by Bud Bromley
May 27, 2021
from BudBromley Website


Bud is a retired life sciences executive.

Bud's entrepreneurial leadership exceeded three decades.

He was the senior business development, marketing and sales executive at four public corporations, each company a supplier of analytical and life sciences instrumentation, software, consumables and service.

Prior to those positions, his 19 year career in Hewlett-Packard Company's Analytical Products Group included worldwide sales and marketing responsibility for Bioscience Products, Global Accounts and the International Olympic Committee, as well as international management assignments

based in Japan and Latin America.

Bud has visited and worked in more than 65 countries

and lived and worked in 3 countries.



Image: Union of Concerned Scientists

The atmospheric concentration of CO2 gas is continuously adjusting to maintain the concentration partition ratio K derived in Henry's Gas Law.


Henry's law partition ratio is independent of the source of the CO2.


The net average atmospheric concentration of CO2 (~400 ppmv) is independent of human CO2 emission.

Human CO2 is fully compensated in (and only a small part of) the natural global CO2 fluxes in the environment...

Ocean has been estimated to make up 98% of the hydrosphere. (Mason, 1958)


Rainwater is less than 2% of the hydrosphere.

Mason points out that ocean is 98% of the hydrosphere but he does not specify the rain portion.


Mason states that no significant error will be made by assuming the average CO2 concentration in all water is the average of sea water.

According to Henry's Gas Law, the giant mass of CO2 gas in ocean water, on the order of 40,000 gigatons of carbon (4 x 1013 metric tons) and temperature regulate the atmospheric CO2 gas concentration and the CO2 fluxes in the atmosphere, ocean, biosphere and even in rainwater droplets.


The timeframe for each of these fluxes is different.


Following Henry's Law, the high solubility of CO2 gas in liquid water means the atmosphere is scrubbed of CO2 gas by the enormous volume of liquid water in the ocean, air and soil.

Flow and flux are not the same.


Flux is a directional vector of an amount of material flowing per unit time through a unit area. In this case, the unit area is the surface area of water everywhere which is in contact with atmosphere.


A CO2 flux is the amount of CO2 flowing per second per square meter of water surface.


There are enormous, continuous fluxes of CO2 in two directions, into the atmosphere and into water, controlled by temperature and surface area, and both of these directional fluxes are more than 10 times larger than fossil fuel emissions.

Now, please watch the very short video below. Pay close attention to the relatively high Henry's Law solubility constant K for CO2 and the professor's short discussion about ammonia being scrubbed by water due to its very high K.


Similar to the professor's example with ammonia,

raindrops, ocean and water in soil scrub CO2 from the atmosphere based on the Henry's Law K for CO2 and water...



"The total CO2 produced by the burning of the annual production of coal and oil is 6.2 x 1015 g or about 1/300th of the amount in the atmosphere today.


This might suggest that at the present rate of consumption of fossil fuels atmospheric carbon dioxide will be doubled in 300 years.


However, in this connection the importance of the hydrosphere as a reservoir of carbon dioxide should be emphasized; its significance has been discussed by Revelle and Suess (1957).


Sea water contains 20 g of CO2/cm2 of the earth's surface, as against 0.4 g/cm2 in the atmosphere. Oceanic and atmospheric carbon dioxide are interdependent, the former being a function of the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere.


Thus to double the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would require the addition of much more than is now present therein, because most of that added would be absorbed by the .


Similarly, to decrease the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by half would require removal of many times the present content.


It is apparent that the oceans, by controlling the amount of atmospheric CO2, play a vital part in maintaining stable condition suitable for organic life on the earth."

(Mason, Page 211-212.)

Note in the above quotation, the 50:1 ratio of grams of CO2 in sea water to grams of CO2 in atmosphere.


The partition ratio of CO2 gas between water and air is governed by Henry's Gas Law which results in about 50 times higher concentration of CO2 gas in water than in the air around or above the water.


The absorption of CO2 gas into the surface of water is very fast (sub-second) and driven primarily by water temperature.

Colder water absorbs far more CO2 than warm water.


Warm water emits CO2 gas into the air.

The distribution of CO2 gas horizontally and vertically in atmosphere is not as fast, but I will not discuss these chaotic processes here.

The dissolution time of aqueous CO2 gas into its various dissolved carbonate forms is very fast (seconds.) The chemical reaction of carbonate ions with oceanic buffering systems is very fast (seconds.)


The calcium buffering system of ocean will be discussed briefly as an example.

Absorption and emission of CO2 from the surface of water acts locally on every square centimeter of water surface every second. Normalizing temperature and CO2 concentration by averaging removes information and adds no value to the analysis.


The temperature difference above and below about 26ºC are the critical variables which define whether CO2 is being absorbed or emitted at a particular location and time.


The temperature controls the direction of the flux.


The temperature difference and surface area at that temperature control the amount and the velocity of the flow.


All of that information is missing when only a global average temperature is used.

"The average temperature of the ocean surface water is about 17ºC (62.6ºF)."

Temperature of Ocean Water, University of Michigan. August 31, 2001

The average temperature of ocean surface water is irrelevant to the Henry's Law equilibrium and to the solubility chemistry of CO2 in water.


The average of very large chaotic fluxes is a meaningless number with no predictive value.

In the graphic below we can easily see where CO2 is emitting into air and where CO2 is absorbing into ocean and soil. A global average temperature would tell us nothing. When temperature exceeds 26ºC, CO2 will be emitted from water.


When temperature is less than 26ºC, CO2 will be absorbed into water.


We can also infer from this graphic that there are enormous fluxes of atmospheric CO2 gas from the equator to higher latitudes near both poles.


In fact there are many cells in the atmosphere and in the ocean each with its own CO2 flux.



At a few thousand meters altitude above sea level where water vapor and aerosols condense into liquid water droplets, and anywhere condensation occurs, the surface of water droplets will be either absorbing or emitting CO2 based dominantly on temperature.


Henry's law determines the solubility of CO2 gas in all water, not only in ocean water.

The CO2 gas concentration in your beverage is changing in real time.

If the top of a can or bottle of a carbonated beverage is removed, or the beer is tapped from the keg into your glass, initially the CO2 gas concentration in the liquid beverage will immediately decline because the total pressure of the gases above the liquid is significantly less than the total pressure of the mixed gases above the liquid in the closed keg.


After that, the aqueous CO2 gas concentration in your beverage will continue to decline until the liquid and air above it reach the Henry's Law equilibrium partition ratio K, which is based primarily on the temperature of your beverage.

Addition of salts or acids to the liquid increases the aqueous CO2 gas concentration.


Carbonated beverages typically contain a small amount of acid, for example phosphoric acid, for retention of aqueous CO2 gas in the liquid.


Rain scrubs chemicals such as sodium chloride from the air which become ionic in raindrops and that in turn changes the aqueous CO2 gas concentration in raindrops.


That is all I will say about this subject here...

Henry's Law only applies to the solubility of gases into liquids when the gas concentrations are low.


When they are low, such as rare gas CO2 at 400 parts per million, then concentration of CO2 gas in the liquid and in the air above the liquid can be calculated and measured with very high accuracy and precision.


Henry's Law is the basis of the multi-billion dollar per year scientific instrumentation industry of gas chromatography. GC's are used routinely in almost all industries involving chemistry from perfumes to paint to healthcare to refineries.

Henry's Law partition only applies to the gas phase in the liquid, for example aqueous CO2 gas in ocean, and the gas above the liquid, for example CO2 in the air.


Aqueous CO2 gas reacts in seconds in water by disassociating into several forms of carbonate ions. These carbonate ions then react with ionic forms of other molecules which are also dissolved in ocean water, for example calcium ions.


Calcium ions (Ca+2) react with a carbonate ions to form calcium carbonate (limestone, dolomite, CaCO3).


This calcium carbonate precipitates as a solid and becomes slurry, sedimentation, then stone on the sea floor. This disassociation chemistry is not determined by Henry's Law.


Ocean buffering systems such as this calcium chemistry are removing aqueous CO2 gas from the Henry's Law equilibrium equation.


This calcium buffering chemistry is very important to the concentration of CO2 in the ocean and atmosphere and is defined by other laws, but I will only briefly mention it in this article.

A rain droplet falls through air containing CO2 gas.


The CO2 gas partition ratio between the air and the rain droplet is adjusting in real time (no significant lag, no equilibrium) to the temperature differential experienced in the rain droplet and the CO2 concentration in the surrounding air as the droplet falls.


As the rain droplets fall to earth, in tropical and temperate latitudes when the droplet temperature exceeds 26ºC, the droplets begin emitting CO2 gas.


In higher temperate and polar latitudes, when droplet temperatures are less than 26ºC, the falling drops will be absorbing CO2 gas from the air as they fall.

Droplets of water nucleate (condense) on particles in the atmosphere. The types of particles vary widely based on geography. Salt and other minerals and gases are carried aloft by wind, currents, convection, storms over ocean.


Oceans are ~70% of earth's surface. Over land the chemical composition of raindrops is much more variable; no simple algorithm is possible.


Rain droplet formation is discussed in detail in Professor Murry Salby's text Physics of the Atmosphec and Climate, 2012.

The chemical composition of raindrops varies with the amount of rain falling during a given time period.

Rain (and dew) scrub the air of particulates and gases, e.g., hydrocarbon gases.


Hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitric gases are higher concentration in urban areas than over ocean, and these gases are found in raindrops in those areas, again obeying Henry's Law K for each gas.

The same is happening for CO2, methane, argon, and other gases found in air:

each gas has its Henry's Law solubility K for water...

You have probably noticed that the air is cleaner after a good rain.

In general, wherever water temperature is below 26ºC, that water is absorbing CO2 gas in real time, no delay, in proportion to the temperature difference above 26ºC and in proportion to the area of water surface which is in contact with air at that temperature.


Anywhere water temperature is above 26ºC it will be emitting CO2 gas into air.


Rain arriving at ocean surface changes the concentration of CO2 gas in ocean surface, which will then drive re-equilibration based on Henry's Law partition ratio in that surface water.

Water droplets in clouds, falling from clouds, and condensing in air sum to a relatively high surface area compared to the flat 2-D surface area of the ocean. Approximately 4πr2 verses r2.


Therefore, taken altogether, the additional sink and source due to raindrops would appear to be significant relative to other sinks and sources. But, building an algorithm to calculate the size of this additional rain sink and source would be as uncertain as predicting the weather, primarily due to variances driven by water in all its phases and chaotic conditions.

For example,

in Hawaii near the northern boundary between temperate zone and tropical zone, rain and clouds are cooler than ocean surface.


Raindrops have a larger ratio of surface area / volume ratio than ocean surface.


Cooler raindrops temporarily increase the aqueous CO2 gas concentration in ocean surface water in Hawaii and all of the tropics.

But since ocean water in the tropics is usually warmer than 26 degrees, that additional aqueous CO2 gas will be rapidly (seconds) emitted to atmosphere as the temperature of the cooler rainwater rapidly warms to the temperature of the ocean's massive heat sink.


Thus, raindrops are another large, chaotic CO2 gas flux between sink and source. It would be difficult or impossible to model with accuracy this chaotic bi-directional CO2 flux between sink and source.

To calculate how much CO2 is in rain, we would need to know,

the amount of precipitation that is liquid, the surface area of rain drops, the temperature gradients in the global atmosphere and ocean, of course Henry's Law for myriad conditions, etc.

Some of the needed information is measured and estimated. Volume of global precipitation is calculated by taking the product of the Earth's surface area and its average annual rainfall.


Total annual volume of precipitation of water in all phases is about 5.1 × 1014 m3.


In other words, fossil fuel CO2 gas emission on the order of 5.5 x 109 metric tons (see below graphic) is being absorbed into a volume of rain that is on the order of 1014 cubic meters.


Raindrops are a large sink and source for CO2 gas.


Rain is scrubbing the air of CO2 just as it scrubs air of other gases and particles. Whether rain is a sink or source of CO2 depends on temperature in that location.

The following below two graphics of carbon cycle, an older graphic followed by a newer graphic, are routinely provided by UN IPCC and other proponents of anthropogenic global warming. Notice that rain is not included in these graphics.


Also the graphics imply that the different CO2 sources and sinks are not connected. They also clearly imply that fossil fuel emissions are only emitted and not absorbed.


However, in fact, all of these fluxes into air and into ocean are connected by Henry's Law.





Notice that according to the newer carbon cycle graphic, CO2 gas in the ocean surface is about 1020 gigatons (1020 x 109 metric tons), while absorption into ocean surface is about 92 gigatons, while the estimated fossil fuel CO2 emission into air is 8 gigatons.


The implication of this graphic is that 8 gigatons of fossil fuel emission is not mixed with or absorbed by the environment.


The author/artist and global agencies and governments and AGW proponents clearly imply that CO2 emission from fossil fuel is a net addition of the CO2 to the atmosphere:

this is false...

All of these amounts of CO2 gas shown in the atmosphere are soluble into an annual volume of water precipitation of about 5.1 × 1014 m3! that is annual rainfall.



atmospheric CO2 from all sources is being absorbed into ocean surface and emitted into air, and all of this is happening in seconds.

CO2 gas concentration in air and ocean is independent of human emission (Salby).


CO2 concentration in air and ocean is controlled by the net residual difference of natural emission of CO2 minus net absorption of CO2 (Salby).

That net residual difference results primarily from temperature changes in ocean and soil, following Henry's Law.


Driven dominantly by temperature, all CO2 emissions from all CO2 sources are compensated by natural adjustment of the partition ratio of CO2 gas concentration in air versus aqueous CO2 gas concentration in surface water.


This equilibration is occurring rapidly and continuously.

Human CO2 emission (~5.5 gigatons) into atmosphere is immediately diluted into an order of magnitude (16 times) larger CO2 sink (90 gigatons of CO2) in the atmosphere.


Then, atmosphere in contact with ocean results in another order of magnitude (16 times) dilution into the 92 gigaton sink of CO2 gas in the surface of the ocean.


The dilution into ocean surface water begins immediately in seconds as described above.

There is another significant dilution.


As mentioned above, aqueous CO2 gas in ocean water is continuously diluted and removed from ocean and from the Henry's Law equilibrium by rapid dissolution into carbonates joining the multiple, vast inorganic ionic buffering systems in ocean water. (Mason)(Segalstad.)

"The upper 200 m of ocean water contains enough dissolved calcium to bind all human produced pogenic CO2 as precipitated calcium carbonate (in the ocean) without affecting the ocean's pH (Jaworowski et al., 1992a; Segalstad, 1996; 1998)."

Segalstad, page 818

Note this is only the calcium buffering system, one of several oceanic buffering systems.

All human CO2 emission could be dissolved in only the top 200 meters of ocean water by the calcium buffering system alone (Segalstadt).

The average abundance,

of oxygen, calcium and carbon in earth's crust is 1456:113:1. (Mason)


In seawater, the Ca2+ ion is 2.9 times more concentrated than the carbonate (HCO3–) ion (0.4121 g/kg vs. 0.1424 g/kg) (Stumm & Morgan).


Dissolution into this calcium buffering system is very fast (seconds.)

This is easily demonstrated by blowing bubbles through a straw into a water solution containing calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 i.e. caustic lime] at its oceanic concentration.


Within seconds, the CO2 in your breath forms white calcium carbonate solid in the water and precipitates to the bottom of the container.


The requirements for this precipitation are excess calcium ions and excess hydroxyl ions (OH ) ; ocean surface has both, which is measured by the alkaline pH of ocean water indicating excess hydroxyl ions.


The same fast precipitation rate occurs in ocean water.


This process continuously removes aqueous CO2 gas from the water, converting it to ionic carbonates and then to solid precipitate stone thus driving continuous absorption of more CO2 gas into ocean water to maintain Henry's Law partition between ocean and air.


The ocean calcium buffering system is a gigantic, continuous CO2 sink. Limestone rock is plating on ocean floor in mid-ocean depths controlled by temperature and water pressure.


Converting this solid calcium carbonate (limestone) back into atmospheric CO2 gas requires volcanic temperatures, a chemistry well known for centuries by production of cement by burning limestone.


Some "climate science" literature argues this ocean buffering chemistry operates in time frames of hundreds to thousands of years.

That is only half true...

The sink (absorption) side of this chemical reaction is ongoing continuously and happens in seconds.


Only the source side (emission) of this chemistry, i.e., CO2 emissions from a volcanic eruption is long term.

"The Law of Mass Action ensures when all these chemical reactions have been accounted for in the total net reaction (and when increasing the amount of a gas, CO2, in the air), calcium carbonate (solid) will be stabilized in the ocean, because the chemical reaction will be forced in the direction from left to right.


This result is the opposite of what is commonly asserted (that solid calcium carbonate would be dissolved by the increasing amount of CO2 in the air)."

(Segalstad, page 819)

"The loss of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by deposition as carbonate and organic carbon in sedimentary rock was estimated by Rubey as totaling 920 x 1020 g.


More recently, Wickman (1956) has published some revised figures. He places the amount of carbonate carbon per square meter of earth's surface as 2420 +/- 560 g and of organic carbon at 700 +/- 200 g.


Taking the figure of 3100 g/m=cm2 for the total amount of carbon transferred from the atmosphere to the sedimentary rock, this is equal to a total of 158 x 1020 g of carbon, or 580 x 1020 g of CO2.


This latter figure is of the same order of magnitude as Rubey's but considerably lower.


The figures show clearly that the amount of carbon dioxide deposited in sedimentary rocks far exceeds the amount in the present atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere (about 1.5 x 1020), and thus indicate that large amounts of carbon dioxide must have been released from magmatic sources throughout geological time to maintain organic activity.


Wickman's figures show, in addition, that far more carbon dioxide has been removed as limestone and dolomite than as coal or other organic carbon."

(Mason, page 209)


Dissolved gases in sea water, concentrations ml/l

Oxygen 0-9

Nitrogen 8.4-14.5

Total Carbon dioxide 34-56 [which Mason explained includes carbonates]

Argon (residual after removal of N) 0.2-0.4

Helium and Neon 1.7 x 10-4

Hydrogen Sulfide 0-22 or more

(Mason. page 28)


All of the above discussed CO2 sinks and sources turn over in months except the emission of CO2 from limestone rock which in most cases is permanent removal of CO2 from the environment.


This monthly rate is inferred from NOAA Mauna Loa data.


The large (two to four times) differences observed in the within-year rates of change of slope are stated to be due to seasonal photosynthesis and ice cover differences between the northern and southern hemispheres.


Within-year changes in slope are +1.5 to +3.5 to -7 to +3.5 and more and returning to the +1.5 ppmv per year annual slope.


These are the annual seasonal "sharks teeth" on the NOAA Mauna Loa CO2 slope (graphic below.).


These rapid within-year changes in slope are compared to the ongoing annual rate of change of slope (1.5 ppmv per year) of the net global atmospheric CO2 concentration.

A very, very large rate-compensated drain is inferred from the more than 2:1 rate differences observed within-year occurring in the residual of two giant fluxes (CO2 emission and CO2 absorption).


A small change in net CO2 concentration on the NOAA Mauna Loa slope represents the residual difference between two enormous (gigaton) CO2 fluxes in opposite directions.


The temperature and area of the surface of water act as an adjustable-rate CO2 valve between ocean and air.


Add more CO2 from any source, and the system adjusts the rate in both time and volume to achieve Henry's K partition...  without regard to the source of the CO2.


And vice versa...



Henry's law partition is independent of the source of the CO2.

The net average atmospheric concentration of CO2 (~400 ppmv) is independent of human CO2 emission.


For example, during the 2020 corona virus 'pandemic', fossil fuel CO2 emissions have been estimated to have decreased by 20% to 30%.


But the net global average CO2 trend increased for 2020 instead of decreasing, as measured by the NOAA lab on Mauna Loa and shown in the graphic above.


The net global average atmospheric concentration of CO2 is independent of human CO2 emission.


The CO2 trend is a function of temperature.

This is explained in detail including derivation of the equations in the video lecture at the link in the references below, by Dr. Murry Salby, Professor of Atmospheric Physics and author of two graduate school level textbooks on the subject.

On average, rainwater by itself has more than enough surface area to scrub the atmosphere of all human-produced CO2 within each year.


However, rain is notoriously difficult to predict and absorption and emission are happening locally.


Regions have dry periods and wet periods.


But the surface of the ocean is much larger and ever present and more than sufficient to scrub all human-produced CO2 annually.

As mentioned above, the oceanic buffering systems are continuously removing aqueous CO2 gas from ocean water and producing limestone sedimentation.


Ocean has,

"an almost infinite buffering capacity" for CO2.

Segalstad, page 820. Stumm and Morgan; Segalstad and Jaworowski, 1991

On a time scale of millions of years, atmospheric CO2 has been in a steady declining trend.

Ocean is absorbing CO2 from air, converting the CO2 to limestone rock on the walls and floor of the ocean.

There have been fewer volcanic eruptions and open fissures at volcanic temperatures which would reverse the chemical reaction equation and convert the limestone rock back into CO2.



Any and all additional CO2 added to the air from any and all sources will enter the ocean surface and be balanced in an Henry's Law equilibrium of approximately 50:1 ratio between water and air at the specific temperature in that location.

The graphic of net global average CO2 concentration, for example from the NOAA Keeling Laboratory on Mauna Loa in Hawaii above, is a graph of an equilibrium equation.

The equation for the line on the graph is controlled by temperature.

Temperature controls the ratio of the CO2 in the air versus the aqueous CO2 gas in water.


The line on the graph is recording the points where the net global flux of CO2 into the air is in equilibrium with the net global flux into water in all its liquid forms at a specific temperature.

If temperature is increasing, then relatively more CO2 is emitted from water into air.


If temperature is decreasing, then more CO2 is absorbed into water.

An equilibrium equation which is a function of temperature is explained in this short video.


Simply substitute CO2 where the professor has H2O as his example.


In the case of CO2, temperature is driving the Henry's Law equation for the ratio of CO2 gas in water versus CO2 gas in air.



Water does not distinguish between human-produced CO2 and other sources of CO2.


Contrary to the claims by proponents of human-caused global warming, human-produced CO2 does not stay in the atmosphere.

It is absorbed and emitted by water countless times per year based on the temperature of the surface of water as happens to all other CO2.


The net global CO2 trend is independent of CO2 absorbed and emitted by the the biosphere.

The multiyear long term trend (or slope) in net global average CO2 concentration (NOAA Mauna Loa graphic above) is the result of slowly increasing surface temperature since the end of the last ice age.

Ocean surface is about 70% of the surface of the earth.


The ocean is the lung of all life on earth, breathing out life-giving CO2, and breathing in life-giving CO2.

Carbon is the fundamental building block molecule for every cell in all life forms on earth.


All of the carbon in all of your cells was at one time CO2 in the air. Carbon is a major component of all cells.


All of the carbon in every cell of every plant, animal, insect, fish, bacterium, virus, etc was once CO2 in the air. The ONLY way that carbon gets into living things is by plants absorbing CO2 from the air for photosynthesis, and then other living things eat those plants.

People and plans to reduce atmospheric CO2 are essentially a eugenics death cult which would, if successful, reduce sustainability of life on earth, resulting in less food and ultimately lower population of all living things.


For example, plans by billionaires and governments to create artificial clouds to block the sun would intentionally cool ocean surface and as explained above.


As you now know from the discussion above, this catastrophic plan would remove CO2 plant food from air and starve plants, crushing food supply for all life:

these are very dangerous geoengineering plans driven by ideology, not science or even common sense, and if done or seriously attempted most likely humanity will have sealed its fate in stone.

During my seventy plus year lifetime, all of humanity has been buried by a non-stop, extremely well funded propaganda campaign designed to convince people to feel guilty about their carbon footprint and to fear a never ending list of climate catastrophes, all caused, they claim or imply,

by human-produced CO2...

It has been accelerating since the 1960s following the required reading of "The Population Bomb" and "Ecoscience."


This mistaken ideology is based on the 18th century mistaken calculations of Thomas Malthus who believed that,

human population growth would exhaust earth's natural resources...

Although Malthus' forecasts have never happened, including the fact that human population growth rate has been declining for decades, his ideology has been adopted by the wealthy, the influential, the UN and over 100 governments, academics and corporations.


They are driving what is in fact a globally destructive eugenics campaign financed by trillions of dollars.

The pace and intensity of the propaganda campaign will increase as the date approaches for the next United Nations IPCC climate conference...

This is a dangerous, gigantic global fraud.

"Stop treating it (i.e. AGW... - 'anthropogenic global warming' - human-caused global warming/climate change) as a worthy opponent.


Do not ascribe reasonableness to the other side.


It is not reasonable, not true, not even plausible."

Richard Lindzen, Professor Emeritus, Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

(31 March 2021. Zoom call Clintel Foundation)