession seem to be descending from a higher culture. In addition to that, the heliocentric view of the world is not new.
Its earliest traces date back to ancient Sanskrit texts (e.g. Yajnavalkya, ca. 900 B.C. and Aryabhata ca. 550 B.C.) and later to Aristarchus of Samos (ca. 230 B.C.).
In that sense, the Copernican revolution is rather a revival of lost knowledge.
In medicine, alternative medicine with its unknown origin entails deep knowledge of human anatomy that made its way to modern day and has been acknowledged by the World Health Organization despite being still not understood.
In physics, knowledge of electricity may also have existed in prehistory. The German archaeologist Wilhelm König found a 2000-year-old ancient battery, also know as the Parthian Battery, in the National Museum of Iraq in 1938 (Handorf, 2002:84-7).
The battery is reported to have been unearthed near Baghdad (the area of Khujut Rabu) during a 1936 excavation.
Later on in 1940, König produced a scientific paper on the battery based on which,
Moreover, aluminum is a metal that cannot be generated without electricity and we were not able to make it until 1854.
However, many items made of aluminum have been found in archaeological sites, e.g. in the burial site of general Zhou Chu (265-420 A.D.). As a matter of fact, electricity is the very first thing one stumbles upon once one starts studying matter, and it is not a difficult thing to rediscover especially if one has foreknowledge of its existence.
All roads lead to electricity. In geography, ancient maps undoubtedly fueled the age of maritime exploration.
The Piri Reis map continues to amaze modern man not only for its accuracy but also for its depiction of Antarctica before it was supposedly discovered in 1819. The continent is depicted being 'free of ice' with geological details, such as mountains and rivers, that irrefutably correspond with the seismic echo sounding profile run by the Swedish-British-Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in 1949 (Ohlmeyer, the USAF Commander, in a letter to Charles Hapgood, 1960).
Meanwhile, the Antarctica landmass is thought to have been under the ice cap long before our species even evolved according to Academia.
So what are we seriously missing here?
Some of the facts presented may seem contradictory but that is the nature of mysteries.
They never cease to be mysteries until they start making sense. The Giza Pyramids, for example, preach for lost science and technology but their astronomical alignment preaches for a post-cataclysm construction which somehow does not make sense.
This article is not trying to provide a systematic view of the past. It is rather an invitation to dig deeper into it.
Knowing our past is of great value
and has huge implications on the present and future. The past, the
present and the future are all a one chain of events. The more we
know about the past, the more we know ourselves and where we are
Some recognize it, some reject it, and some go to extreme views such as associating these perplexing legacies with ancient alien visit. The manner in which most people react to any sort of evidence or anomaly is already conditioned by our attitudes towards the past and under the influence of the rampant contemporary philosophies of presentism and scientism, or practices like obscurantism.
Any anomaly in science could be a twinkling of a new discovery or paradigm shift that may be left unnoticed or even denied for fear of misoneism.
A true scientific and intellectual honesty will never be achieved unless we take into consideration the anomalous by trying to adjust or even reconstruct our theoretical assumptions accordingly until the anomalous, as Kuhn puts it, becomes expected (Kuhn, 1970:52).
At a minimum, we show effort of reconciliation instead of burring our heads in sand and keep building up new scientific studies on top of fashionable but yet unfit theories. It is only a matter of time before man will face the greatest disappointment in science and its grand theories due to the snobbishness of present science.
We are in a desperate need not only for a paradigm
shift but, most importantly, for a scientific renaissance.