by Edda West
Published in VRAN
Adjuvants are formulated
compounds, which when combined with vaccine antigens intensify the
body's immune response.
They are used to elicit an early, high and
long-lasting immune response.
"The chemical nature
of adjuvants, their mode of action and their reactions (side
effect) are highly variable in terms of how they affect the
immune system and how serious their adverse effects are due to
the resultant hyperactivation of the immune system.
While adjuvants enable the use of less
* antigen to achieve the desired
immune response and reduce vaccine production costs, with few
exceptions, adjuvants are foreign to the body and cause adverse
reactions", writes Australian scientist Viera Scheibner
Definition of Antigen (Scheibner):
"Micro-organisms, either bacteria or viruses, thought to be
causing certain infectious diseases and which the vaccine is
supposed to prevent. These are whole-cell proteins or just
the broken-cell protein envelopes, and are called antigens"
The most common adjuvant
for human use is an aluminum salt called
alum derived from aluminum
hydroxide, or aluminum phosphate.
A quick read of the
scientific literature reveals that the neurotoxic effects of
aluminum were recognized 100 years ago. Aluminum is a neurotoxicant
and has been linked to Alzheimer's disease and other neurological
Prior to 1980, kidney
patients undergoing long term dialysis treatments often suffered
dialysis encephalopathy syndrome, the result of acute intoxication
by the use of an aluminium-containing dialysate. This is now avoided
using modern techniques of water purification. In preterm infants,
prolonged intravenous feeding with solutions containing aluminum is
associated with impaired neurologic development.
that aluminum neurotoxicity may be related to cell damage via free
radical production, impairment of glucose metabolism, and effects on
nerve signal transduction. (2) Vaccines which contain
both aluminum adjuvants and mercury based preservative, greatly
magnify the neurotoxic effects. (3)
Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is a muscle disease first
identified in 1993, and has been linked to vaccines containing
aluminum adjuvants. Muscle pain is the most frequent symptom which
can be localized to the limbs or be more diffuse. Other symptoms
include joint pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, fever, and muscle
The disorder is
associated with an altered immune system in some, but not all
A study published in the
journal Brain (2001) revealed that 50 out of 50 patients had
received vaccines against hepatitis B virus (86%), hepatitis A virus
(19%) or tetanus toxoid (58%), 3-96 months (median 36 months) before
"We conclude that
the MMF lesion is secondary to intramuscular injection of
vaccines, shows both long-term
persistence of aluminium hydroxide and an ongoing local immune
reaction, and is detected in patients with systemic symptoms
which appeared subsequently to vaccination", write the authors
of the study. (4)
neurotoxicity is of less concern to the vaccine industry than the
fact that it elicits a lesser antibody response to the so called
purer recombinant or synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines
than in older style live or killed whole organism vaccines.
"This has created a
major need for improved and more powerful adjuvants for use in
these vaccines." (5)
For decades, vaccine
developers have been tinkering with various substances to trick the
body into heightened immune responses.
The most effective
adjuvants are formulated with oils but have long been considered too
reactive for use in humans. Immunologists have known for decades
that a microscopic dose of even a few molecules of adjuvant injected
into the body can cause disturbances in the immune system and have
known since the1930's that oil based adjuvants are particularly
dangerous, which is why their use has been restricted to experiments
The classic oil based adjuvant called
Freund's Complete Adjuvant can
cause permanent organ damage and irreversible disease - specifically
autoimmune diseases. When scientists want to induce autoimmune
disease in a lab animal, they inject it with Freund's Complete
Adjuvant, which causes great suffering and is considered by some too
inhumane to even inject into animals.
Dr. Jules Freund creator of this oil based adjuvant warned in
1956 that animals injected with his formulation developed terrible,
allergic aspermatogenesis (stoppage of sperm
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (the animal
version of MS)
allergic neuritis (inflammation of the nerves that
can lead to paralysis)
other severe autoimmune disorders.
Adjuvants can break "tolerance", meaning they can disable the immune
system to the degree that it loses its ability to distinguish what
is "self" from what is foreign.
Normally, the immune system ignores
the constituents of one's own body. Immunologists call this
"tolerance". But if something happens to break "tolerance", then the
immune system turns relentlessly self-destructive, attacking the
body it is supposed to defend. (6)
Scientists theorize that oil based adjuvants have the ability to "hyperactivate"
the immune system, and in doing so, create chaos by inducing such an
extremely powerful response that the immune system literally goes
haywire and starts attacking elements it would normally ignore.
Another theory has to do with "specificity". One of the great
distinguishing characteristics of the immune system is something
akin to a highly sensitive innate intelligence that has evolved over
eons to be able to respond very precisely to what it deems to be a
threat to the body. Because the body contains many types of oily
molecules and lipids, it may be that when an oil is injected, the
immune system responds to it not only specifically, but with
heightened intensity because the oil adjuvant resembles so closely
the natural oils found in the body.
A "cross reaction" then
happens, sending the immune system into chaos destroying any oils
found anywhere in the body that resemble the adjuvant oil.
Demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis are an example of
this destructive autoimmune process. (6)
To deepen one's understanding of the shadowy world of vaccine
development, award winning investigative journalist Gary
Matsumoto's new book is a "must read." It documents the secret
human medical experimentation conducted on American citizens by
doctors and scientists working for the U.S. military.
It is a book about,
"betrayal of the
most fundamental rules of medical ethics; and betrayal of the
basic duty of military and civilian leaders to protect the
people they govern."
Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment
That's Killing our Soldiers and
Why GI's are Only the First Victims,
is a gripping read into the mad science world of the U.S. military's
biowarfare vaccine development program which, since 1987 has
injected tens of thousands of U.S. troops with an experimental
unlicensed anthrax vaccine containing
An oil based adjuvant,
squalene has been known for decades to cause severe autoimmune
diseases in laboratory animals.
experiments detailed in this book are ongoing, with little
prospect of being self-limiting because they have been shielded
from scrutiny and public accountability by national security
Reading this book, one
gets a permanent chill in the spine as we glimpse the "writing on
the wall" of what is to come. (6,7)
"When UCLA Medical
School's Michael Whitehouse and Frances Beck injected squalene
combined with other materials into rats and guinea pigs back in
the 1970's, few oils were more effective at causing the animal
versions of arthritis and multiple sclerosis", writes Matsumoto.
In 1999, Dr. Johnny
Lorentzen, an immunologist at Sweden's Karolinska Institute
proved that on injection, "otherwise benign molecules like squalene
can stimulate a self-destructive immune response", even though they
occur naturally in the body.
institutes have also shown that the immune system makes antibodies
to squalene, but only after it is injected (6)
We now know that
squalene, added to boost immune response in a formulation known as
MF59, is the secret ingredient in certain lots of experimental
anthrax vaccine that has caused devastating autoimmune diseases and
death in countless Gulf War vets (Canadian, British and Australian
troops were also injected with squalene laced vaccine), and
continues to be used today.
There is a "close
match between the squalene-induced diseases in animals and those
observed in humans injected with this oil: rheumatoid arthritis,
multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus", writes
These three illnesses
have been proven to be caused by this oil, but there is an
additional long list of autoimmune diseases associated with squalene
injection into humans. (6)
"There are now data
in more than two dozen peer-reviewed scientific papers, from ten
different laboratories in the U.S., Europe, Asia and Australia,
documenting that squalene-based adjuvants can induce autoimmune
diseases in animals, observed in mice, rats, guinea pigs and
Sweden's Karolinska Institute has demonstrated that squalene alone can induce the animal version of rheumatoid
The Polish Academy
of Sciences has shown that in animals, squalene alone can
produce catastrophic injury to the nervous system and the brain.
The University of Florida Medical School has shown that in
animals, squalene alone can induce production of antibodies
specifically associated with systemic lupus erythematosus",
writes Matsumoto. (6)
Long List of Side
her extensive article on adjuvants,
Dr. Scheibner writes,
contributed to the cascade of reactions called "Gulf War
syndrome", documented in the soldiers involved in the Gulf War.
The symptoms they
lateral sclerosis) also known as Lou Gehrig's disease
(erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
Matsumoto punctuates his
book with poignant interviews of military personnel who suffered
many of these extreme and devastating syndromes, all of whom tested
positive for anti-squalene antibodies which has become THE
definitive marker for people who have been injected with this
adjuvant and who have gone on to develop catastrophic diseases.
Immunologist, Dr. Pamela Asa was the first person to
recognize that the autoimmune diseases she was seeing in military
personnel mirrored those in experimental animals injected with oil
When she met a patient
with similar autoimmune symptoms who had participated in an
experimental herpes vaccine trial, who also knew he had been
injected with MF59, a squalene adjuvant being used as a 'placebo' in
that study, everything began to fall into place.
Pam Asa contacted Dr.
Robert Garry, a leading virologist at Tulane University
Medical School, whose specialty is developing antibody tests and
asked him to develop a test for the detection of anti-squalene
antibodies - a test that ultimately became the most important
forensic and diagnostic tool identifying patients whose autoimmune
diseases followed injection with squalene laced anthrax vaccine.
Juxtaposed to heart wrenching testimonies of shattered health and
ruined lives is the military's defiant stonewall and denial that a
squalene laced anthrax vaccine was injected into thousands of its
people without their informed consent - this despite the fact that
the FDA and independent researchers have tested and identified
varying amounts of squalene in specific lots of the vaccine.
Even more stunning is the fact that by 1997, hundreds of millions of
dollars had already been spent testing vaccines formulated with
squalene adjuvants by leading research institutes like NIH (National
Institutes of Health) who tested its efficacy in HIV vaccines, the
National Cancer Institute who for nearly two decades conducted
research with squalene-boosted vaccines, and the National Institutes
of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) had been testing it in
animals since 1988 and began human clinical trials in1991.
Nineteen of NIAID's 23
trials were for prototype HIV vaccines.
are a key ingredient in a whole new generation of vaccines
intended for mass immunization around the globe." (6)
Immune System Sees
Squalene as an Enemy to Attack
Researchers at Tulane
Medical School and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research,
"have both proven
that the immune system responds specifically to the squalene
molecule. Squalene's pathway through the body has been tracked
with a radioactive tracer in animals by none other than Chiron,
(well known flu vaccine manufacturer) and maker of MF59, the
squalene-based adjuvant, now also a component of FLUAD, an
Italian influenza vaccine. (6)
The immune system does
in fact "see" squalene and recognizes it as an oil molecule native
to the body. The key is "route of administration".
As Gary Matsumoto says,
"Squalene is not
just a molecule found in a knee or elbow - it is found
throughout the nervous system and the brain."
When it is injected into
the body, the immune system sees it as an enemy to be attacked and
As any immunologist will tell you, the way an antigen encounters the
immune system makes all the difference. You can eat squalene - no
problem as it is an oil the body can easily digest.
But studies in animals
and humans show that injecting squalene will,
immune system into attacking it, which can produce a
self-destructive cross reaction against the same molecule in the
places where it occurs naturally in the body - and where it is
critical to the health of the nervous system." (6)
This phenomenon is also
known as 'molecular mimicry', where the immune system forms
antibodies against one of its own structures and will continue to
attack the 'self' molecule in the body that resembles the one in the
germ, or as is the case with squalene, an identical substance that
is naturally present in the body.
Once this self-destructive process
begins, it never stops as the body continues to make the molecule
the immune system is now trained to attack.
Another example involving autoimmune 'molecular mimicry' is when the
immune system has been sensitized to attack myelin, the insulating
fatty coating around nerve fibres which insures the smooth relay of
nerve signals. The body would continue to make myelin in order to
replenish and repair the protective sheath around its nerve endings.
But says Matsumoto,
"In the act of doing
so, the body immunizes itself against itself, administering over
and over again what amounts to a booster dose of something that
the immune system now wants to get rid of. This vital
constituent (myelin) is now the enemy, and the immune system is
now programmed to obliterate it in an endless loop of
self-destruction" - the process involved in
ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease).(6)
Tying molecular mimicry
to the autism epidemic, many children have regressed into autism
spectrum disorders after injection with the triple live virus MMR
(measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine.
Dr. Vijendra Singh's
research at Utah State University suggests that auto-antibodies are
attacking myelin in these children.
He has shown that many
children have auto-antibodies to brain myelin basic protein (MBP) as
well as elevated levels of measles virus antibodies.
analysis showed the presence of an unusual MMR antibody in 60%
(75 of 125) of autistic children, but none of the 92 normal
children had this antibody. In addition, there was a positive
correlation (greater than 90%) between MMR antibody and MBP
auto-antibody, suggesting a causal association between MMR and
brain autoimmunity in autism.
This is one of the most important
findings in autism to date, which prompted us to link measles
virus in the etiology of the disorder", writes Dr. Singh.
Bonnie Dunbar has also done extensive research on the mechanisms
of injury inflicted by hepatitis B vaccine and has observed similar
autoimmune processes involving molecular mimicry in people who
developed devastating neuroimmune syndromes after injection with
this vaccine. (11)
Mimicry as a Bio-Weapon
Matsumoto reports that
Soviet bioweaponeers used the principal of molecular mimicry in the
1980's to engineer a 'designer disease' that would attack myelin.
By splicing a fragment
of myelin basic protein into
legionella bacterium, they created what
amounted to a living "nano-bomb", which they injected into guinea
pigs. What they found was that the immune system quickly cleared the
legionella bacterium, but the myelin molecule, smuggled in by this
microbial "Trojan horse" initiated a second wave of disease which
caused experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the animal version
The Soviets recognized
this creation for what it was - a biological time bomb!! (6)
"Squalene is a kind
of trigger for the real biological weapon: the immune system.
When the immune system's full repertoire of cells and antibodies
start attacking the tissues they are supposed to protect, the
results can be catastrophic," writes Matsumoto.
His assessment is
seconded by Dr. Pam Asa - "Oil adjuvants are the most insidious
chemical weapon ever devised." (6)
"Molecular mimicry, seen for its diabolical potential as a
weapon by the Soviets as far back as the 1980's, also applies to
squalene. But the real problem with using squalene, of course,
is not that it mimics a molecule found in the body; it is the
same molecule," writes Matsumoto.
"So what American
scientists conceived as a vaccine booster was another "nano-bomb",
instigating chronic, unpredictable and debilitating disease.
When the NIH (National Institutes of Health) argued that
squalene would be safe because it is native to the body, just
the opposite was true. Squalene's natural presence in the body
made it one of the most dangerous molecules ever injected into
The main proponents for
the use of squalene in vaccines have been the U.S Department of
Defense and the NIH.
antibodies in sick American and British military personnel are
evidence that military experimentation has caused an unprecedented
health catastrophe in tens of thousands of people onto whom the
vaccine was forced and who were denied the right to make an informed
decision based on existing scientific knowledge of the dangers of
"By adding squalene
to their new anthrax vaccine, they did not make a better
vaccine, they made a biological weapon." (6)
Why , one would
obviously ask, would anyone knowingly inject such a dangerous
substance into humans?
Certainly in terms of
the U.S. military's decision, they chose to turn a blind eye to the
existing science, which for decades had documented the immune
destructive properties of squalene. They justified its use because
they knew they had a weak and ineffective vaccine which needed a
serious boost. In the face of weaponized biowarfare agents like
anthrax already developed by Russia and fear that it was also
possessed by Iraq, they were desperate to increase the vaccine's
effectiveness as they launched into the first Gulf War.
"scientists in the
United States are now literally invested in squalene. Army
scientists who developed the second generation anthrax vaccine
have reputations to protect and licensing fees to reap for the
army... [and] worldwide rights to develop and commercialize the
new recombinant vaccine for anthrax." (6)
He goes on to explain,
Institutes of Health (NIH) has been supporting both animal and
human research with squalene since the 1980's. Squalene has
become perhaps the most ubiquitous oil adjuvant on the planet,
which is something that should concern everyone. Many of the
cutting edge vaccines currently in development by the NIH and
its corporate partners contain squalene in one formulation or
There is squalene in
the prototype recombinant vaccines for HIV, malaria, herpes,
influenza, cytomegalovirus and human papillomavirus. Some of
these prototypes like HIV, malaria and influenza are intended
for mass immunization around the globe." (6)
Enter the Global Market
FLUAD, the squalene boosted flu vaccine has been licensed in Italy
since 1997. It contains MF59, the squalene adjuvant made by Chiron.
Although all the
published papers co-authored by Chiron-employed scientists and
Italian researchers have reported MF59 to be safe, Gary Matsumoto
suggests a flaw in study designs may "prevent researchers from
seeing the vaccine's real risks."
Testing of FLUAD was
limited to elderly people in nursing homes - average age was 71.5
which would tend to obscure autoimmune problems that might arise for
a number of reasons.
If autoimmune symptoms like joint pain and
fatigue did occur in geriatric Italians, doctors might not connect
these complaints to anything but old age. (6)
notorious for taking years to diagnose because the early
symptoms (e.g. headaches, joint and muscle pain and fatigue) are
so vague; primary care physicians often fail to recognize it... a
large Phase lV trial did not even bother to analyze the
"common-post immunization reactions" in study participants,
recording only those adverse events severe enough to require a
doctor's visit within 7 days of immunization."
In another study
patients were observed for 180 days, but only serious events like
"admission to hospital or death" qualified as a reaction - nothing
else was recorded.
Symptoms of adverse
reactions listed in the FLUAD package insert are almost identical to
the Air Force case-definition for
Gulf War Syndrome, and include
rashes, malaise, fever, myalgia, arthralgia, weakness, sweating and
various autoimmune reactions and neurologic disturbances. (6)
"The question is
whether scientists working for
pharmaceutical companies are
intentionally designing studies so as to miss adverse reactions
that inconvenience their marketing strategy?" asks Matsumoto.
about squalene's safety are at odds with recent data from
studies in both animals and humans." (6)
Just in from the
newslists on February 9, 2005 is an item informing of the European
"debut" of a new adjuvant approved for use in a new high-potency
hepatitis B vaccine.
Fendrix, the new
enhanced hepB vaccine is being launched by pharma giant
GlaxoSmithKline for use in people with poor immune responses (like
dialysis patients) and those at high risk for developing hepatitis
B. It is formulated with a new adjuvant that can "significantly
improve the effectiveness of immunizations."
AS04, the 'proprietary'
adjuvant based on MPL, originally developed by U.S. company Corixa,
immune potency of the new vaccine, allowing two dose
administration rather than three. It has been shown clinically
to be more effective than alum, the most widely used adjuvant in
So what exactly is this
new high potency adjuvant?
We're told by the press
release that MPL (AS04), is a,
"derivative of the
lipid A molecule found in Gram-negative bacteria, is extracted
from bacterial cell walls and is one of the most potent
regulators of the immune response, used by the body to alert
itself to bacterial infections."(12)
Full name of the lipid
is monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) - see below insert:
Monophosphoryl lipid A
So what exactly is this new high potency adjuvant?
We're told by the press release that MPL (AS04), is a
"derivative of the lipid A molecule found in
Gram-negative bacteria, is extracted from bacterial cell
walls and is one of the most potent regulators of the
immune response, used by the body to alert itself to
bacterial infections." Full name of the lipid is
monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)
This news should put everyone on high alert because
guess what? Lipids are oils/fatty acids and according to
Matsumoto, MPL is identified in declassified documents
as one of two squalene emulsions used in the Army's new
"recombinant protective antigen anthrax vaccine (rPA)
which the FDA, the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
and the Department of Defense fast-tracked into clinical
other squalene adjuvant they used was Chiron's MF59.
 A Glimpse into the Scary World of Vaccine
Adjuvants By Edda West
GSK's proprietary adjuvant is called ASO4. It contains
alum and MPL. MPL stands for monophosphoryl lipid A. The
U.S. Army's proprietary (unlicensed) adjuvant developed
prior to the first Gulf War for use in a second
generation anthrax vaccine was called Tri-Mix or Triple
Mix. Tri-Mix contained MPL (monophosphoryl lipid A) and
After the war, Army scientists considered MPL to be too
toxic, so they began working with Chiron Corporation of
Emeryville, CA to develop an adjuvant that contained
squalene and water only ... on the assumption that
adjuvant toxicity with Tri-Mix was due to MPL.
This assumption also proved incorrect. There are more
than two dozen animal studies that generated data
demonstrating squalene's ability to induce autoimmunity;
and there is disputed evidence that nanodoses of
squalene in anthrax vaccine sickened countless military
personnel who received squalene-tainted vaccine during
Back to ASO4 and MPL. MPL was also a component of the
Ribi Adjuvant System ( I haven't checked whether it
still is). The Ribi Adjuvant System, or RAS, is a
derivative of Tri-Mix, which is approved for use in
As far as I know, there is no existing data showing
whether MPL elicits an immune response specific to it.
MPL is immunogenic, it raises the possibility of a
dangerous "cross reaction."
human body is full of lipids. Antibodies and immune
cells responding to MPL might also respond to other
lipids in the body, thus breaking tolerance for
endogenous lipids (those native to the human body) and
initiating autoimmunity. Secret adjuvant in new avian
flu vaccine Gary Matsumoto
This news should put everyone on high alert because, guess what?
Lipids are oils/fatty
acids and according to Matsumoto, MPL is identified in declassified
documents as one of two squalene emulsions used in the Army's new
"recombinant protective antigen" anthrax vaccine (rPA) which the
FDA, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of
Defense fast-tracked into clinical trials in1998.
The other squalene
adjuvant they used was Chiron's MF59. (6)
It appears that Fendrix is only the first of a whole new generation
of "enhanced potency" vaccines coming down the pipeline using the
new high potency lipid adjuvant, MPL.
"The adjuvant is
also being used in a number of GSK's developmental vaccines,
including one that could be the first effective vaccine for
malaria", says the article.
"MPL (AS04) adjuvant
is also a component of GSK Bio's genital herpes vaccine, as well
as a component in their cervical cancer vaccine and a new
tuberculosis vaccine." (12)
In the unraveling of the
squalene story, we find that a squalene emulsion first known as
Triple Mix (based on Freund's adjuvant) was later given the
commercial name "Ribi".
Triple Mix (renamed Ribi)
was tested by Dutch scientists on rabbits who found it caused
"severe effects the largest number and most severe lesions when
compared with the other adjuvants.(6)
Then in June 1999, Ribi
ImmunoChem its manufacturer was acquired by Corixa Corporation for
$56.3 million, who presumably also own the Ribi formulation. Whether
MPL(AS04) is a formula related to Ribi is undoubtedly "proprietary"
information, but from Matsumoto's research, we know they are all
squalene based. And it doesn't end there. MPL, Corixa's
multi-million dollar baby, is slated for inclusion not only in the
"enhanced potency" vaccines already mentioned, but will also be a
strategic component of new allergy and autoimmune vaccines in
From their inception, mass vaccinations have acted as a biological
weapon, undermining health, manipulating and crippling the immune
system, and instigating cycles of new and debilitating diseases.
Inject us with more
powerful, genetically engineered high potency vaccines. Never mind
they are seeding us with "nano-bombs" that will further attack our
already compromised immune systems.
The concept of stimulating a hyperactive immune response by using
oil-based adjuvants has clearly backfired since we now know that the
stronger the antigenic response, the more damaging the adjuvant
itself is to the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system.
The precedent for mass medical experimentation via an ever
increasing recommended vaccine schedule has been set.
We can now predict the
grim future of mankind: an epidemic of neurological disorders and
autoimmune diseases never before imagined.
Adjuvants listed by Scheibner:
"Today the most
common adjuvants for human use are aluminum hydroxide, aluminum
phosphate and calcium phosphate. However, there are a number of
other adjuvants based on oil emulsions, products from bacteria
(their synthetic derivatives as well as liposomes) or
gram-negative bacteria, endotoxins, cholesterol, fatty acids,
aliphatic amines, paraffinic and vegetable oils.
Recently, monophosphoryl lipid A, ISCOMs with Quil-A, and Syntex adjuvant
formulations (SAFs) containing the threonyl derivative or
muramyl dipeptide have been under consideration for use in human
Ph.D, The Adverse Effects of Adjuvants in Vaccines, Nexus
Magazine Dec. 2000 vol.8, No.1
2. Aluminum Toxicity notes from Dr. Boyd Haley Toxic Test
Foundation website: http://www.altcorp.com/DentalInformation/aluminumvaccines.htm
3. Boyd E. Haley, Professor of Chemistry: Thimerosal Containing
Vaccines and Neurodevelopment Outcomes: http://22.214.171.124/vran/vaccines/mercury/mer_haley.htm
4. Brain, Vol. 124, No. 9, 1821-1831, September 2001, 2001
Oxford University Press http://brain.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/9/1821
5 Vaccine Adjuvants: current state and future trends, Volume 82:
Issue Immunology and Cell Biology http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/abstract.asp
Vaccine A - The Covert Government
Experiment That's Killing our Soldiers
and Why GI's are Only the First Victims
7.Gary Matsumoto Press Release and biography: www.vaccine-a.com
8 Vijendra K Singh, Ph.D, Abnormal Measles Serology and
Autoimmunity in Autistic Children - Journal of Allergy &
Clinical Immunol, 109 (1): S232, January 2002
9. Vijendra Singh - lecture at ATEDM Conference: http://iquebec.ifrance.com/autismemtl/2002/program_en.html
10. Institute of Medicine Meeting (IOM) on Vaccines and Autism,
February 9, 2004
11.. Bonnie Dunbar, Ph.D - articles and research proposal - VRAN
12..New adjuvant debuts in new hep B vaccine , February 9, 2005,
In-Pharma Technologist.com http://www.in-pharmatechnologist.com/news/news-ng.asp
13. Corixa weblink to MPL press release on allergy & autoimmune