FDR makes his "Four Freedoms" speech before Congress on January
6th. They are freedom of speech, of religion, from want, from
In preparation for World War II, President Roosevelt creates the
Office of Coordinator of Information (COI). General William
"Wild Bill" Donovan heads the new intelligence service.
Pearl Harbor is attacked by Japan. Congress declares war on
US Army General, Leslie Groves takes charge of building the
Wilhelm Reich met with Albert Einstein and they talked for five
hours. However, this was after Einstein’s 1938 paper in which he
proposed to take the fifth mathematical dimension as real.
Einstein declined to become involved in Reich’s research which
dashed Reich’s hopes. This was actually very strange considering
the other efforts Einstein was making "in public" regarding his
"search for UFT."
The Sarnoff Corporation is the successor organization to the
David Sarnoff Research Center and the RCA Laboratories in
Princeton, New Jersey. General Order S-56 of the Radio
Corporation of America, issued March 5, 1941, mandated that "All
research, original development and patent and licensing
activities of the Corporation and its Associated Companies will
be consolidated in RCA Laboratories which will be responsible
for all such work in the future." Six days later the corporation
completed purchase of the 260 acres of farmland on Route 1 in
Princeton that would serve as the site for the new center.
chose Princeton for two primary reasons. It was equidistant from
the RCA Victor and RCA Radiotron divisions in Camden and
Harrison, New Jersey, where most of the corporations
manufacturing took place. It was also a relatively short drive
on Route 1 from NBC and corporate headquarters at Rockefeller
Center in New York City. Construction began August 8, and on
September 27, 1942, the laboratories opened with a staff of 125
scientists and engineers.
United States, Los Angeles: February 25, At least a million
residents awoke to air raid sirens at 2:25am., and U.S. Army
personnel fired 1,430 rounds of antiaircraft shells at an
unidentified, slow-moving object in the sky over Los Angeles
that looked like a blimp, or a balloon. All radio stations had
been ordered off the air at 3:08. The firing continued
intermittently until 4:14. Unexploded shells destroyed pavement,
homes and public buildings, three persons were killed and three
died of heart attacks directly attributable to the one hour
barrage. Several persons were injured by shrapnel. A dairy herd
was hit but only a few cows were casualties. The blackout was
lifted and sirens screamed all clear at 7:21. The photograph
below show the object dimly as bursts of anti aircraft shells
explode against its surface. The beams of light are earth based
search lights focusing on the object which can just be made out.
George Marshall wrote a memorandum to
President Roosevelt about
the incident, which remained classified until 1974. Marshall
concluded that conventional aircraft were involved, probably
"commercial sources, operated by enemy agents for purposes of
spreading alarm, disclosing location of antiaircraft positions,
and slowing production through blackout." Despite the barrage of
American antiaircraft fire, none of these "commercial" planes
were brought down.
Photographs showed shells bursting all around
it. A Los Angeles Herald Express staffer said he was sure many
shells hit it directly. He was amazed it had not been shot down.
When the object finally moved, it proceeded at a leisurely pace
over the coastal cities between Santa Monica and Long Beach,
taking about 30 minutes of actual flight time to move 20 miles;
then it disappeared from view. Soon thereafter US Navy Secretary
Frank Knox announced that no planes had been sighted. The
coastal firing had been triggered, he said, by a false alarm and
jittery nerves. The Los Angeles Times demanded a full
explanation from Washington. The Long Beach Independent noted
"There is a mysterious reticence about the whole affair
and it appears some form of censorship is trying to halt
discussion of the matter. Although it was red-hot news not one
national radio commentator gave it more than passing mention.
This is the kind of reticence that is making the American people
gravely suspect the motives and the competence of those whom
they have charged with the conduct of the war."
"It is noteworthy that for thirty years until the release
of the Marshall memorandum, the Department of Defense claimed to
have no record of the event. Five years before Roswell, them
military was already learning to clamp down on UFOs."
US Army General, Leslie Groves [Corps of Engineers]
building the Pentagon and moves on to be military director of
the US Manhattan Project, i.e. the US atomic bomb development
In July, Roosevelt restructures COI into something more suitable
for covert action, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS).
Donovan recruits so many of the nation’s rich and powerful that
eventually people joke that "OSS" stands for "Oh, so social!" or
"Oh, such snobs!" UK’s MI5 played a major part in the creation
of the American Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The
modelled on MI6/SOE; American personnel received training and
instruction from British agents. OSS later came to concentrate
predominantly on armed subversion and guerrilla warfare and was
the forerunner of the CIA.
The Signal Security Agency, forerunner of the National Security
Agency (NSA), worked closely with ITT Communications, RCA
Communications, and Western Union Telegraph
Company to gain
unlimited access to the cable traffic of private citizens,
companies, and governments. The operation came to be known as
Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on
approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until
1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become
human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.
Secretary of War Henry Stimson created the War Research Service
(WRS) to oversee the establishment of an American biological
warfare program. Headed by George Merck, president of
Pharmaceutical Company, the function of the WRS was kept secret
through the war. By 1943, at the request of the WRS, the Army
Chemical Warfare Service began building specially designed
laboratories and pilot plants at Detrick field.
Timor Sea. The cruiser Tromp was approached by a large aluminum
disc that flew at tremendous speed. It then circled the Dutch
vessel for about three to four hours. Finally, it flew off at an
estimated speed of 3,000-3,500 mph.
Solomon Islands. While in the Solomon Islands US Marine
Sgt. Stephen J. Brickner sighted a staggering number of
laid out in virtually an enormous rectangle. The formation was
15 craft long and 10 deep. Formation sightings have been
reported before but the rectangle shape is unique.
The U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick,
MD, in response to Japan’s full-scale germ warfare program.
Donovan recruits the
Catholic Church in Rome to be the
Anglo-American spy operations in Fascist Italy. This would prove
to be one of America’s most enduring intelligence alliances in
the Cold War.
Russia, Pushkino. Soldiers saw a disc-shaped object hovering
high in the air above aircraft.
China, Qing Xian, Hebet Province. A domed UFO that emitted a
white light was seen flying less than 20 feet above the ground.
United States, Washington, DC. On February 22, Franklin D.
Roosevelt writes a Top Secret memo on White House stationary for
"The special committee on non-terrestrial science and
technology." Both the title and the content clearly allude to
extraterrestrial life, the former using the word
"non-terrestrial" and the latter talks about "coming to grips
with the reality that our planet is not the only one harboring
intelligent life the universe."
In July, The "Breton Woods" economic conference is held in
The International Monetary Fund ("IMF") and the
Bank of Reconstruction and Development [i.e., today’s World
Bank] are proposed.
Friedrich Von Hayek publishes the "The Road to Serfdom."
U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing.
Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard
gas and lewisite.
The first Rockefeller Foundation grant of an eventual $2 million
total is made to develop Princeton’s Office of Population
Research, which demonstrates connections between population and
development in the Third World.
Major Leet, a bomber pilot, saw a luminous
disc follow his plane and its maneuvers.
In February, the "big Three" [Churchill, UK;
Stalin, USSR; & F.
Roosevelt, US] meet at Yalta.
The "Cold War" begins.
FDR is elected for a historic 4th term. Harry Truman is a
reluctant compromise candidate for vice president. Truman
becomes President when FDR dies in office on April 12th.
On April 12th FDR dies in office. VP Harry S. Truman becomes
President of the US.
On April 29th, Hitler commits suicide.
In May, Germany Surrenders.
Aleutian Islands. Fourteen men on the
USAT Delarof saw a dark
spherical object rise out of the water, circle their ship and
fly off to the south.
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill [Conservative] loses
his position to Clement Atley [Labour] after a landslide victory
for the British Labour Party.
July 17th - August 2nd, US President, Truman, British PM,
Clement Atley, and USSR Premier, Stalin meet at the Potsdam Conference.
While at the Potsdam Conference, US President, Truman learns
that the A-Bomb will work.
Japan fails to surrender; Truman drops "the Bomb." Japan
surrenders. World War II ends.
Japan and Germany are occupied. Committees are set up to amend
Japan’s Constitution of 1886. The allies physically divide
Germany into occupied zones.
Britain begins to nationalize its economy and move toward a
so-called "welfare state."
The Allies discovered the Japanese had been been developing a
"death ray" utilizing very short radio waves
focused into a
high power beam. Tests were done on animals. The Japanese denied
ever testing it on humans.
(From the Strategic Bombing Survey,
Imperial War Museum, London. Cited with photocopies in "Japanese
Death Ray", by Peter Lewis, Resonance#11, pp 5-9)
OSS is abolished - The remaining American information agencies
cease covert actions and return to harmless information
gathering and analysis.
Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army
intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them
immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top
secret government projects in the United States. In other words,
while other American agencies are hunting down Nazi war
criminals for arrest, the U.S. intelligence community is
smuggling them into America, unpunished, for their use against
the Soviets. The most important of these is Reinhard Gehlen,
Hitler’s master spy who had built up an intelligence network in
the Soviet Union. With full U.S. blessing, he creates the "Gehlen
Organization," a band of refugee Nazi spies who reactivate their
networks in Russia. These include SS intelligence officers
Alfred Six and Emil Augsburg (who massacred Jews in the
Holocaust), Klaus Barbie (the "Butcher of Lyon"),
Otto von Bolschwing (the Holocaust mastermind who worked with Eichmann) .
The Gehlen Organization supplies the U.S. with its only
intelligence on the Soviet Union for the next ten years, serving
as a bridge between the abolishment of the OSS and the creation
of the CIA. However, much of the "intelligence" the former
provide is bogus.
Eisenhower becomes Army chief of staff.
"Program F" is implemented by the U.S.
Atomic Energy Commission
(AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health
effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in
atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to
man, fluoride, it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the
central nervous system but much of the information is squelched
in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits
would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.
Human plutonium injection experiments. The Manhattan Project was
asked to inject a hospital patient at either Rochester or
Chicago with 1 to 10 micrograms of plutonium and send the
excreta to Los Alamos for analysis. The first human plutonium
injection took place on April 10, 1945, without the informed
consent of the patient.
Sweden. The Scandanavian countries reported over 2,000
unidentified flying objects over their airspace. These objects
usually looked like rockets with fiery exhausts, and they
sometimes performed unusual maneuvers as they passed overhead.
At first they were thought to be captured German V-2 missiles
that were being tested by the Russians, but British radar
experts said they did not come from the U.S.S.R. Even today,
fifty years later, official files on the ghost rockets are still
The Nuremburg and Tokyo war crimes trials are held.
In March, Winston Churchill gives his famous "Iron Curtain"
speech in Fulton, Missouri. The "Cold War" goes public.
Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical
experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to
change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or
"observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in
one of the nation’s veteran’s hospitals.
Rockefeller Foundation makes further grants to support
completion of the 200-inch telescope at Mount Palomar, which
received its first RF funds in 1928. RF’s single largest
appropriation of the year, $7.5 million, goes to the General
Education Board to boost its declining resources. The board’s
work is now focused almost exclusively on education.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology receives
RF support to
study the design and construction of Vannevar Bush’s mechanical
differential analyzer, the forerunner of the computer; then, to
study the potential of electronic computers.
Renowned physicist Dr. Paul Santorini, on
UFOs over Greece in
"We soon established that they were not missiles. But,
before we could do any more, the Army, after conferring with
foreign officials, ordered the investigation stopped. Foreign
scientists flew to Greece for secret talks with me... A world
blanket of secrecy surrounded the UFO question because the
authorities were unwilling to admit the existence of a force
against which we had no possibility of defense."
was a Greek physicist and engineer credited with developing the
proximity fuse for the Hiroshima atomic bomb, two patents for
the guidance system used in the U.S. Nike missiles, and a centimetric radar system. He has also stated that he believes
UFOs are under intelligent control. In 1947, he investigated a
series of UFO reports over Greece that were initially thought to
be Soviet missiles.
United States, Florida. Pilot and crew of a C-47 aircraft 30
miles north-east of Tampa, saw a cigar-shaped object with
luminous portholes hurtle towards them in horizontal flight at
the same altitude of 4,000ft. At 1,000 yards distant it swerved
to avoid them. Estimated size of object was twice that of a B-29
Colonel Maurice Sheahan, the Far Eastern Director of Trans World
Airline, flies over Shaanxi Province and sees a
It is about 40 miles southewest of Xi’an. His account was
published in the New York Times on March 28 under the headline
"U.S. Flier Reports Huge Chinese Pyramid in Isolated Mountains
Southwest of Sian" [Si’an]. The report says:
From the air, Colonel Sheahan said,
the pyramid seems to dwarf
those of Egypt. He estimated its height at 1,000 ft and its
width at the base at 1,500 feet. The pyramid, he said, is at the
foot of the Tsinling Mountains about 40 miles southwest of
capital of the province. A second pyramid, he continued, appears
much smaller. The pyramid, Colonel Sheahan went on, is at the
far end of a long valley, in an inaccessible part. At the near
end, he said, are hundreds of burial mounds. These can be seen,
he said, from the Lung-Hai railroad.
The implication is, of course, that the hundreds of smaller
burial mounds are the same ones seen by Sowerby and Clark and
possibly Franck and Creel. Which then suggests that there was
something discovered that they did not talk about - or were not
permitted to talk about. And that this something was discovered
in 1908. Sheanah’s description of the position of the
inaccessible valley containing the huge pyramid, when examined
on a large scale map is actually very precise. A pyramid could
be there appearing as a small mountain on satellite photos.
No photograph accompanied the New York Times report, nor was
there a photograph in the report in the Los Angeles Times
article: "Gigantic Pyramid in Western China Reported by
Southland Air Executive." (Marc 28, 1947, p. 5) The Chicago
Daily News also covered the story the same day. The English
language North-China Daily News carried a report on March 31
which added the info that the size of the pyramid had been
calculated by comparison with the size of a nearby village. The
New York Sunday News of March 30, however, printed a photograph
which is cropped so that the sticker of the newspaper photo
agency "NEA Telephoto" - which is left on other news photos of
the time that were printed later - is removed. The early reports
do NOT say that Colonel Sheahan took photos. Colonel Sheahan
himself, interviewed by the New York Times, said:
When I first flew over it I was impressed by its
pyramidal form and its great size. I did not give it a thought
during the war years partly because it seemed incredible that
anything so large could be unknown from the world. From the air
we could see only small footpaths leading to a village at the
site of the pyramid.
This suggests that Sheahan had seen the pyramid earlier - during
the war. On April 1, 1947, the Los Angeles Times published:
China Giant Pyramid Report Called False.
Nanking, March 31 (AP)
- A Central News Agency dispatch from Sikang said today the provincial government had announced
following an investigation that the reported discovery of a
giant pyramid in Shensi Province proved to be groundless."
Three weeks later, the North China Daily News carried a lengthy
report on a lecture on the history of Xi’an given at the
Asiatic Society on April 24. The topic of Sheahan’s
raised during the talk and dismissed.
According to Steve Marshall, writing for Fortean Times, (164,
Dec. 2002) one of the sinologists consulted by the new York
Times (March 28, 1947) - Arthur Upam Pope of the Asia Institute
- wrote a follow-up letter to the editor dated March 30 (before
the denials) in which he speculated that the
giant pyramid could
be a Xia dynasty royal tomb, and suggested that the knowledge of
building pyramids might have spread from western Asia to
(No archeological evidence has yet been found to confirm the
existence of the Xia dynasty, which is still presumed to be
Pope’s letter - in the April 8 issue of the Times (p.26),
appears to be the origin of the modern mythicization spread by
Hartwig Hausdorf and David Hatcher Childress. In this letter,
Pope quoted a description of another pyramids and the
dynasty idea of five colors being related:
"green on the east,
red on the south, white on the west, black on the north, and all
covered with yellow earth."
This became attached to Sheahan’s
description attributed to a most likely non-existent flier named
Gaussman by Childress, then quoted by Hausdorf.
The question of the photograph is important. The Rocky Mountain
News report of March 31, 1947 credited the photo to "army
photographers." This news story said "American scientists have
been in the area."
Julie Byron, writing an article about "Mystery Pyramids,"
tracked down the son of the late Col. Sheahan - Donald Sheahan -
and asked him about his father’s sighting. Donald Sheahan wrote
that his father had indeed seen the pyramid once before, and
added that some senior TWA executives were also on the 1947
flight, the purpose of which was to establish landing rights for
the airline around the world. Don Sheahan believed that his
father had taken the photograph, or that it had been taken by
someone on the same flight. He went through his father’s papers,
and was unable to find any photographs of the pyramid. He did
find three unlabelled news clippings that specifically mention
that Col. Sheahan flew low over the area to take photographs,
and two of these clippings say that he has these photographs at
home, which is also stated in the North China Daily News story
of March 31. Some of these clippings collected by his father
include the NEA photograph, but he was unable to confirm that
his father did, indeed, take this photograph or whether it is
actually a photo of the structure in question.
One clarification was discovered: Don Sheahan found a letter
written by his father, Col. Sheahan, on January 31, 1961, to a
Mr. E. Leslie Carlson, who had a theory connecting the
pyramid to the
ancient Sumerians. He had also asked for a
photograph. Sheahan wrote:
The large pyramid is probably between 500 feet and 600 feet high
and the reported 1,000 feet was exaggerated in several
translations from the Chinese li to metric to feet.
In his thank-you letter of Feb 7, Carlson acknowledges receipt
of letter, answers and news clippings, but makes no mention of
having received a photograph. And here is where we come to
something very "Fortean." NEA Telephoto - Newspaper Enterprise
Association - is only credited with handling one other photo -
the famous "Roswell weather balloon" photograph.
President Truman announces the so-called Truman Doctrine.
President Truman requests military aid to Greece to support
right-wing forces fighting communist rebels. For the rest of the
Cold War, Washington and the CIA will back notorious Greek
leaders with deplorable human rights records.
CIA created - President Truman signs the
National Security Act
of 1947, creating the Central Intelligence Agency and
Security Council. The CIA is accountable to the president
through the NSC -there is no democratic or congressional
oversight. Its charter allows the CIA to "perform such other
functions and duties. As the National Security Council may from
time to time direct."
Control of US atomic energy passes from the US Military to the
civilian Atomic Energy Commission.
Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy
issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947)
stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous
doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.
The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by
American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and
military) are used with and without their knowledge.
United States. A letter dated 23 September 1947 from
Nathan F. Twining, Chief of Staff of the U. S. Army to the
Commanding General of the Army Air Force establishes of a study
of flying saucers to be called
Project Sign, and assigned a high
priority in a letter dated 30 December 1947 from Maj. Gen. L. C. Craigie.
Brig. General George Shulgen
"It is the considered opinion of
some elements that the object may in fact represent an
interplanetary craft of some kind."
From a Draft Intelligence
Collections Memorandum by Brig. Geneneral George Shulgen, Oct.
General Nathan Twining
"The reported operating characteristics
such as extreme rates of climb, maneuverability (particularly in
roll), and action which must be considered evasive when sighted
... lend belief to the possibility that some of the objects are
Twining as Head of Air Material Command (AMC),
"The phenomenon is something real and not visionary or
fictitious. There are objects approximating the shape of a disc,
some of which appear flat on bottom and domed on top. These
objects are as large as man-made aircraft and have a metallic or
light-reflecting surface. Further they exhibit extreme rates of
climb and maneuverability with no associated sound and take
action which must be considered evasive when contacted by
aircraft and radar."
Twining, in a declassified letter to the
General Twining was the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff 1957-1960.
Italy. An Italian artist by the name of
Rapuzzi Johannis was
taking a leisurely walk in the mountains between Italy and
Yugoslavia. He saw just in front of him a red glowing saucer.
This saucer was about thirty feet wide and it was accompanied by
two small dwarf-like creatures. These creatures had very large
heads with green faces, sort of resembling that of a fish. They
also had a circle around each eye. Apparently one of the
creatures had hit Johannis with an electrical ray which left him
very weak and almost paralyzed. After this incident the
creatures ignored the Johannis and left.
United States, Nevada, Lake Mead. While cruising at 6,000 feet,
US Air force pilot Lieutenant Armstrong witnessed six discs
flying in formation.
United States, Washington, Mount Rainier.
Kenneth Arnold was on
an aerial search for a crashed C-46 marine transport plane when
he saw 9 objects flying in formation. He estimated their speed
at 1,300 to 1,700 miles per hour, distance at 23 miles and
length of formation to be 5 miles. Also in the air at the time
was a DC-4, which Arnold used as a point of reference to
estimate the size of individual discs. He estimated the size as
two-thirds the size of the DC-4. This sighting was not
corroborated by radar or witnesses but did attract media
attention and public interest.
United States, New Mexico, White Sands. C. J. Zohn stationed at
White Sands proving grounds in New Mexico watched a huge,
silver, circular disc at a height of 10,000 feet above the
installation. This sighting was just days after Kenneth Arnold’s
sighting which publicized the UFO phenomenon.
United States, Spokane, Washington. Eight disk-shaped objects
the size of a house, were seen flying at 1000 km/h. A civilian
woman stated that the objects fell with a dead leaf motion and
landed before ten witnesses on the shore of the Saint Joe River,
United States, California, Muroc Dry Lake, now Edwards Air Force
Base. Four witnesses: 1st Lt. Joseph McHenry, T/Sgt
S/Sgt Nauman, and Miss Janette Scotte watched for an unstated
length of time while two disc-shaped or spherical objects,
silver and apparently metallic, flew a wide circular pattern,
and then one of them later flew a tighter circle, moving about
300 mph at approximately 8,000 feet." More officers gathered as
a third object came into sight. A test pilot had reported seeing
a round object at about 12,000 feet the day before.
Paper clip scientist Kurt Rahr. Rahr was a convicted criminal
with an extensive Nazi past. In September 1947, he conducted
mind control experiments at Edgewood Arsenal, where such
experiments flourished until at least 1966.
United States, Louisville, Kentucky. Capt.
Thomas Mantell lost
his life on 7 January while attempting to chase a UFO, This is
the first fatality on record directly connected with an UFO
chase. Reports from private citizens were made to the Kentucky
State Highway Patrol describing a strange, saucer-shaped flying
object, 200 - 300 ft. diameter. It was also seen by several
other witnesses, including the base commander, at the control
tower of Godman AFB, outside Louisville. Official explanations
concluded that he was chasing the planet Venus in the bright
afternoon sky or a secret Navy balloon.
United States, Fargo, North Dakota. Lt. George F. Gorman of the
North Dakota National Guard was approaching Fargo, flying an
F-51. The tower called his attention to a Piper Cub which he saw
below him. As he prepared to land, suddenly what he took to be
the tail-light of another plane passed him on his right, but the
control tower assured him no other planes were in the area.
Chasing the light, he got within 1,000 yd. of it. It had been
blinking but suddenly became steady and started to move rapidly
with the F-51 pursuit. There followed a complicated chase in
which Gorman had to dive on one occasion to avoid collision.
Suddenly the light began to climb and disappeared.
United States, Houston, Texas. Eastern Airlines DC-3, pilot
Clarence S. Chiles and co-pilot John B. Whitted, were on a
regular run from Houston to Atlanta, At 2:45 a.m. they saw a
bright light dead ahead coming rapidly toward them. They pulled
to the left to avoid a collision. Looking back they saw the
go into a steep climb. The pilots described it as a wingless
B-29 fuselage and said that the underside had a deep blue glow.
The CIA recreates a covert action wing, innocuously called the
Office of Policy Coordination, led by Wall Street lawyer
Wisner. According to its secret charter, its responsibilities
include "propaganda, economic warfare, preventive direct action,
including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation
procedures; subversion against hostile states, including
assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of
indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of
the free world."
Media pundits say that the Republicans will win in a landslide.
Truman refuses to believe the opinion polls and takes to the
road, traveling more than 30,000 miles and making about 300
speeches. He criticizes the "do-nothing Republican 80th
Congress." Ronald Reagan supports Harry Truman for re-election.
Truman is elected to a full term as president in one of the most
dramatic political upsets in the nation’s history. Truman
defeats former prosecutor and New York Governor, Thomas Dewey.
Modern political polling is in its infancy, and the Chicago
Tribune gets it wrong. The Tribune publishes, perhaps, their
most famous banner headline, "Dewey Beats Truman."
President Truman desegregates the US Armed Forces.
The British and Americans airlift food and fuel into West
George Orwell publishes "1984."
Gerald Ford is elected to Congress. Representative Lyndon
Johnson is elected to the Senate--he will quickly establish
himself as one of the most effective and persuasive party
leaders in memory.
The CIA corrupts democratic elections in Italy, where Italian
communists threaten to win the elections. The CIA buys votes,
broadcasts propaganda, threatens and beats up opposition
leaders, and infiltrates and disrupts their organizations. It
works - the communists are defeated.
General Robert B. Landry
"I was called one afternoon [in 1948]
to come to the Oval Office - the President wanted to see me....
I was directed to report quarterly to the President after
consulting with Central Intelligence people, as to whether or
not any UFO incidents received by them could be considered as
having any strategic threatening implications .."
Landry was an
aide to President Harry S. Truman.
General Putt changed the name of
Project Sign to
Although it retained its 2A security classification, Grudge
departed from the old pro-ET attitude during the early days of
Chinese Communist Party leader Mao and his supporters gain power
George Adamski, grill cook in a roadside hamburger stand, wrote,
in his spare time, a document which he called An Imaginary Trip
to the Moon, Venus and Mars. He voluntarily listed it with the
Library of Congress for copyright purposes as a work of fiction.
His effort attracted the attention of a lady writer who made a
deal with George to rewrite his epic; she was to furnish the
skilled writing and he was to furnish the photographs of the
space ships. This lady took the finished manuscript to Frank
Edwards for appraisal along with a stack of crude UFO
photographs. Edwards recognized it as a fraud, declined to have
anything to do with it, and the woman reportedly left his office
in a huff.
"In its revised form it told a yarn of how
ventured into the desert of southern California, where he met a
"scout ship" from which stepped a gorgeous doll in golden
coveralls. She spoke to him with a bell-like voice in a language
which he did not understand, so they had to resort to telepathy,
or something similar, to carry on their conversation. [...] But
this congenial con man sold a jillion books to those who were
eager to believe that somebody from space was crossing millions
of miles of the trackless void for the dubious privilege of
conversing telepathically with former hamburger cooks."
Rockefeller Foundation launches a 12-year program designed to
promote research leading to "increased understanding of one
culture by members of another." Universities in U.S., Canada,
Great Britain, France, Turkey, Germany, India, and Japan receive
The CIA creates its first major propaganda outlet, Radio Free
Europe. Over the next several decades, its broadcasts are so
blatantly false that for a time it is considered illegal to
publish transcripts of them in the U.S.
Operation MOCKINGBIRD - The CIA begins recruiting American news
organizations and journalists to become spies and disseminators
of propaganda. Frank Wisner, Allan Dulles, Richard Helms and
Philip Graham head the effort. Graham is publisher of The
Washington Post, which becomes a major CIA player. Eventually,
the CIA’s media assets will include ABC, NBC, CBS, Time,
Newsweek, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters,
Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Copley News Service and more.
By the CIA’s own admission, at least 25 organizations and 400
journalists will become CIA assets.
"The Federal Bureau of Investigation has been
requested to assist in the investigation of reported sightings
of flying disks..."
considered top secret by intelligence officers of
both the Army and the Air Forces."
A declassified 1949 FBI
document from the San Antonio FBI office, to J. Edgar Hoover.
The Army began widespread spraying of 239 U.S. cities with
bacteria and pathogens as part of the secret testing of
The CIA bill passed Congress with scarcely a whisper. The bill
allowed the CIA’s budget to be secret and enabled any branch of
government to transfer money covertly to the CIA "without regard
to any provisions of law."
President Truman survives an assassination attempt on November
1st. Calmly he keeps to his scheduled appointments afterward.
The Korean War begins.
Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons
in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical
problems and mortality rates.
The French conducted research on infrasonic weapons. (From "The
Road From Armageddon", by Peter Lewis, Resonance#13, pp 9-14)
The CIA initiated studies in mind control programs,
with Project BLUEBIRD, rechristened ARTICHOKE in 1951. To
establish a ’ cover story’ for this research, the CIA funded a
propaganda effort designed to convince the world that the
Communist Bloc had devised insidious new methods of re-shaping
the human will; the CIA’s own efforts could therefore, if
exposed, be explained as an attempt to ’ catch up’ with Soviet
and Chinese work. The primary promoter of this ’ line’ was one
Edward Hunter, a CIA contract employee operating under-cover as
a journalist, and, later, a prominent member of the John Birch
"Hunter offered ’brainwashing’ as the explanation for the
numerous confessions signed by American prisoners of war during
the Korean War and (generally) UN-recanted upon the prisoners’
repatriation. These confessions alleged that the United States
used germ warfare in the Korean conflict, a claim which the
American public of the time found impossible to accept. Many
years later, however, investigative reporters discovered that
Japan’s germ warfare specialists (who had wreaked incalculable
terror on the conquered Chinese during WWII) had been mustered
into the American national security apparatus -- and that the
knowledge gleaned from Japan’s horrifying germ warfare
experiments probably WAS used in Korea, just as the
’brainwashed’ soldiers had indicated.
Thus, we now know that the entire brainwashing scare of the
1950s constituted a CIA hoax perpetrated upon the American
public: CIA deputy director Richard Helms admitted as much when,
in 1963, he told the Warren Commission that "Soviet mind control
research consistently lagged years behind American efforts."
Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation Virus Laboratory wins
the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology for developing the
yellow fever vaccine.
Rockefeller Foundation initiates broad scale support for
research in genetics with grants to establish centers and build
entire university departments at California Institute of
Technology, Indiana, Texas, Columbia, Wisconsin, Chicago, Johns
Hopkins, MIT, Stanford, and others, as well as at many locations
abroad. John Foster Dulles becomes chair of the board of
trustees and serves until 1952.
The Army used aircraft and homing pigeons to drop turkey
feathers dusted with cereal rust spores to contaminate oat
crops, to prove that a "cereal rust epidemic" could be spread as
a biological warfare weapon.
Six experimental biological warfare attacks by the US Army from
a ship, using Bacillus globigii and Serratia marcescens along
with fluorescent particles (zinc cadmium sulfide), at one point
forming a cloud about two miles long as the ship traveled slowly
along the shoreline of San Francisco bay. One of the stated
objectives of the exercise was to study "the offensive
possibilities of attacking a seaport city with a BW [biological
warfare] aerosol" from offshore. Monitoring devices are situated
throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection.
September 29, patients at Stanford University’s hospital in San
Francisco were found to be infected by Serratia marcescens. This
type of infection had never before been reported at the
hospital. Eleven patients became infected, and one died.
According to a report submitted to a Senate committee  by
a professor of microbiology at the State University of New York
at Stony Brook:
"an increase in the number of
marcescens can cause disease in a healthy person and... serious
disease in sick people."
"The matter is the most highly classified subject
in the United States Government, rating higher even than the
H-bomb. Flying saucers exist. Their modus operandi is unknown
but a concentrated effort is being made by a small group headed
by Doctor Vannevar Bush. The entire matter is considered by the
United States authorities to be of tremendous significance."
From a declassified Canadian government memorandum dated Nov.
21, 1950. Wilbert Smith.
Harry S. Truman
"I can assure you the
flying saucers, given that
they exist, are not constructed by any power on earth."
House Press Conference, Washington DC, April 4, 1950.
Colonel Robert Willingham
"Headquarters wouldn’t let us go after
it and we played around a little bit. We got to watching how it
made 90 degree turns at this high speed and everything. We knew
it wasn’t a missile of any type. So then, we confirmed it with
the radar control station, and they kept following it, and they
claimed that it crashed somewhere off between Texas and the
Willingham, USAF, from an affidavit filed in the
Willingham and his navigator were test flying an F-94 on
Sept.6, 1950 out of San Angelo, Texas when they were alerted by
radar control operators of a UFO in their area.
"An investigator for the Air Force stated that three
so-called flying saucers had been recovered in New Mexico. They
were described as being circular in shape with raised centers.
Approximately 50 feet in diameter. Each one was occupied by
three bodies of human shape but only 3 feet tall. Dressed in
metallic cloth of a very fine texture. Each body was bandaged in
a manner similar to the blackout suits used by speed flyers and
From a March 22, 1950 memo to
J. Edgar Hoover from
the Washington FBI Office, released in 1976 under the freedom of
Hoover was Director of the
"I would do it [aid the Army Air Force in its
investigations] but before agreeing to it we must insist upon
full access to the discs recovered. For instance in the LA case
the Army grabbed it and would not let us have it for cursory
From a handwritten notation at the bottom of a now
declassified memo. "LA" in this case may refer to Los Alamos,
where the first atomic bombs were developed.
United States, Pasadena, California. A producer for
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, was driving home with his wife when they
said they witnessed three revolving disks traveling at great
speed. The next day, a group at Caltech reported seeing the same
United States, Stuggart, Arkansas. Chicago & Southern Airlines
Capt. Jack Adams and First Officer G. W. Anderson, Jr. reported
witnessing one 100’ circular disc with 9-12 portholes along the
lower side emitting a soft purple light, and a light at the top
which flashed 3 times in 9 seconds, flew at not less than 1,000
m.p.h. It was seen for 25-35 seconds.
Frank Scully’s book Behind the Flying Saucers is published.
Scully wrote of the absorption by the U.S. military of the
scientific community, the alarming spread of secrecy, the
"loyalty hysteria," and offered his opinions that "more offences
are committed under the word ’defense’ than this world dreams
of." He also stated that "as far as we can make out the
reports to nobody and is answerable to nobody."
US Army General Douglas McArthur asks American President
for permission to use atomic weapons in the Korean War.
President Truman fires General Douglas McArthur.
Richard Nixon enters the U.S. Senate as its youngest member. His
Senate career is uneventful and he is able to concentrate all
his efforts on the upcoming presidential election.
Johnny Appleseed of LSD Alfred Hubbard first tries LSD. An
officer in WW II Hubbard first took LSD in 1951, and proceeded
to turn on several individuals prominent in LSD research,
including Dr. Humphrey Osmond, Myron Stolaroff , and
Huxley, earning him the title of "the Johnny Appleseed of LSD".
(Lee, Martin and Schlain, Bruce, Acid Dreams, Grove Press, 1985,
circa 1951 Hubbard later did undercover work for several
agencies, including the FDA and FBI. He reportedly tried (and
failed) to turn on J. Edgar Hoover. He introduced LSD to many
high-ranking intelligence officers. In the early 1950’s, he
refused an offer to join the CIA. (Lee and
Schlain, pg 52) In
all, it is estimated that Hubbard introduced LSD to over 6,000
individuals. He worked until 1965 at the International
Foundation for Advanced Study (mis-identified here, I think, as
the International Federation for Advanced Studies) (Fahey, Todd
Brendan, The Original Captain Trips", High Times, November 1991)
Fahey describes Hubbard’s work at SRI differently, placing him
with the Alternative Futures Project, which sought to turn on
the world’s political and business leaders. He left SRI in 1974,
and died on August 31, 1982. (Fahey)
Department of Defense begins open air tests using
disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969
and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have
Office of Special Operations (OSO) is merged with the
Policy Coordination (OPC) by Walter Bedell Smith. The
longer had to share covert operations with the Pentagon and
State Department. During the year, CIA money set up the
of International Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. Such linkage between the CIA and research
institutions on campus and in the private sector soon became
standard, as it did for the Pentagon.
Former WWII Supreme Allied Commander, Dwight D. "Ike" Eisenhower
wins election as President of the US. Truman refuses to run for
president again. The Republicans choose Nixon as Eisenhower’s
running mate, to balance the ticket with a West Coast
conservative. The Republicans win by a landslide on November
4th. Meanwhile, John Kennedy is elected to the Senate, a
particularly impressive feat because the rest of the nation is
sweeping Republican candidates into offices with Eisenhower.
In November, the first successful American hydrogen bomb test.
National Security Agency (NSA). On October 24, 1952,
Truman signed National Security Council Directive 6, a
seven-page document that eliminated the first attempt at uniting
all military signal intelligence (SIGINT) operations, and
created the NSA at Fort Meade, Maryland. Directive 6 remains
classified to this day.
As a child in 1952, Jack Sarfatti claims to have received phone
calls from the mechanical voice of a conscious computer aboard a
spaceship, recruiting him along with 400 others for some special
project. These calls have similarities to the mechanical voice
which talked to Andrijah Puharich via his tape recorder.
Sarfatti was later associated with Puharich.
Puharich first contacts The Nine a group of channeled being via
CIA’s MK-ULTRA mind control program,
briefed the intelligence community on his work to map out the
brains of animals using implanted electrodes. He abandoned this
line of work because he felt it was unethical.
John Lilly studied the effects of sensory deprivation tanks, and
also briefed the intelligence community with his progress. Lilly
refused to let any of his work be classified, and ended up
leaving the National Institute of Health when he found that he
could not work without the interference of the government
Project Moonstruck, CIA:
Electronic implants in brain and teeth
Targeting: Long range
Implanted during surgery or surreptitiously during abduction
Frequency range: HF - ELF transceiver implants
Purpose: Tracking, mind and behavior control, conditioning,
programming, covert operations
Functional Basis: Electronic Stimulation of the Brain, E.S.B.
"If, as appears evident, the Flying Saucers are
emissaries from some other civilization, and actually do operate
on magnetic principles, we have before us the Fact that we have
missed something in magnetic theory but have a good indication
of the direction in which to look for the missing quantities. It
is therefore strongly recommended that work on Project Magnet be
continued and expanded to include experts in each of the various
fields involved in these studies"
From an interim report dated
25th June 1952 Wilbert Smith was the electrical engineer who
convinced the Canadian government to establish
Project Magnet to
study the UFO phenomenon and later served as engineer-in-charge
of the project.
Dr. Walther Riedel:
"I am completely convinced that [UFOs] have
an out-of-world basis."
"First, the skin temperatures of
structures operating under the observed conditions would make it
impossible for any terrestrial structure to survive. The skin
friction of the missile at those speeds at those altitudes would
melt any metals or nonmetals available. Second, consider the
high acceleration at which they fly and maneuver... In some
descriptions the beast spirals straight up. If you think of the
fact that the centrifugal force in a few minutes of such a
maneuver would press the crew against the outside, and do
likewise to the blood, you see what I mean.
Third.... There are
many occurrences where they have done things that only a pilot
could perform but that no human pilot could stand. Fourth, in
most of the reports there is a lack of visible jet. Most
observers report units without visible flame . . . and no trail.
If it would be any known type of jet, rocket, piston engine, or
chain-reaction motor, there would be a very clear trail at high
altitude. It is from no power unit we know of..."
"The least improbable explanation is that these things are
artificial and controlled ... My opinion for some time has been
that they have an extraterrestrial origin."
From LIFE Magazine,
April 7, 1952.
Riedel was research director and chief designer
at Germany’s rocket center in Peenemunde and also worked on
classified projects for the U.S. after WW2.
Dr. Maurice Biot
"The least improbable explanation is that these
things UFO’s are artificial and controlled. My opinion for some
time has been that they have an extraterrestrial origin."
was one of the world’s leading aerodynamicists and mathematical
Life, April 7, 1952.
United States, Washington, D.C. Perhaps the best documented
incident in history:
July 13. National Airlines plane en route to National Airport,
about 60 mi. SW of the city observed a blue-white ball of light
hovering to the west. Object then "came up to 11,000 ft. and
then maintained a parallel course, on the same level, at the
same speed, until the aircraft pilot turned on all lights.
Object then departed from the vicinity at an estimated 1000 mph.
Weather was excellent for observation." The crew said the object
"took off up and away." No other air traffic was reported in the
area at the time.
July 14. Newport News, Va. Southbound Pan American
at 8,000 ft. nearing the Norfolk, Va., area observed six glowing
red, circular objects approaching below the airliner; objects
flipped up on edge in unison and then sped from behind and under
the airliner and joined the in-line formation, which "climbed in
a graceful arc above the altitude of the airliner." "Then the
lights blinked out one by one, though not in sequence." Next day
the crew was thoroughly interrogated and advised that they
already had seven other reports of red discs moving at high
speed and making sharp turns.
July 16. Hampton Roads, Va. A Government aeronautical research
engineer observed two amber-colored lights approaching from the
south at about 500 m.p.h. These slowed and made a U-turn,
revolved around each other at a high rate of speed, then joined
by two other objects from different directions, the four sped
off to the south at about 500 m.p.h. "They moved jerkily when
moving slowly. Their ability to make tight circling turns was
July 18. Washington, D. C. Radio station chief engineer observed
6-7 bright orange discs moving in single file. Each in turn
veered sharply upward and disappeared.
July 19. National Airport began picking up unidentified targets
July 20. Herndon, Va. Capital Airlines flight from National
Airport called by control tower to check on unidentified radar
targets saw three objects, and three more between there and
Martinsburg, W. Va. "like falling stars without tails [which]
moved rapidly up, down, and horizontally. Also hovered." Chief
CAA air traffic controller Harry Barnes later said in a
newspaper interview: "His [the pilot’s] subsequent description
of the movement of the objects coincided with the position of
our pips [radar targets] at all times while in our range."
July 20. Andrews AFB, Md., (Nr. Washington, D.C.). Five
witnesses visually observed three reddish-orange objects moving
July 20. Capital Airlines flight incoming to National Airport
reported that an unidentified light followed his airliner from
the vicinity of Herndon, Va., to within about 4 miles west of
the airport, confirmed on radar.
July 20. Additional unidentified targets appear on radar at
July 20. Air Force radar operators at Andrews AFB weather tower
tracked 10 UFOs for 15-20 minutes. Objects approached runway,
scattered, made sharp turns and reversals of direction.
July 26. Sharp UFO targets on radar at National Airport.
Civilian pilots saw glowing white objects on four occasions,
including a United Airlines pilot near Herndon, Va., and two CAA
pilots over Maryland. National Airlines pilot near Andrews AFB
at 1700 ft. saw a UFO "flying directly over the airliner."
July 26. Radar at National airport tracked a
UFO on radar ("big
target"), confirmed by Andrews AFB radar.
July 26. Radar at National Airport tracked "solid returns" of
"four targets in rough line abreast," and eight others scattered
over the radarscope. July 26. Andrews AFB, Md., surveillance
radar tracked 10-12 UFOs in Washington, D.C. area.
July 26. National Airport, 10-12 objects on radar.
July 26. "Good sharp targets" of 4-8
UFOs on ARTC radar at
July 26. Air Force Command Post notified of unidentified radar
targets. Two F-94 jet interceptors scrambled from New Castle
AFB, Delaware, to investigate.
July 27. Major Fournet, (Project Blue Book Officer in
and Lt. Holcomb, (Navy electronics expert), arrived at National
Airport Center. Observed "7 good, solid targets." Holcomb
checked on temperature inversions, but they were minor and could
not explain what was going on. He so advised AF Command Post,
requesting interception mission. By the time the F-94 jets
arrived from Delaware, no strong unidentified targets remained
and no visual contacts were made.
July 27. F-94 jet interceptors scrambled from New Castle AFB,
Del., to investigate Washington, D.C., radar- UFOs. One F-94
pilot made visual contact and appeared to be gaining on target;
both F-94 and UFO were observed on radar and "appeared to be
traveling at the same approximate speed." When the F-94 pilot
tried to overtake the UFO, it disappeared visually and on radar.
The pilot remarked about the "incredible speed of the object."
July 27. Air Force Lieutenant at Andrews AFB saw a dark disc
moving slowly northeast with "oscillating rolling motion."
Clouds were moving southeast. UFO entered base of clouds.
July 27. Air Force personnel and others at National Airport saw
a large round object reflecting sunlight, apparently hovering
over the Capital Building. After about a minute, the object
"wavered then shot straight up disappearing from sight."
July 28. Daily papers headlined a United Press story from
Washington, D.C., that the Air Defense Command had ordered its
jet pilots to pursue, and if necessary "shoot down, "
sighted anywhere in the country.
July 29. Many unidentified targets tracked by
CAA radar, 8-12 on
the radarscope at a time, moving southeast in a belt 15 miles
wide near Washington, D.C. July 29. Eastern Airlines pilot asked
to check on radar targets, reported seeing nothing. CAA official
said the targets disappeared from the radar screen when the
plane was in their area, "then came back in behind him."
July 29. Air Force pilot sighted three round white
UFOs 10 miles
southeast of Andrews AFB. Other UFOs tracked by radar during the
July 29. Air Force press conference at which the sightings were
attributed to temperature inversions causing "radar mirages,"
typically ground lights reflected in the sky under freak
atmospheric conditions. Also announced new scientific program to
Harry G. Barnes "For six hours ... there were at least ten
unidentifiable objects moving above Washington. They were not
ordinary aircraft." Barnes was Senior Air Traffic Controller for
the C.A.A. in 1952.
Dr. H. Marshall Chadwell
"Sightings of unexplained objects at
great altitude and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of
major US defense installations are of such nature that they are
not attributable to natural phenomena or known types of aerial
Chadwell, former assistant director of the
Office of Scientific Intelligence, in a December, 1952 memo to
then-director of the CIA, General Walter B. Smith.
Walter Bedell Smith
"The Central Intelligence Agency has
reviewed the current situation concerning unidentified flying
objects which have created extensive speculation in the press
and have been the subject of concern to Government
organizations... Since 1947, approximately 2,000 official
reports of sightings have been received and of these, about 20%
are as yet unexplained."
"It is my view that this situation has possible implications for
our national security which transcend the interests of a single
service. A broader, coordinated effort should be initiated to
develop a firm scientific understanding of the several phenomena
which apparently are involved in these reports..."
From a 1952
memorandum to the National Security Council.
Smith was Director
of the CIA from 1950 to 1953
Argentina, Veronica. Hundreds of residents witnessed six discs
circling above the town, the disappearing into the night sky.
This sighting was written within hours of a similar report from
Captain Paul Carpenter near Denver. Carpenter reported the craft
were traveling at 3,000 miles per hour, making it possible for
the saucer to have appeared in both locations.
United States, Enid, Oklahoma. Sidney Eubank went to the Enid
police station and told Sergeant Vern Bennell that an enormous
disk had buzzed his car as he drove between Bison and Waukonis
on Highway 81. The rush of air made the car leave the road while
the object flew west very fast.
United States, George AFB, California. Three men on the arms
range, plus one Lt. Colonel 4 miles away witnessed five
flat-white discs about the diameter of a C-47’s wingspan (95’)
flew fast, made a 90 degree turn in a formation of three in
front and two behind, and darted around, for 15-30 seconds.
United States, Norman, Oklahoma. Oklahoma State Patrolman
Hamilton in a State Patrol airplane witnessed three dark discs
hovered and then flew away, silhouetted against a dark cloud. 15
United States, Wichita Falls, Texas.: Mr. and Mrs.
witnessed two disc-shaped objects, illuminated by a phosphorus
light, flew at an estimated 1,000 m.p.h. for 15 seconds.
Coral Lorenzen published first issue of the APRO Bulletin.
Within a few years the organization became one of America’s most
influential and respected civilian directed UFO organizations.
ATIC received 536 UFO reports in the month of July alone, with
unknowns running at 40 percent.
Project Chatter. A navy mind control research project took place
primarily in Germany. It involved the University of Rochester’s
Psychology Department Chairman, Dr. G. Richard Wendt, who had
received a good deal of Navy money to study amphetamines,
alcohol, and heroin. The navy flew Wendt to Germany in order to
test a "truth serum" he had developed on some prisoners. The
experiment was a failure, and Wendt lost his funding.