Dwight D. Eisenhower sworn in as 34th president. He makes it
clear that he plans to work for world peace. Richard Nixon at 39
is the nationís 2nd youngest vice president. Eisenhower grooms
his vice president for active duty. They will both serve 2
terms. Senator Kennedy marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier of Long
Island on September 12th. Lyndon Johnson becomes minority leader
in a Republican Senate. President Eisenhower appoints Herbert
Hoover chairman of the Commission on Organization of the
Executive Branch of the Government.
Iran - CIA overthrows the democratically elected
Mohammed Mossadegh in a military coup, after he threatened to nationalize
British oil. The CIA replaces him with a dictator, the
Iran, whose secret police, SAVAK, is as brutal as the
John C. Lilly, when asked by the director of the National
Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to brief the
Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), National Security Agency (NSA), and the various military
intelligence services on his work using electrodes to stimulate
directly the pleasure and pain centers in the brain, refused. He
"Dr. Antione Redmond, using our techniques in Paris, has
demonstrated that this method of stimulation on the brain can be
applied to the human without help of the neurosurgeon ... This
means that anybody with the proper apparatus can carry this out
covertly, with no external signs that electrodes have been used
in that person. I feel that if this technique got into the hands
of a secret agency, they would have total control over a human
being and be able to change his beliefs extremely quickly,
leaving little evidence of what they had done."
Control and the American Government", by Martin Cannon in
Lobster#23, pp 2-10. Cannon quotes Lilly from his book,
Scientist, Berkeley, Ronin publishers, 1988, also Bantam Books
1981. Research by Peter Lewis.)
After a statement like that of Dr. Lillyís, how long do you
think it would take the agencies, FBI, CIA, NSA, etc. to contact
Dr. Redmond in Paris?
CIA: Inspired by North Koreaís brainwashing
program, the CIA begins experiments on mind control. The most
notorious part of this project involves giving LSD and other
drugs to American subjects without their knowledge or against
their will, causing several to commit suicide. However, the
operation involves far more than this. Funded in part by the
Rockefeller and Ford foundations, research includes propaganda,
brainwashing, public relations, advertising, hypnosis, and other
forms of suggestion.
Drugs, electronics and electroshock
Targeting: Short range
Frequencies: VHF HF UHF modulated at ELF
Transmission and Reception: Local production
Purpose: Programming behavior, creation of "cyborg" mentalities
Effects: narcoleptic trance, programming by suggestion
Functional Basis: Electronic Dissolution of Memory, E.D.O.M. (Disinfo???)
When the CIAís mind control program was transferred from the
Office of Security to the Technical Services Staff (TSS) in
1953, the name changed again -- to MKULTRA.... (Later still, in
1962, mind control research was transferred to the Office of
Research and Development; project cryptonyms remain unrevealed.
What was studied? Everything -- including hypnosis,
conditioning, sensory deprivation, drugs, religious cults,
microwaves, psychosurgery, brain implants, and even ESP. When
MKULTRA í leakedí to the public during the great
investigations of the 1970s, public attention focused most
heavily on drug experimentation and the work with ESP. Mystery
still shrouds another area of study, the area which seems to
have most interested ORD: psychoelectronics
Martin Cannon, The Controllers: A New Hypothesis of Alien
"The MK ULTRA program was a covert behavior modification program
run by the CIA in the early 1950s - with the purpose of finding
ways to make men more suggestible - and involving the use of
pain, drugs and hypnosis on unsuspecting human guinea pigs."
The first person to publicly expose the CIAís use of
"pain-drug-hypnosis" was L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of
Scientology, who wrote in his 1951 book Science of Survival that
it had become so extensively employed in espionage work that it
was long past the time people should have become alarmed about
"Mr. Hubbardís statement was found to be true in the 1970s, when
the CIAís program became public knowledge after the
Information Act enabled investigators to document the agencyís
inhumane and grotesque experiments on human subjects. The
ensuing outcry over the use of mind-bending drugs, which
combined with electric shock caused the deaths or maiming of
untold numbers of people, drew comparisons between the CIA and
the infamous Nazi doctors and led to Congressional hearings into
the intelligence agency."
firstname.lastname@example.org (probably from
the Scientology Guardians Organization)
Army Chemical Warfare Service staff member
Dr. Frank Olsen died
in a CIA LSD experiment. During the Second World War, Olsen
developed assassination weapons that could evade autopsies,
including a range of lethal aerosols in handy sized containers,
disguised as deodorants, shaving cream, and insect repellents.
The CIAís official budget exceeded $100 billion, none of which
was accountable to Congress or even the President.
U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over
Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River
Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to
determine how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.
The U.S. Army also continued to spray American cities with
biological agents. It tested only on the black ghetto sections
of St. Louis, and arranged for local police surveillance "to
minimize the possibility of loss of equipment." The Army
reported "much less public interest and curiosity" during this
field-test than in Minneapolis.
Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of
thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to
the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.
Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven year research
program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents
that would be used for mind control and behavior modification.
Six of the subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting
In September of 1953, Albert K. Bender claimed that he had
received certain information that provided the missing pieces
for a theory concerning the origin of UFOs. He wrote it all down
and sent it to a trusted friend. Shortly after, he received a
visit from "Three Men." One of them held the letter he had
written in his hand. They told him that he had, indeed, stumbled
on the answer, and then they purportedly filled him in on the
details. He became so ill he was unable to eat for three days. A
couple of other UFO researchers, Dominick Lucchesi and
Roberts, tried to persuade Bender to talk. He would only repeat
"I canít answer that."
Major Donald E. Keyhoe
"The Air Force had put out a secret order
for its pilots to capture UFOs."
"If, in fact, we are able to
find life or to answer the question íAre we alone?í then that
certainly is grand enough and noble enough to be the enduring
legacy of our civilization."
NASA, October 1999.
of the universe at stake, a crash program is imperative. We
produced the A-bomb, under the huge Manhattan Project, in an
amazingly short time. The needs, the urgency today are even
greater. The Air Force should end UFO secrecy, give the facts to
scientists, the public, to Congress."
"Once the people realize
the truth, they would back, even demand a crash program... for
this is one race we dare not lose..."
Statement in 1953.
Flying Saucers From Outer Space came out,
eventually becoming one of the most widely read books of the
Lieutenant D.A. Swimley
"And donít tell me they were
reflections, I know they were solid objects."
commenting on a sighting of eight disc shaped objects he and
several fellow officers watched circling over Hamilton AFB,
California, on August 3, 1953. The objects were also picked up
on radar and spotted by many civilian pilots. F-86 Sabres were
scrambled to intercept the objects, but the jets were apparently
Atomic scientist Robert J. Oppenheimer [the Father of the Atomic
Bomb] loses his US security clearance.
Guatemala - CIA overthrows the democratically elected
Jacob Arbenz in a military coup. Arbenz has threatened to nationalize
the Rockefeller-owned United Fruit Company, in which
Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz is replaced with a
series of right-wing dictators whose bloodthirsty policies will
kill over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years.
North Vietnam - CIA officer Edward Lansdale spends four years
trying to overthrow the communist government of North Vietnam,
using all the usual dirty tricks. The CIA also attempts to
legitimize a tyrannical puppet regime in South Vietnam, headed
by Ngo Dinh Diem. These efforts fail to win the hearts and minds
of the South Vietnamese because the Diem government is opposed
to true democracy, land reform and poverty reduction measures.
The CIAís continuing failure results in escalating American
intervention, culminating in the Vietnam War.
Gray Barker, editor of The Saucerian Bulletin, author of
Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers and The Silver Bridge, tells
us that his first contact with Morris Jessup was when he
received a letter from him on November 5, 1954. Barker had sent
Jessup a copy of his magazine, The Saucerian. This was just
shortly before Jessupís first book was published. We discover
from Jessupís letter that Barker was apprised of his existence
and work by John Bessor who was, apparently, a subscriber to the
magazine. Jessup wrote:
Yes, Iím doing a book. It is far along in the final draft
stages, and we are hoping to get it in the hands of the
publishers sometime next week. It is rather conservative as
compared to some of the wild things so far printed, but I have
tried to keep it factual, and have confined it to phenomena in
the pre-Arnold era - particularly around 1875-1885. Altogether
it makes quite a formidable array of proof and background.
Gray Barker describes
Jessup as "a most cordial person, and
greatly enthusiastic about finding some solution to the UFO
mystery - though he indicated that in his professional writing
he felt it necessary to take a more conservative approach. This
conservative, scientific attitude, demonstrated in his first two
books, may have been the reason that his writings were not
popular with many saucer "fans."" Jessup wrote to
December 16, 1954:
There is so damned much nonsense being put out by silly people
that one gets disgusted with a lot of it. I do feel that we are
in a remarkable phase of human experience and that the waters
should not be muddied by stupidity - the problem is tough enough
without any Adamskiís in the picture.
And then on December 20th, along with two articles he sent to
Barker, Jessup wrote:
The Mexican craters are real - I found them myself, and Iíve
seen the air force negatives. [...] The extension of the
motive-power theme to include some jolts to religion are rather
obvious. This space race COULD be our GOD. They COULD have left
the Earth millennia ago. Our book will hint at how Sun-worship
may be connected with the space denizens. I read your report
regarding Albert K. Bender with great interest. Looks like
SOMETHING did happen. He probably did stumble onto the truth. I
will be glad of any additional information you may uncover. In
my humble opinion, you are absolutely correct in your thought
that the power source is the key to the whole UFO deal. I am
convinced of it from my own introspection and reading.
The Fund for Theological Education -
supported in the main by
the Rockefeller Foundation, was established in the early 1950s
as a response to a perceived crisis in Protestant theological
education. In order to encourage talented college graduates to
consider the ministry, an unprecedented initiative was launched
in 1954 to attract promising but otherwise undecided candidates
to seminary education. Begun in close affiliation with the
American Association of Theological Schools , the Fund for
Theological Education grew both in scope and size over the next
forty years. To date close to 5000 scholarships have been
awarded, and the Fund can number among its past recipients some
of todayís most eminent theological educators and clergy.
Rockefeller Foundation supports the Growth of American Families
project, the first of the national fertility studies now carried
out every five years with U.S. government support.
Air Chief Marshall Lord Hugh Dowding
real--and they are interplanetary.....The cumulative evidence
for the existence of UFOs is quite overwhelming and I accept the
fact of their existence."
Dowding, commanding officer of the
Royal Air Force during WWII, and during the Battle of Britain
made this statement in August of 1954.
"More than 10,000 sightings have been reported, the majority of
which cannot be accounted for by any "scientific" explanation...
I am convinced that these objects do exist and that they are not
manufactured by any nation on Earth."
"I can therefore see no alternative to accepting the theory that
they come from some extraterrestrial source."
Printed in Sunday
Dispatch, London, July 11, 1954.
General Douglas MacArthur.
General MacArthur is believed to have
been involved in establishing the Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit
(IPU), which was formed to investigate crashed and retrieved
flying saucers. In 1955 MacArthur stated:
"The nations of the
world will have to unite for the next war will be an
interplanetary war. The nations of the earth must some day make
a common front against attack by people from other planets."
This statement has led to intense speculation that the
uncovered more facts about UFOs than has ever been revealed.
United States, Cochise, New Mexico. An instructor and student
pilot in USAF B-25 bomber trainer witness a metallic disc,
shaped like two pie pans face-to-face, and 120- 130í in
diameter, paced the B-25, showing both its edge and its face,
for 5-7 minutes.
Morris Allen of the CIA conducted the ultimate hypnosis
experiment: the creation of a "Manchurian Candidate," or
France was the scene of the
greatest UFO activity. Witnesses of
all ages and backgrounds claimed to see landings of UFOs and
their short, humanoid occupants. Researchers uncovered 46
humanoid reports in France alone during a six week period.
Descriptions of the beings varied, although most were between
three and four feet in height. None of the sightings included
descriptions of what are now called "Greys."
April 18, Albert Einstein dies.
(circa) Dr Louis West, friends with Aldous Huxley. It was
who suggested that West combine LSD and hypnosis in his
experiments. (Lee, Martin and Schlain, Bruce, Acid Dreams, Grove
Press, 1985, pg 48)
West was an Air Force Major, chairman of the Psychiatry
Department of UCLA, director of the Neuro-Psychiatric Institute,
expert in hypnosis.
West was a veteran of the CIAís
MKULTRA mind control program,
and worked on interrogation techniques using hypnosis and LSD.
West once killed an elephant by grossly overestimating a dose of
LSD (elsewhere, I have heard that the tranquilizers required to
calm the animal caused its death).
West also studied the returning American POWs from Korea for the
effects of brainwashing. (Scheflin, Alan and Opton, Edward Jr.,
The Mind Manipulators, Paddington Press Ltd, 1978, pg 149-50)
MK-Ultra - An experiment took place in which an Army "volunteer"
was sealed in a sensory deprivation chamber for 40 consecutive
hours. In panic and terror, he kicked his way out, and wept
uncontrollably for a day. This resulted in a change of policy:
the box was strengthened.
Morris K. Jessup published The Case For the UFO
The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human
populations with biological agents, releases Hemophilus
pertussis - obtained from the Armyís biological warfare arsenal
- over Tampa Bay, FL. According to Florida state medical
records, the incidence of whooping-cough in Florida tripled that
Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its
potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than
1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until
Gray Barker tells us:
According to Riley Crabb: the annotated copy [of Jessupís book]
was addressed to Admiral N. Furth, Chief, Office of Naval
Research, Washington 25, D.C., and was mailed in a manila
envelope postmarked Seminole, Texas, 1955. In July or August of
that year the book appeared in the incoming correspondence of
Major Darrell L. Ritter, U.S.M.C., Aeronautical Project Office
in ONR. When Captain Sidney Sherby reported aboard at ONR he
obtained the book from Major Ritter. Captain Sherby and
George W. Hoover, Special Projects Officer, ONR, indicated
interest in some of the notations the book contained.
I first learned of the annotated copy when I was talking to
Walton Colcord John, director of the Little Listening Post, a
UFO and New Age Publication in Washington. Speaking over the
telephone, Mrs. John told me of a strange rumor going around to
the effect that somebody had sent a marked-up copy to
Washington, and that the government had gone to the expense of
mimeographing the entire book, so that all the underlinings and
notations could be added to the original text. This was being
circulated rather widely, she told me, through military
channels. She had not, of course, seen a copy of it, and didnít
know too much about it, but somehow she seemed to connect it
with an alleged Naval experiment wherein a ship had completely
disappeared from sight. I couldnít make too much out of all this
until later I also heard about the strange Allende Letters,
which told of such an experiment in a most horrifying way.
The publication of the mimeographed edition is established, but
I have been unable to confirm whether or not it was actually
paid for by the government. It is established that the Varo
Manufacturing Company, of Garland, Texas, actually produced the
mimeographed edition. I have been unable to find out much about
this company, except that it has been said that it engaged in
"secret government work."
Apparently, Mr. Crabb in some way came into possession of a
copy. [...] In his correspondence with me of September 24, 1962,
Crabb clears up the mystery of how he happened to obtain a copy
of the original Varo edition. It was the copy that the Navy
originally gave to Jessup, and apparently was given to Crabb by
Jessup. This copy, however, rather mysteriously disappeared in
April, 1960, when Crabb mailed it to himself from Washington,
and apparently he no longer possesses any copy at all. Crabb
"I understand that 25 copies were reproduced...
Dunn, the stenographer who did the editing, explains why in the
introduction. Sheís married now, living in Dallas, and wonít
answer her phone. [...] Varo, by the way, is a small
manufacturing firm in electronics and up to its neck in space
age business. Apparently it has succeeded in developing some
kind of a death ray gadget, judging from a guarded press release
of last fall when a group of Congressmen visited there for a
See for more details on the
Richard Russell U.S. Senator, Head of Senate Armed Services
"I have discussed this matter with the affected
agencies of the government, and they are of the opinion that it
is not wise to publicize this matter at this time."
his sighting of a UFO during a 1955 trip to the Soviet Union.
Lyndon Johnson suffers a severe heart attack in the summer.
Recuperating from one of his operations, Kennedy decides to
write a book. Profiles in Courage becomes a bestseller.
President Eisenhower suffers a heart attack on September 24th
while at the summer White House in Denver. He makes a steady
recovery and after 7 weeks is released from the hospital. He
resumes his duties after additional rest.
General Douglas MacArthur
"The nations of the world will have to
unite, for the next war will be an interplanetary war. The
nations of the earth must someday make a common front against
attack by people from other planets."
The New York Times,
October 8, 1955
Allen Dulles "Maximum security exists concerning the subject of
UFOs." Dulles was CIA Director, 1955.
Eisenhower is re-elected President. Television campaign ads are
used (significantly) for the first time.
U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever
over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army
agents posing as public health officials test victims for
Hungary - Radio Free Europe incites Hungary to revolt by
broadcasting Khruschevís Secret Speech, in which he denounced
Stalin. It also hints that American aid will help the Hungarians
fight. This aid fails to materialize as Hungarians launch a
doomed armed revolt, which only invites a major Soviet invasion.
The conflict kills 7,000 Soviets and 30,000 Hungarians.
Captain Edward J. Ruppelt
"Every time I get skeptical, I think
of the other reports made by experienced pilots and radar
operators, scientists, and other people who know what they are
looking at. These reports were thoroughly investigated and they
are still unknowns."
"We have no aircraft on this earth that can at will so handily
outdistance our latest jets... The pilots, radar specialists,
generals, industrialists, scientists, and the man on the street
who have told me, íI wouldnít have believed it either if I
hadnít seen it myself,í knew what they were talking about. Maybe
the Earth is being visited by interplanetary space ships."
"When four college professors, a geologist, a chemist, a
physicist, and a petroleum engineer report seeing the same
on fourteen different occasions, the event can be classified as,
at least, unusual. Add the fact that hundreds of other people
saw these UFOs and that they were photographed, and the story
gets even better. Add a few more facts, that these UFOs were
picked up on radar and that a few people got a close look at one
of them, and the story begins to convince even the most ardent
Ruppelt, Chief of
Project Blue Book, from his book,
The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, 1956.
United States, New York. Capt.
Ryan and his first officer
William Neff were flying from Albany to Syracuse. At a height of
6,000 feet, the two observed a brilliant white light like an
approaching aircraft with landing lights on. Ryan estimated that
the object was moving at approximately 1,000 miles per hour ,
faster than any object of the day. The UFO glowed orange in
front of them. Ryan and Neff reported the encounter to
Air Force Base. The Base confirmed that they also could see an
orange object nearby. This sighting lasted over twenty minutes
and was also witnessed by the flight attendant, Phyllis
United States, San Bernardino, California. 15-year-old
Savage, son of a surgeon, took a picture of a mysterious flying
object that he said hovered near his house for 30 seconds. ;
those photos, too, made the paper. Just as the phenomenon was
beginning to die out, Hollywood added its own inimitable touch
to the UFO craze.
England, Suffolk. The RAF/USAF in Bentwaters / Lakenheath in
made radar contact with a UFO using three ground-based radars. A
confirmation on aerial radar by a Venom night fighter and visual
sightings from the ground and the air make this case one of the
most celebrated contacts of modern times. Radar indicated that
objects were moving up at 4,000 miles per hour -- higher speeds
than any aircraft of the time could have achieved.
The National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP)
was founded by a core of Annapolis boys. NICAP challenged the
Air Force on UFOs, unaware that the CIA was already on board.
Eisenhower uses well-armed federal troops (including the 101st
Airborne) to desegregate schools (over strong state resistance)
in Little Rock Arkansas. The "D-Day" parallel is. . . Future
American President, William Clinton is living in Arkansas at
It has now been documented that millions of doses of LSD were
produced and disseminated under the aegis of the CIAís
MK-Ultra. LSD became the drug of choice within the agency
itself, and was passed out freely to friends of the family,
including a substantial number of OSS veterans. For instance, it
was OSS Research and Analysis Branch veteran Gregory Bateson who
íturned oní the Beat poet Allen Ginsberg to a U.S. Navy LSD
experiment in Palo Alto, California. Not only Ginsberg, but
novelist Ken Kesey and the original members of the Grateful Dead
rock group opened the doors of perception courtesy of the Navy.
The guru of the ípsychedelic revolutioní, Timothy Leary, first
heard about hallucinogens in 1957 from Life magazine (whose
publisher, Henry Luce, was often given government acid,
many other opinion shapers), and began his career as a
contract employee; at a 1977 íreunioní of acid pioneers, Leary
openly admitted, íeverything I am, I owe to the foresight of the
CIAí.íí [Michael J. Minnicino, "The New Dark Age The Frankfurt
School and íPolitical Correctnessí", Fidelio, v1 #1]
The MK-Ultra program had moved six drugs into active use. In
February, Sid Gottlieb organized field trial of psilocybin for
injection into nine black inmates at the Addiction Center in
Lexington, Kentucky. Scientists then measured their
psychological responses. At the end of February, Dulles approved
Ewen Cameronís application for mind control experiments to be
administered at McGill University Montreal, funded through the
Society for Investigation of Human Ecology, a CIA organization.
Cameron, the most prestigious psychiatrist in North America at
the time, coined the terms "depatterning" and "psychic driving,"
to describe what he did to people. He was also a leading
proponent of lobotomies, or "psychic surgery." Cameron began
serious work on sensory deprivation, and created a "sleep room."
This dimly-lit dormitory of about twenty beds where patients
were drugged, given electroshock, and lobotomized was referred
to by the nurses as "The Zombie Room." The experiments were
conducted in Canada to keep them concealed and off U.S. soil.
The Canadian government was unaware of these activities.
Hugh Everett did his undergraduate study in chemical engineering
at the Catholic University of America. Studying von Neumannís
and Bohmís textbooks as part of his graduate studies, under
Wheeler, in mathematical physics at Princeton University in the
1950s, (at the same time Nash was there), he became dissatisfied
with the collapse of the wave function. While he was at
Princeton, during discussions with Charles Misner and
Peterson (Bohrís assistant, then visiting Princeton), he
developed his "relative state" formulation. Wheeler encouraged
his work and preprints were circulated in January 1956 to a
number of physicists. A condensed version of his thesis was
published as a paper for The Role of Gravity in Physics
conference held at the University of North Carolina, Chapel
Hill, in January 1957.
Not long afterward, Everett flew to Copenhagen to meet with
Niels Bohr and discuss his ideas, but Bohr gave him the bumís
rush and brush off, and this was the general response he
received from physicists in general. Everett left physics after
completing his Ph.D., going to work as a defense analyst at the
Weapons Systems Evaluation Group, Pentagon and later became a
private contractor. He was very successful, becoming a
multimillionaire. In 1968 Everett worked for the Lambda
Corporation, now subsidiary of General Research Corporation in
McLean, Virginia. His published papers during this period cover
things like optimizing resource allocation and maximizing kill
rates during nuclear-weapon campaigns.
With the steady growth of interest in Many-Worlds in the late
1970s Everett began to make plans to return to academia in order
to do more work on measurement in quantum theory. In the late
70s, he visited Austin, Texas, at Wheelerís or DeWittís
invitation, to give some lectures on Quantum Mechanics. Not long
afterward, he died of a heart attack in 1982. He was only 52
Laos - The CIA carries out approximately one coup per year
trying to nullify Laosí democratic elections. The problem is the
Pathet Lao, a leftist group with enough popular support to be a
member of any coalition government. In the late 50s, the CIA
even creates an "Army Clandestine" of Asian mercenaries to
attack the Pathet Lao. After the CIAís army suffers numerous
defeats, the U.S. starts bombing, dropping more bombs on Laos
than all the U.S. bombs dropped in World War II. A quarter of
all Laotians will eventually become refugees, many living in
A federal court orders Central High School in Little Rock to
integrate. Governor Orval E. Faubus sends the Arkansas National
Guard to block integration and preserve order. 9 black pupils
are barred from the school. A federal court orders Faubus to
comply--he withdraws the troops. A mob prevents the students
from staying at school.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower puts the National Guard under
federal control and sends 1,000 U.S. Army troops to enforce the
court order. U.S. military and then National Guard troops
maintain order during the school year.
Senator John F. Kennedy is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his
book, Profiles in Courage.
Senator Lyndon Johnson is made Senate majority leader. He will
follow a policy of compromise, which results in unusual
cooperation between Republican and Democratic senators.
Admiral Delmar Fahrney
"Reliable reports indicate there are
objects coming into our atmosphere at very high speeds and
controlled by thinking intelligences."
A public statement, 1957.
"No agency in this country or Russia is able to duplicate at
this time the speeds and accelerations which radars and
observers indicate these flying objects are able to achieve."
Printed in New York Times.
Admiral Fahrney was former head of
the Navyís guided-missile program.
Major General Joe W. Kelly
"Air Force interceptors still pursue
Unidentified Flying Objects as a matter of national security to
this country and to determine technical aspects involved."
made this statement in 1957.
"It is time for the truth to be brought out
in open Congressional hearings. Behind the scenes high ranking
Air Force officers are soberly concerned about the UFOs. But
through official secrecy and ridicule, many citizens are led to
believe the unknown flying objects are nonsense."
Statement in a
NICAP news release, February 27, 1960.
Admiral Hillenkoetter was
the first Director of the CIA, 1947-50. In 1957, he joined the
Board of Governors of the National Investigations.
"There is sufficient evidence of
flying saucer existence to
warrant further investigation."
-Former Blue Book Chief
Edward Ruppelt, to the press, November,
"Iím positive they donít (exist). Thereís not even a glimmer of
hope for the UFO."
-Edward Ruppelt, from his revised book
Between August and September 1958, the US Navy exploded
fission type nuclear bombs 480 km above the South Atlantic
Ocean, in the part of the lower Van Allen Belt closest to the
earthís surface. In addition, two hydrogen bombs were detonated
160 km over Johnston Island in the Pacific. The military called
this "the biggest scientific experiment ever undertaken." It was
designed by the US Department of Defense and the US Atomic
Energy Commission, under the code name Project Argus. The
purpose appears to be to assess the impact of high altitude
nuclear explosions on radio transmission and radar operations
because of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP), and to increase
understanding of the geomagnetic field and the behavior of the
charged particles in it.
This gigantic experiment created new (inner) magnetic radiation
belts encompassing almost the whole earth, and injected
sufficient electrons and other energetic particles into the
ionosphere to cause world wide effects. The electrons traveled
back and forth along magnetic force lines, causing an artificial
"aurora" when striking the atmosphere near the North Pole.
The US Military planned to create a "telecommunications shield"
in the ionosphere, reported in 13-20 August 1961, Keesings
Historisch Archief (K.H.A.). This shield would be created "in
the ionosphere at 3,000 km height, by bringing into orbit
350,000 million copper needles, each 2-4 cm long [total weight
16 kg], forming a belt 10 km thick and 40 km wide, the needles
spaced about 100 m apart." This was designed to replace the
ionosphere "because telecommunications are impaired by magnetic
storms and solar flares." The US planned to add to the number of
copper needles if the experiment proved to be successful. This
plan was strongly opposed by the International Union of
Project Orion, U.S.A.F:
Drugs, hypnosis, and ESB
Targeting: Short range, in person
Frequencies: ELF Modulation
Transmission and Reception: Radar, microwaves, modulated at ELF
Purpose: Top security personnel debriefing, programming, insure
security and loyalty
While Lilly implies that he left the
NIH because of unethical
government interference, his Communications Research Institute
(founded in the 1958 to study dolphins) was partially funded by
the Air Force, NASA, NIHM, the National Science Foundation,
and the Navy. He was assisted in this work by Gregory Bateson
While experimenting with sensory deprivation and LSD and ketamine,
Lilly came to believe that he was in psychic contact
with the aliens of what he called the Earth Coincidence Control
Office. The aliens were guiding events in Lillyís life to lead
him to work with dolphins, which were psychic conduits between
aliens and humans. The aliens are acting for the survival of
organic lifeforms against artificial intelligences, called solid
LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Armyís Chemical Warfare
Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.
In December, Robert Welch founds the John Birch Society.
Major Donald E. Keyhoe:
"Russia and the U. S. have announced
they are definitely planning several space machines. So itís
quite possible that the first space ships or satellites may
encounter other interplanetary machines, manned or otherwise.
Our space devices may even be closely approached by such alien
"For the last six months we have been working with a
congressional committee investigating official secrecy
concerning proof that UFOs are real machines under intelligent
control." From a live national broadcast, on CBS in 1958.
had an approved script to follow, but when deviated unexpectedly
from it with this astonishing statement, the audio was cut-off
in the middle of his sentence, "for reasons of national
security." Keyhoe was in the United States Marine Corp.
Brigadier General Jočo Adil Oliveira
"I wish to give you a
summary of what is known in the world about íflying discs,í of
what is known about the opinion of qualified experts who have
dealt with this matter. The problem of íflying discsí has
polarized the attention of the whole world, but itís serious and
it deserves to be treated seriously. Almost all the governments
of the great powers are interested in it, dealing with it in a
serious and confidential manner, due to its military interest."
In a briefing to the Army War College in Rio de Janeiro on
November 2, 1954 Col. Oliveiraís briefing included short
summaries of several UFO incidents in the USA and Brazil. Later
promoted to the rank of Brigadier General, he was interviewed by
the Brazilian press on February 28, 1958.
"It is impossible to deny any more the existence of
saucers at the present time... The flying saucer is not a ghost
from another dimension or a mysterious dragon. It is a fact
confirmed by material evidence. There are thousands of
documents, photos, and sighting reports demonstrating its
existence. For instance, when I went to the Air Force High
command to discuss the flying saucers I called for ten witnesses
- military (AF officers) and civilians - to report their
evidence about the presence of flying saucers in the skies of
Rio Grande do Sul, and over Gravataí
AFB [Air Force Base]; some
of them had seen UFOs with the naked eye, others with high
powered optical instruments. For more than two hours the
phenomenon was present in the sky, impressing the selected
audience: officers, engineers, technicians, etc."
press interview on February 28, 1958 Brigadier General Jočo Adil
Oliveira, Chief of the Air Force General Staff Information
Service (with the rank of Colonel), led the first official
military UFO inquiry in Brazil in the mid-50s.
Russia, Moscow. A large, disk-shaped object was seen on the
ground. It rose in a spiral motion, then took off and was lost
Huxley speeches in London on "Latent Human Potential."
COINTELPRO is kicked off and the games begin.
Morris K. Jessup found dead in his station wagon in a Dade
County Park, Florida, on the evening of April 29, 1959. A hose
had been attached to the exhaust pipe of the station wagon and
looped into the closed interior. The whole set-up had been
accomplished during daylight hours, in a public park. Ever
since, researchers have said that Jessupís death was the price
he paid for getting too close to the truth. You see, Jessupís
death is SO apparent a suicide, that everyone just KNEW that it
was NOT a suicide. And, of course, as a consequence, an entire
mythos was born about something called the
Experiment having to do with Time Travel.
Haiti - The U.S. military helps "Papa Doc" Duvalier become
dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force, the
"Tonton Macoutes," who terrorize the population with machetes.
They will kill over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign.
The U.S. does not protest their dismal human rights record.
Lt. Colonel Richard Headrick
"Saucers exist, I saw two. They
were intelligently flown or operated (evasive tactics, formation
flight, hovering). They were mechanisms, not United States
weapons, nor Russian. I presume they are extraterrestrial."
Headrick was a radar bombing expert, 1959.
The horrific experiments conducted by the Army and CIA at
Edgewood Arsenal and McGill University worsened with the
addition of a new chemical: quinunclidinyl benzilate, or
More powerful than LSD, the effects of BZ lasted three days. At
times, the effects lasted as long as six days. Between 1959 and
1975, an estimated 2,800 U. S. soldiers were given BZ at
Jose Delgado invented the stimociever, a miniature depth
electrode able to receive and transmit electronic signals over
FM radio waves. By stimulating a correctly positioned
stimociever, an outside operator could wield a surprising degree
of control over the subjectís responses.
Keyhoe and NICAP hear rumors that
Edward J. Ruppelt, under great
pressure, would be revising the conclusion of his 1956 book, The
report on Unidentified Flying Objects. Ruppelt had worked
against UFO secrecy from 1954 onward. He essentially made an
enemy of the Air Force by 1975, burned bridges with former
colleagues by 1959, and finally died in 1960.
Fine-tuned electromagnetic subliminal programming
Targeting: Long Range
Frequencies: VHF HF UHF Modulated at ELF
Transmission and Reception: Television antennae, radio antennae,
power lines, mattress spring coils, modulation on 60 Hz wiring.
Purpose: programming behavior and attitudes in general
Effects: fatigue, mood swings, behavior dysfunction and social
criminality, mood swings
Pseudonym: "Deep Sleep", R.H.I.C.
Hal Puthoff, according to author
Jim Schnabel (and confirmed by
Dr. Puthoff), served at the NSA in the early 1960ís during his
tour with the Navy, not the Army as McRae reported, and later
stayed on as a civilian. Joined SRI in 1971 as a specialist in
laser physics. Served as an officer in the Navy from 1960-63 at
Headlines read "Khrushchev Says Soviets Will Cut Forces a Third;
Sees íFantastic Weaponí ". (From article of same title, by
Frankel, New York Times, Jan. 15, 1960, p1 as cited in "Teslaís
Electro- magnetics and Its Soviet Weaponization", paper by
The International Foundation for Advanced study is established.
Founded by Myron Stolaroff and Paul Kurtz, and located in Menlo
Park, California. Studied the effects of LSD and mescaline from
1961 to 1965.
(Anderson, Walter Truett, The Upstart Spring, Addison-Wesley
The foundation also offered LSD therapy for $500 a session. In
late 1961, the foundation released The Psychedelic Experience: A
New Concept in Psychotherapy. (Stevens, Jay, Storming Heaven,
Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987, pg 177-9)
Also involved with the IFAS were Alfred Hubbard, Vice President
Willis Harman, Charles Savage, Robert Mogar,
James Fadiman, and
Ethel Savage; with Hubbard reportedly supplying the drugs (then
legal for research).
The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI)
authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East.
Testing of the european population is code named Project THIRD
CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named
Duke Law School grad., former VP, and Navy Vet., Richard M.
Nixon; and millionaire, Harvard Grad, and Navy Vet.
Kennedy (JFK) run for the Presidency. A joint televised news
conference is held for the first time and is billed as "The
Presidential Debates." JFK is elected in a very close election.
He will serve approximately 1000 days before being assassinated.
The assassination will be investigated by a commission led by
former California Governor, (but non-lawyer), US Supreme Court
Justice, Earl Warren. Another of the commission members (the
Warren Commission) is future President, Gerald Ford.
Colonel Fuijo Hayashi
"UFOs are impossible to deny....It is very
strange that we have never been able to find out the source for
over two decades."
Colonel Hayashi, Commander of the Air
Transport Wing of Japanís Air Self-Defense Force, made this
statement sometime in the 1960s.
"Behind the scenes, high-ranking Air Force
officers are soberly concerned about UFOs. But through official
secrecy and ridicule, many citizens are led to believe the
unknown flying objects are nonsense."
From a public statement,
Summer of 1960 "Mystery Satellite" in orbit around Earth tracked
and photographed by Grumman.
Optics capabilities became quite advanced. An optics expert that
year wrote that it soon should be possible to develop satellite
cameras capable of "resolving two objects three inches apart
from 125 miles up."
John F. Kennedy becomes the nationís first Roman Catholic
president. Lyndon Johnson is vice president and an active
partner, attending Cabinet, National Security Council, and
special White House meetings. He chairs other councils and
committee and represents JFK on goodwill missions throughout the
world, explaining the administrationís foreign-aid policy.
On July 4th, the President replies to a congratulatory note sent
to him on July 3 from Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev on the
185th anniversary of the Fourth of July, stating the U.S. is
still dedicated to the "revolutionary principles of individual
liberty and national freedom."
Excerpts from Eisenhowerís Farewell Speech - [... ]
- Watch complete
We face a
hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character,
ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method. Unhappily the
danger it poses promises to be of indefinite duration. To meet
it successfully, there is called for, not so much the emotional
and transitory sacrifices of crisis, but rather those which
enable us to carry forward steadily, surely, and without
complaint the burdens of a prolonged and complex struggle - with
liberty the stake. [...]
[T]hreats, new in kind or degree,
constantly arise. Of these, I mention two only. [...]
element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our
arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no
potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction.
Our military organization today bears little relation to that
known by any of my predecessors in peacetime, or indeed by the
fighting men of World War II or Korea.
Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had
no armaments industry. American makers of plowshares could, with
time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no
longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have
been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast
proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and
women are directly engaged in the defense establishment. We
annually spend on military security more than the net income of
all United States corporations. [...]
This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a
large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total
influence - economic, political, even spiritual - is felt in
every city, every Statehouse, every office of the Federal
government. We recognize the imperative need for this
development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave
implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all
involved; so is the very structure of our society.
In the councils of government, we must guard against the
acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or
unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for
the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.
We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our
liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for
granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel
the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery
of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security
and liberty may prosper together.
Akin to, and largely responsible for the
sweeping changes in our
industrial-military posture, has been the technological
revolution during recent decades.
In this revolution, research has become central, it also becomes
more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing
share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal
Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been
overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and
testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university,
historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific
discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of
research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a
government contract becomes virtually a substitute for
intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now
hundreds of new electronic computers.
The prospect of domination of the nationís scholars by Federal
employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever
present - and is gravely to be regarded.
Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as
we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite
danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a
scientific-technological elite. [...]
Disarmament, with mutual honor and confidence, is a continuing
imperative. Together we must learn how to compose differences,
not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose. Because
this need is so sharp and apparent I confess that I lay down my
official responsibilities in this field with a definite sense of
disappointment. As one who has witnessed the horror and the
lingering sadness of war - as one who knows that another war
could utterly destroy this civilization which has been so slowly
and painfully built over thousands of years - I wish I could say
tonight that a lasting peace is in sight.
Kennedy speaks to Congress - President
Kennedy, faced with the
prospect of America losing its technology edge over the Soviets,
addresses a special joint-session of Congress. In his speech, he
asks that the U.S. "commit itself to achieving the goal, before
this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning
him safely to the earth."
Khrushchev meets with U.S. President
John F. Kennedy in Vienna.
He is not satisfied in regard to the Berlin situation and agrees
with Ulbricht to close the border to Berlin.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is arrested for trying to
integrate restaurants in Florida, President Kennedy states that
segregation is morally wrong & that it is "time to act."
The Bay of Pigs - The CIA sends 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade
Castroís Cuba. But "Operation Mongoose" fails, due to poor
planning, security and backing. The planners had imagined that
the invasion would spark a popular uprising against Castro -
which never happens. A promised American air strike also never
occurs. This is the CIAís first public setback, causing
President Kennedy to fire CIA Director Allen Dulles.
Dominican Republic - The CIA assassinates
Rafael Trujillo, a
murderous dictator Washington has supported since 1930.
Trujilloís business interests have grown so large (about 60
percent of the economy) that they have begun competing with
American business interests.
Ecuador - The
CIA-backed military forces the democratically
elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President
Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice
presidency with its own man.
Congo (Zaire) - The
CIA assassinates the democratically elected
Patrice Lumumba. However, public support for Lumumbaís politics
runs so high that the CIA cannot clearly install his opponents
in power. Four years of political turmoil follow.
United States. Betty and Barney Hill.
Driving to their home in
New Hampshire, Betty and Barney Hill notice a bright light in
the sky. Radar reports at the nearby Pease Air Force Base also
record something in the air at that time. The Hills examined the
light through binoculars, and saw a structured object with
flashing lights. Barney walks across a field for a closer look,
and sees beings looking back at him. Frightened, he and Betty
drive home, arriving two hours later then expected. They cannot
account for the missing time (a common phenomenon among
abductees) until they undergo regression hypnosis. The couple
described being stopped by the UFO and taken aboard the saucer
for medical examination. Due to the impressive documentation and
the confirming radar trace from Pease Air Force Base, the
case is one of the most famous on record.
"Acting with the majority of the
NICAP Board of Governors, I
urge immediate Congressional action to reduce the dangers from
secrecy about Unidentified Flying Objects."
NICAP Board Member and former CIA
Director, in a open letter to Congress, August 1961.
"The Air Force cannot do any more under the circumstances. It
has been a difficult assignment for them, and I believe we
should not continue to criticize their investigations. I am
resigning as a member of the NICAP Board of Governors."
-Roscoe Hillenkoetter, in a letter to Donald Keyhole, February,
In October, the
Knights of Malta award
Lyndon Johnson the Grand
Cross of Merit of the Sovereign Order of Malta for his
"significant humanitarian contributions." He is the first
American to be so honored by the knights of one of the oldest
Roman Catholic orders. Keep in mind that the
Catholic Church has
been coopted by the CIA and is an "intelligence asset."
Kennedy stands firm against Khrushchev during the
Crisis. By the end of November, the missiles have been shipped
back to the Soviet Union.
The Esalen Institute was founded in 1964 by
Mike Murphy and Dick
Price out of Murphyís family resort. Murphy and Price had been
running seminars at the resort beginning in 1962, with speakers
gathered through an expanding network of contacts, beginning
with Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley, George Bateson, Gerald Heard,
and others. [see Anderson, Walter Truett, The Upstart Spring,
Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1983 for an expansive history of Esalen]
While an engineering professor at Stanford University,
led a 1962 conference on human potentiality at the Esalen
Institute called "The Expanding Vision".
Harman went on later to
head IONS with Astronaut Edgar Mitchell.
On July 9, 1962, the US began a further series of experiments
with the ionosphere. From their description:
device, at a height of 60 km and one megaton and one
multi-megaton, at several hundred kilometers height" (K.H.A., 29
June 1962). These tests seriously disturbed the lower Van Allen
Belt, substantially altering its shape and intensity.
"In this experiment the inner Van Allen Belt will be practically
destroyed for a period of time; particles from the Belt will be
transported to the atmosphere. It is anticipated that the
earthís magnetic field will be disturbed over long distances for
several hours, preventing radio communication. The explosion in
the inner radiation belt will create an artificial dome of polar
light that will be visible from Los Angeles" (K.H.A. 11 May
A Fijian Sailor, present at this nuclear explosion, told me that
the whole sky was on fire and he thought it would be the end of
the world. This was the experiment which called forth the strong
protest of the Queenís Astronomer, Sir Martin Ryle in the UK.
"The ionosphere [according to the under-standing at that time]
that part of the atmosphere between 65 and 80 km and 280- 320 km
height, will be disrupted by mechanical forces caused by the
pressure wave following the explosion. At the same time, large
quantities of ionizing radiation will be released, further
ionizing the gaseous components of the atmosphere at this
height. This ionization effect is strengthened by the radiation
from the fission products...
The lower Van Allen Belt, consisting of charged particles that
move along the geomagnetic field lines... will similarly be
disrupted. As a result of the explosion, this field will be
locally destroyed, while countless new electrons will be
introduced into the lower belt" (K.H.A. 11 May 1962).
"On 19 July... NASA announced that as a consequence of the high
altitude nuclear test of July 9, a new radiation belt had been
formed, stretching from a height of about 400 km to 1600 km; it
can be seen as a temporary extension of the lower Van Allen
Belt" (K.H.A. 5 August 1962).
As explained in the Encyclopedia Britannica:
"... Starfish made a much wider belt [than
Project Argus] that
extends from low altitude out past L=3 [i.e. three earth
radiuses or about 13,000 km above the surface of the earth]."
Later in 1962, the USSR undertook similar planetary experiments,
creating three new radiation belts between 7,000 and 13,000 km
above the earth. According to the Encyclopedia, the electron
fluxes in the lower Van Allen Belt have changed markedly since
the 1962 high-altitude nuclear explosions by the US and USSR,
never returning to their former state. According to American
scientists, it could take many hundreds of years for the Van
Allen Belts to destabilize at their normal levels. (Research
done by: Nigel Harle, Borderland Archives, Cortenbachstraat 32,
6136 CH Sittard, Netherlands.)
Alfred K. Bender declared that he would tell his story and wrote
a book entitled Flying Saucers and the Three Men. It described
astral projection to a secret base in Antarctica inhabited by
male, female and bisexual creatures. Researchers were perplexed
and wondered if the whole thing was just contrived to hide
something more sinister. Lucchesi said that Bender was a
"changed man" after the three men had visited him. He said "it
was as if he had been lobotomized." Bender was obviously
frightened, and suffered from extreme headaches whenever he even
thought about speaking about his experiences and what the three
men had told him. He withdrew completely from UFO research, and
went to work managing a hotel, and refused to discuss anything
about such matters ever again.
Not too many months after
Benderís silencing, Edgar R. Jarrold,
organizer of the Australian Flying Saucer Bureau, and Harold H.
Fulton, head of Civilian Saucer Investigation of New Zealand,
had received similar visits and disbanded their organizations.
General Douglas MacArthur:
"You now face a new world - a world
of change. The thrust into outer space of the satellite, spheres
and missiles marked the beginning of another epoch in the long
story of mankind , the chapter of the space age... We speak in
strange terms: of harnessing the cosmic energy... of the primary
target in war, no longer limited to the armed forces of an
enemy, but instead to include his civil populations; of ultimate
conflict between a united human race and the sinister forces of
some other planetary galaxy."
An address by General Douglas MacArthur to the United States Military Academy at West Point,
May 12, 1962.
Major Robert White
"There are things out there! There absolutely
White exclaiming over the radio about a UFO encounter
taking place on a 58 mile high X-15 flight on July 17, 1962.
have no idea what it could be. It was greyish in color and about
thirty to forty feet away."
He later reported.
Carl Sagan presented a remarkable paper to the
Society, arguing that not only was space travel possible, but
that other civilizations "must today by plying the spaces
between stars." He stated that radio was not always the best way
to establish contact with others.