1953
Dwight D. Eisenhower sworn in as 34th president. He makes it clear that he plans to work for world peace. Richard Nixon at 39 is the nationís 2nd youngest vice president. Eisenhower grooms his vice president for active duty. They will both serve 2 terms. Senator Kennedy marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier of Long Island on September 12th. Lyndon Johnson becomes minority leader in a Republican Senate. President Eisenhower appoints Herbert Hoover chairman of the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government.

Iran - CIA overthrows the democratically elected Mohammed Mossadegh in a military coup, after he threatened to nationalize British oil. The CIA replaces him with a dictator, the Shah of Iran, whose secret police, SAVAK, is as brutal as the Gestapo.

John C. Lilly, when asked by the director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to brief the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), National Security Agency (NSA), and the various military intelligence services on his work using electrodes to stimulate directly the pleasure and pain centers in the brain, refused. He said,

"Dr. Antione Redmond, using our techniques in Paris, has demonstrated that this method of stimulation on the brain can be applied to the human without help of the neurosurgeon ... This means that anybody with the proper apparatus can carry this out covertly, with no external signs that electrodes have been used in that person. I feel that if this technique got into the hands of a secret agency, they would have total control over a human being and be able to change his beliefs extremely quickly, leaving little evidence of what they had done."

(From "Mind Control and the American Government", by Martin Cannon in Lobster#23, pp 2-10. Cannon quotes Lilly from his book, The Scientist, Berkeley, Ronin publishers, 1988, also Bantam Books 1981. Research by Peter Lewis.)

After a statement like that of Dr. Lillyís, how long do you think it would take the agencies, FBI, CIA, NSA, etc. to contact Dr. Redmond in Paris?

Project MK-ULTRA, CIA: Inspired by North Koreaís brainwashing program, the CIA begins experiments on mind control. The most notorious part of this project involves giving LSD and other drugs to American subjects without their knowledge or against their will, causing several to commit suicide. However, the operation involves far more than this. Funded in part by the Rockefeller and Ford foundations, research includes propaganda, brainwashing, public relations, advertising, hypnosis, and other forms of suggestion.

Drugs, electronics and electroshock
Targeting: Short range
Frequencies: VHF HF UHF modulated at ELF
Transmission and Reception: Local production
Purpose: Programming behavior, creation of "cyborg" mentalities
Effects: narcoleptic trance, programming by suggestion
Subprojects: Many.
Pseudonym: Project Artichoke
Functional Basis: Electronic Dissolution of Memory, E.D.O.M. (Disinfo???)

When the CIAís mind control program was transferred from the Office of Security to the Technical Services Staff (TSS) in 1953, the name changed again -- to MKULTRA.... (Later still, in 1962, mind control research was transferred to the Office of Research and Development; project cryptonyms remain unrevealed. What was studied? Everything -- including hypnosis, conditioning, sensory deprivation, drugs, religious cults, microwaves, psychosurgery, brain implants, and even ESP. When MKULTRA í leakedí to the public during the great CIA investigations of the 1970s, public attention focused most heavily on drug experimentation and the work with ESP. Mystery still shrouds another area of study, the area which seems to have most interested ORD: psychoelectronics

Martin Cannon, The Controllers: A New Hypothesis of Alien Abduction:

"The MK ULTRA program was a covert behavior modification program run by the CIA in the early 1950s - with the purpose of finding ways to make men more suggestible - and involving the use of pain, drugs and hypnosis on unsuspecting human guinea pigs."

The first person to publicly expose the CIAís use of "pain-drug-hypnosis" was L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, who wrote in his 1951 book Science of Survival that it had become so extensively employed in espionage work that it was long past the time people should have become alarmed about it.

"Mr. Hubbardís statement was found to be true in the 1970s, when the CIAís program became public knowledge after the Freedom of Information Act enabled investigators to document the agencyís inhumane and grotesque experiments on human subjects. The ensuing outcry over the use of mind-bending drugs, which combined with electric shock caused the deaths or maiming of untold numbers of people, drew comparisons between the CIA and the infamous Nazi doctors and led to Congressional hearings into the intelligence agency."

- an40286@anon.penet.fi (probably from the Scientology Guardians Organization)

Army Chemical Warfare Service staff member Dr. Frank Olsen died in a CIA LSD experiment. During the Second World War, Olsen developed assassination weapons that could evade autopsies, including a range of lethal aerosols in handy sized containers, disguised as deodorants, shaving cream, and insect repellents.

The CIAís official budget exceeded $100 billion, none of which was accountable to Congress or even the President.

U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.

The U.S. Army also continued to spray American cities with biological agents. It tested only on the black ghetto sections of St. Louis, and arranged for local police surveillance "to minimize the possibility of loss of equipment." The Army reported "much less public interest and curiosity" during this field-test than in Minneapolis.

Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.

CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven year research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that would be used for mind control and behavior modification. Six of the subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings.

In September of 1953, Albert K. Bender claimed that he had received certain information that provided the missing pieces for a theory concerning the origin of UFOs. He wrote it all down and sent it to a trusted friend. Shortly after, he received a visit from "Three Men." One of them held the letter he had written in his hand. They told him that he had, indeed, stumbled on the answer, and then they purportedly filled him in on the details. He became so ill he was unable to eat for three days. A couple of other UFO researchers, Dominick Lucchesi and August C. Roberts, tried to persuade Bender to talk. He would only repeat "I canít answer that."

Major Donald E. Keyhoe

"The Air Force had put out a secret order for its pilots to capture UFOs."

 

"If, in fact, we are able to find life or to answer the question íAre we alone?í then that certainly is grand enough and noble enough to be the enduring legacy of our civilization."

NASA, October 1999.

"With control of the universe at stake, a crash program is imperative. We produced the A-bomb, under the huge Manhattan Project, in an amazingly short time. The needs, the urgency today are even greater. The Air Force should end UFO secrecy, give the facts to scientists, the public, to Congress."

 

"Once the people realize the truth, they would back, even demand a crash program... for this is one race we dare not lose..."

Statement in 1953.

Keyhoeís book Flying Saucers From Outer Space came out, eventually becoming one of the most widely read books of the decade.

Lieutenant D.A. Swimley

"And donít tell me they were reflections, I know they were solid objects."

Swimley, USAF, commenting on a sighting of eight disc shaped objects he and several fellow officers watched circling over Hamilton AFB, California, on August 3, 1953. The objects were also picked up on radar and spotted by many civilian pilots. F-86 Sabres were scrambled to intercept the objects, but the jets were apparently too slow.

Go Back


1954
Atomic scientist Robert J. Oppenheimer [the Father of the Atomic Bomb] loses his US security clearance.

Guatemala - CIA overthrows the democratically elected Jacob Arbenz in a military coup. Arbenz has threatened to nationalize the Rockefeller-owned United Fruit Company, in which CIA Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz is replaced with a series of right-wing dictators whose bloodthirsty policies will kill over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years.

North Vietnam - CIA officer Edward Lansdale spends four years trying to overthrow the communist government of North Vietnam, using all the usual dirty tricks. The CIA also attempts to legitimize a tyrannical puppet regime in South Vietnam, headed by Ngo Dinh Diem. These efforts fail to win the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese because the Diem government is opposed to true democracy, land reform and poverty reduction measures. The CIAís continuing failure results in escalating American intervention, culminating in the Vietnam War.

Gray Barker, editor of The Saucerian Bulletin, author of They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers and The Silver Bridge, tells us that his first contact with Morris Jessup was when he received a letter from him on November 5, 1954. Barker had sent Jessup a copy of his magazine, The Saucerian. This was just shortly before Jessupís first book was published. We discover from Jessupís letter that Barker was apprised of his existence and work by John Bessor who was, apparently, a subscriber to the magazine. Jessup wrote:

Yes, Iím doing a book. It is far along in the final draft stages, and we are hoping to get it in the hands of the publishers sometime next week. It is rather conservative as compared to some of the wild things so far printed, but I have tried to keep it factual, and have confined it to phenomena in the pre-Arnold era - particularly around 1875-1885. Altogether it makes quite a formidable array of proof and background.

Gray Barker describes Jessup as "a most cordial person, and greatly enthusiastic about finding some solution to the UFO mystery - though he indicated that in his professional writing he felt it necessary to take a more conservative approach. This conservative, scientific attitude, demonstrated in his first two books, may have been the reason that his writings were not popular with many saucer "fans."" Jessup wrote to Barker on December 16, 1954:

There is so damned much nonsense being put out by silly people that one gets disgusted with a lot of it. I do feel that we are in a remarkable phase of human experience and that the waters should not be muddied by stupidity - the problem is tough enough without any Adamskiís in the picture.

And then on December 20th, along with two articles he sent to Barker, Jessup wrote:

The Mexican craters are real - I found them myself, and Iíve seen the air force negatives. [...] The extension of the motive-power theme to include some jolts to religion are rather obvious. This space race COULD be our GOD. They COULD have left the Earth millennia ago. Our book will hint at how Sun-worship may be connected with the space denizens. I read your report regarding Albert K. Bender with great interest. Looks like SOMETHING did happen. He probably did stumble onto the truth. I will be glad of any additional information you may uncover. In my humble opinion, you are absolutely correct in your thought that the power source is the key to the whole UFO deal. I am convinced of it from my own introspection and reading.

The Fund for Theological Education - supported in the main by the Rockefeller Foundation, was established in the early 1950s as a response to a perceived crisis in Protestant theological education. In order to encourage talented college graduates to consider the ministry, an unprecedented initiative was launched in 1954 to attract promising but otherwise undecided candidates to seminary education. Begun in close affiliation with the American Association of Theological Schools , the Fund for Theological Education grew both in scope and size over the next forty years. To date close to 5000 scholarships have been awarded, and the Fund can number among its past recipients some of todayís most eminent theological educators and clergy.

Rockefeller Foundation supports the Growth of American Families project, the first of the national fertility studies now carried out every five years with U.S. government support.

Air Chief Marshall Lord Hugh Dowding

"Of course UFOs are real--and they are interplanetary.....The cumulative evidence for the existence of UFOs is quite overwhelming and I accept the fact of their existence."

Dowding, commanding officer of the Royal Air Force during WWII, and during the Battle of Britain made this statement in August of 1954.

"More than 10,000 sightings have been reported, the majority of which cannot be accounted for by any "scientific" explanation... I am convinced that these objects do exist and that they are not manufactured by any nation on Earth."

"I can therefore see no alternative to accepting the theory that they come from some extraterrestrial source."

Printed in Sunday Dispatch, London, July 11, 1954.

General Douglas MacArthur.

General MacArthur is believed to have been involved in establishing the Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU), which was formed to investigate crashed and retrieved flying saucers. In 1955 MacArthur stated:

"The nations of the world will have to unite for the next war will be an interplanetary war. The nations of the earth must some day make a common front against attack by people from other planets."

This statement has led to intense speculation that the IPU uncovered more facts about UFOs than has ever been revealed.

United States, Cochise, New Mexico. An instructor and student pilot in USAF B-25 bomber trainer witness a metallic disc, shaped like two pie pans face-to-face, and 120- 130í in diameter, paced the B-25, showing both its edge and its face, for 5-7 minutes.

Morris Allen of the CIA conducted the ultimate hypnosis experiment: the creation of a "Manchurian Candidate," or programmed assassin.

France was the scene of the greatest UFO activity. Witnesses of all ages and backgrounds claimed to see landings of UFOs and their short, humanoid occupants. Researchers uncovered 46 humanoid reports in France alone during a six week period. Descriptions of the beings varied, although most were between three and four feet in height. None of the sightings included descriptions of what are now called "Greys."

Go Back


1955
April 18, Albert Einstein dies.


(circa) Dr Louis West, friends with Aldous Huxley. It was Huxley who suggested that West combine LSD and hypnosis in his experiments. (Lee, Martin and Schlain, Bruce, Acid Dreams, Grove Press, 1985, pg 48)

West was an Air Force Major, chairman of the Psychiatry Department of UCLA, director of the Neuro-Psychiatric Institute, expert in hypnosis.

West was a veteran of the CIAís MKULTRA mind control program, and worked on interrogation techniques using hypnosis and LSD. West once killed an elephant by grossly overestimating a dose of LSD (elsewhere, I have heard that the tranquilizers required to calm the animal caused its death).

West also studied the returning American POWs from Korea for the effects of brainwashing. (Scheflin, Alan and Opton, Edward Jr., The Mind Manipulators, Paddington Press Ltd, 1978, pg 149-50)

MK-Ultra - An experiment took place in which an Army "volunteer" was sealed in a sensory deprivation chamber for 40 consecutive hours. In panic and terror, he kicked his way out, and wept uncontrollably for a day. This resulted in a change of policy: the box was strengthened.

Morris K. Jessup published The Case For the UFO

The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human populations with biological agents, releases Hemophilus pertussis - obtained from the Armyís biological warfare arsenal - over Tampa Bay, FL. According to Florida state medical records, the incidence of whooping-cough in Florida tripled that year.

Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.

Gray Barker tells us:

According to Riley Crabb: the annotated copy [of Jessupís book] was addressed to Admiral N. Furth, Chief, Office of Naval Research, Washington 25, D.C., and was mailed in a manila envelope postmarked Seminole, Texas, 1955. In July or August of that year the book appeared in the incoming correspondence of Major Darrell L. Ritter, U.S.M.C., Aeronautical Project Office in ONR. When Captain Sidney Sherby reported aboard at ONR he obtained the book from Major Ritter. Captain Sherby and Commander George W. Hoover, Special Projects Officer, ONR, indicated interest in some of the notations the book contained.

I first learned of the annotated copy when I was talking to Mrs. Walton Colcord John, director of the Little Listening Post, a UFO and New Age Publication in Washington. Speaking over the telephone, Mrs. John told me of a strange rumor going around to the effect that somebody had sent a marked-up copy to Washington, and that the government had gone to the expense of mimeographing the entire book, so that all the underlinings and notations could be added to the original text. This was being circulated rather widely, she told me, through military channels. She had not, of course, seen a copy of it, and didnít know too much about it, but somehow she seemed to connect it with an alleged Naval experiment wherein a ship had completely disappeared from sight. I couldnít make too much out of all this until later I also heard about the strange Allende Letters, which told of such an experiment in a most horrifying way.

The publication of the mimeographed edition is established, but I have been unable to confirm whether or not it was actually paid for by the government. It is established that the Varo Manufacturing Company, of Garland, Texas, actually produced the mimeographed edition. I have been unable to find out much about this company, except that it has been said that it engaged in "secret government work."

Apparently, Mr. Crabb in some way came into possession of a copy. [...] In his correspondence with me of September 24, 1962, Crabb clears up the mystery of how he happened to obtain a copy of the original Varo edition. It was the copy that the Navy originally gave to Jessup, and apparently was given to Crabb by Jessup. This copy, however, rather mysteriously disappeared in April, 1960, when Crabb mailed it to himself from Washington, and apparently he no longer possesses any copy at all. Crabb tells us:

"I understand that 25 copies were reproduced... Michael Ann Dunn, the stenographer who did the editing, explains why in the introduction. Sheís married now, living in Dallas, and wonít answer her phone. [...] Varo, by the way, is a small manufacturing firm in electronics and up to its neck in space age business. Apparently it has succeeded in developing some kind of a death ray gadget, judging from a guarded press release of last fall when a group of Congressmen visited there for a demonstration."

See for more details on the Philadelphia Experiment.

Richard Russell U.S. Senator, Head of Senate Armed Services Committee.

"I have discussed this matter with the affected agencies of the government, and they are of the opinion that it is not wise to publicize this matter at this time."

Regarding his sighting of a UFO during a 1955 trip to the Soviet Union.

Lyndon Johnson suffers a severe heart attack in the summer.

Recuperating from one of his operations, Kennedy decides to write a book. Profiles in Courage becomes a bestseller.

President Eisenhower suffers a heart attack on September 24th while at the summer White House in Denver. He makes a steady recovery and after 7 weeks is released from the hospital. He resumes his duties after additional rest.

General Douglas MacArthur

"The nations of the world will have to unite, for the next war will be an interplanetary war. The nations of the earth must someday make a common front against attack by people from other planets."

The New York Times, October 8, 1955

Allen Dulles "Maximum security exists concerning the subject of UFOs." Dulles was CIA Director, 1955.

Go Back


1956
Eisenhower is re-elected President. Television campaign ads are used (significantly) for the first time.

U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army agents posing as public health officials test victims for effects.

Hungary - Radio Free Europe incites Hungary to revolt by broadcasting Khruschevís Secret Speech, in which he denounced Stalin. It also hints that American aid will help the Hungarians fight. This aid fails to materialize as Hungarians launch a doomed armed revolt, which only invites a major Soviet invasion. The conflict kills 7,000 Soviets and 30,000 Hungarians.

Captain Edward J. Ruppelt

"Every time I get skeptical, I think of the other reports made by experienced pilots and radar operators, scientists, and other people who know what they are looking at. These reports were thoroughly investigated and they are still unknowns."

"We have no aircraft on this earth that can at will so handily outdistance our latest jets... The pilots, radar specialists, generals, industrialists, scientists, and the man on the street who have told me, íI wouldnít have believed it either if I hadnít seen it myself,í knew what they were talking about. Maybe the Earth is being visited by interplanetary space ships."

"When four college professors, a geologist, a chemist, a physicist, and a petroleum engineer report seeing the same UFOs on fourteen different occasions, the event can be classified as, at least, unusual. Add the fact that hundreds of other people saw these UFOs and that they were photographed, and the story gets even better. Add a few more facts, that these UFOs were picked up on radar and that a few people got a close look at one of them, and the story begins to convince even the most ardent skeptic."

Ruppelt, Chief of Project Blue Book, from his book, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, 1956.

United States, New York. Capt. Ryan and his first officer William Neff were flying from Albany to Syracuse. At a height of 6,000 feet, the two observed a brilliant white light like an approaching aircraft with landing lights on. Ryan estimated that the object was moving at approximately 1,000 miles per hour , faster than any object of the day. The UFO glowed orange in front of them. Ryan and Neff reported the encounter to Griffiss Air Force Base. The Base confirmed that they also could see an orange object nearby. This sighting lasted over twenty minutes and was also witnessed by the flight attendant, Phyllis Reynolds.

United States, San Bernardino, California. 15-year-old Michael Savage, son of a surgeon, took a picture of a mysterious flying object that he said hovered near his house for 30 seconds. ; those photos, too, made the paper. Just as the phenomenon was beginning to die out, Hollywood added its own inimitable touch to the UFO craze.

England, Suffolk. The RAF/USAF in Bentwaters / Lakenheath in made radar contact with a UFO using three ground-based radars. A confirmation on aerial radar by a Venom night fighter and visual sightings from the ground and the air make this case one of the most celebrated contacts of modern times. Radar indicated that objects were moving up at 4,000 miles per hour -- higher speeds than any aircraft of the time could have achieved.

The National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) was founded by a core of Annapolis boys. NICAP challenged the Air Force on UFOs, unaware that the CIA was already on board.

Go Back


1957
Eisenhower uses well-armed federal troops (including the 101st Airborne) to desegregate schools (over strong state resistance) in Little Rock Arkansas. The "D-Day" parallel is. . . Future American President, William Clinton is living in Arkansas at this time.

It has now been documented that millions of doses of LSD were produced and disseminated under the aegis of the CIAís Operation MK-Ultra. LSD became the drug of choice within the agency itself, and was passed out freely to friends of the family, including a substantial number of OSS veterans. For instance, it was OSS Research and Analysis Branch veteran Gregory Bateson who íturned oní the Beat poet Allen Ginsberg to a U.S. Navy LSD experiment in Palo Alto, California. Not only Ginsberg, but novelist Ken Kesey and the original members of the Grateful Dead rock group opened the doors of perception courtesy of the Navy. The guru of the ípsychedelic revolutioní, Timothy Leary, first heard about hallucinogens in 1957 from Life magazine (whose publisher, Henry Luce, was often given government acid, like many other opinion shapers), and began his career as a CIA contract employee; at a 1977 íreunioní of acid pioneers, Leary openly admitted, íeverything I am, I owe to the foresight of the CIAí.íí [Michael J. Minnicino, "The New Dark Age The Frankfurt School and íPolitical Correctnessí", Fidelio, v1 #1]

The MK-Ultra program had moved six drugs into active use. In February, Sid Gottlieb organized field trial of psilocybin for injection into nine black inmates at the Addiction Center in Lexington, Kentucky. Scientists then measured their psychological responses. At the end of February, Dulles approved Ewen Cameronís application for mind control experiments to be administered at McGill University Montreal, funded through the Society for Investigation of Human Ecology, a CIA organization. Cameron, the most prestigious psychiatrist in North America at the time, coined the terms "depatterning" and "psychic driving," to describe what he did to people. He was also a leading proponent of lobotomies, or "psychic surgery." Cameron began serious work on sensory deprivation, and created a "sleep room." This dimly-lit dormitory of about twenty beds where patients were drugged, given electroshock, and lobotomized was referred to by the nurses as "The Zombie Room." The experiments were conducted in Canada to keep them concealed and off U.S. soil. The Canadian government was unaware of these activities.

Hugh Everett did his undergraduate study in chemical engineering at the Catholic University of America. Studying von Neumannís and Bohmís textbooks as part of his graduate studies, under Wheeler, in mathematical physics at Princeton University in the 1950s, (at the same time Nash was there), he became dissatisfied with the collapse of the wave function. While he was at Princeton, during discussions with Charles Misner and Aage Peterson (Bohrís assistant, then visiting Princeton), he developed his "relative state" formulation. Wheeler encouraged his work and preprints were circulated in January 1956 to a number of physicists. A condensed version of his thesis was published as a paper for The Role of Gravity in Physics conference held at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in January 1957.

Not long afterward, Everett flew to Copenhagen to meet with Niels Bohr and discuss his ideas, but Bohr gave him the bumís rush and brush off, and this was the general response he received from physicists in general. Everett left physics after completing his Ph.D., going to work as a defense analyst at the Weapons Systems Evaluation Group, Pentagon and later became a private contractor. He was very successful, becoming a multimillionaire. In 1968 Everett worked for the Lambda Corporation, now subsidiary of General Research Corporation in McLean, Virginia. His published papers during this period cover things like optimizing resource allocation and maximizing kill rates during nuclear-weapon campaigns.

With the steady growth of interest in Many-Worlds in the late 1970s Everett began to make plans to return to academia in order to do more work on measurement in quantum theory. In the late 70s, he visited Austin, Texas, at Wheelerís or DeWittís invitation, to give some lectures on Quantum Mechanics. Not long afterward, he died of a heart attack in 1982. He was only 52 years old.

Laos - The CIA carries out approximately one coup per year trying to nullify Laosí democratic elections. The problem is the Pathet Lao, a leftist group with enough popular support to be a member of any coalition government. In the late 50s, the CIA even creates an "Army Clandestine" of Asian mercenaries to attack the Pathet Lao. After the CIAís army suffers numerous defeats, the U.S. starts bombing, dropping more bombs on Laos than all the U.S. bombs dropped in World War II. A quarter of all Laotians will eventually become refugees, many living in caves.

A federal court orders Central High School in Little Rock to integrate. Governor Orval E. Faubus sends the Arkansas National Guard to block integration and preserve order. 9 black pupils are barred from the school. A federal court orders Faubus to comply--he withdraws the troops. A mob prevents the students from staying at school.


President Dwight D. Eisenhower puts the National Guard under federal control and sends 1,000 U.S. Army troops to enforce the court order. U.S. military and then National Guard troops maintain order during the school year.

Senator John F. Kennedy is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his book, Profiles in Courage.

Senator Lyndon Johnson is made Senate majority leader. He will follow a policy of compromise, which results in unusual cooperation between Republican and Democratic senators.

Admiral Delmar Fahrney

"Reliable reports indicate there are objects coming into our atmosphere at very high speeds and controlled by thinking intelligences."

A public statement, 1957.

"No agency in this country or Russia is able to duplicate at this time the speeds and accelerations which radars and observers indicate these flying objects are able to achieve."

Printed in New York Times.

Admiral Fahrney was former head of the Navyís guided-missile program.

Major General Joe W. Kelly

"Air Force interceptors still pursue Unidentified Flying Objects as a matter of national security to this country and to determine technical aspects involved."

Kelly made this statement in 1957.

Roscoe Hillenkoetter

"It is time for the truth to be brought out in open Congressional hearings. Behind the scenes high ranking Air Force officers are soberly concerned about the UFOs. But through official secrecy and ridicule, many citizens are led to believe the unknown flying objects are nonsense."

Statement in a NICAP news release, February 27, 1960.

Admiral Hillenkoetter was the first Director of the CIA, 1947-50. In 1957, he joined the Board of Governors of the National Investigations.

Edward Ruppelt

"There is sufficient evidence of flying saucer existence to warrant further investigation."
-Former Blue Book Chief Edward Ruppelt, to the press, November, 1957.


"Iím positive they donít (exist). Thereís not even a glimmer of hope for the UFO."
-Edward Ruppelt, from his revised book 1960.

Go Back


1958
Project Argus

Between August and September 1958, the US Navy exploded three fission type nuclear bombs 480 km above the South Atlantic Ocean, in the part of the lower Van Allen Belt closest to the earthís surface. In addition, two hydrogen bombs were detonated 160 km over Johnston Island in the Pacific. The military called this "the biggest scientific experiment ever undertaken." It was designed by the US Department of Defense and the US Atomic Energy Commission, under the code name Project Argus. The purpose appears to be to assess the impact of high altitude nuclear explosions on radio transmission and radar operations because of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP), and to increase understanding of the geomagnetic field and the behavior of the charged particles in it.

This gigantic experiment created new (inner) magnetic radiation belts encompassing almost the whole earth, and injected sufficient electrons and other energetic particles into the ionosphere to cause world wide effects. The electrons traveled back and forth along magnetic force lines, causing an artificial "aurora" when striking the atmosphere near the North Pole.

The US Military planned to create a "telecommunications shield" in the ionosphere, reported in 13-20 August 1961, Keesings Historisch Archief (K.H.A.). This shield would be created "in the ionosphere at 3,000 km height, by bringing into orbit 350,000 million copper needles, each 2-4 cm long [total weight 16 kg], forming a belt 10 km thick and 40 km wide, the needles spaced about 100 m apart." This was designed to replace the ionosphere "because telecommunications are impaired by magnetic storms and solar flares." The US planned to add to the number of copper needles if the experiment proved to be successful. This plan was strongly opposed by the International Union of Astronomers.

Project Orion, U.S.A.F:

Drugs, hypnosis, and ESB
Targeting: Short range, in person
Frequencies: ELF Modulation
Transmission and Reception: Radar, microwaves, modulated at ELF frequencies
Purpose: Top security personnel debriefing, programming, insure security and loyalty
Pseudonym: "Dreamland"

While Lilly implies that he left the NIH because of unethical government interference, his Communications Research Institute (founded in the 1958 to study dolphins) was partially funded by the Air Force, NASA, NIHM, the National Science Foundation, and the Navy. He was assisted in this work by Gregory Bateson

While experimenting with sensory deprivation and LSD and ketamine, Lilly came to believe that he was in psychic contact with the aliens of what he called the Earth Coincidence Control Office. The aliens were guiding events in Lillyís life to lead him to work with dolphins, which were psychic conduits between aliens and humans. The aliens are acting for the survival of organic lifeforms against artificial intelligences, called solid state lifeforms

LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Armyís Chemical Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.

In December, Robert Welch founds the John Birch Society.

Major Donald E. Keyhoe:

"Russia and the U. S. have announced they are definitely planning several space machines. So itís quite possible that the first space ships or satellites may encounter other interplanetary machines, manned or otherwise. Our space devices may even be closely approached by such alien machines."

 

"For the last six months we have been working with a congressional committee investigating official secrecy concerning proof that UFOs are real machines under intelligent control." From a live national broadcast, on CBS in 1958.

Keyhoe had an approved script to follow, but when deviated unexpectedly from it with this astonishing statement, the audio was cut-off in the middle of his sentence, "for reasons of national security." Keyhoe was in the United States Marine Corp.

 

Brigadier General Jočo Adil Oliveira

"I wish to give you a summary of what is known in the world about íflying discs,í of what is known about the opinion of qualified experts who have dealt with this matter. The problem of íflying discsí has polarized the attention of the whole world, but itís serious and it deserves to be treated seriously. Almost all the governments of the great powers are interested in it, dealing with it in a serious and confidential manner, due to its military interest."

In a briefing to the Army War College in Rio de Janeiro on November 2, 1954 Col. Oliveiraís briefing included short summaries of several UFO incidents in the USA and Brazil. Later promoted to the rank of Brigadier General, he was interviewed by the Brazilian press on February 28, 1958.

"It is impossible to deny any more the existence of flying saucers at the present time... The flying saucer is not a ghost from another dimension or a mysterious dragon. It is a fact confirmed by material evidence. There are thousands of documents, photos, and sighting reports demonstrating its existence. For instance, when I went to the Air Force High command to discuss the flying saucers I called for ten witnesses - military (AF officers) and civilians - to report their evidence about the presence of flying saucers in the skies of Rio Grande do Sul, and over Gravataí AFB [Air Force Base]; some of them had seen UFOs with the naked eye, others with high powered optical instruments. For more than two hours the phenomenon was present in the sky, impressing the selected audience: officers, engineers, technicians, etc."

Brazilian press interview on February 28, 1958 Brigadier General Jočo Adil Oliveira, Chief of the Air Force General Staff Information Service (with the rank of Colonel), led the first official military UFO inquiry in Brazil in the mid-50s.

Russia, Moscow. A large, disk-shaped object was seen on the ground. It rose in a spiral motion, then took off and was lost to sight.

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1959
Huxley speeches in London on "Latent Human Potential." COINTELPRO is kicked off and the games begin.

Morris K. Jessup found dead in his station wagon in a Dade County Park, Florida, on the evening of April 29, 1959. A hose had been attached to the exhaust pipe of the station wagon and looped into the closed interior. The whole set-up had been accomplished during daylight hours, in a public park. Ever since, researchers have said that Jessupís death was the price he paid for getting too close to the truth. You see, Jessupís death is SO apparent a suicide, that everyone just KNEW that it was NOT a suicide. And, of course, as a consequence, an entire mythos was born about something called the Philadelphia Experiment having to do with Time Travel.

Haiti - The U.S. military helps "Papa Doc" Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force, the "Tonton Macoutes," who terrorize the population with machetes. They will kill over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign. The U.S. does not protest their dismal human rights record.

Lt. Colonel Richard Headrick

"Saucers exist, I saw two. They were intelligently flown or operated (evasive tactics, formation flight, hovering). They were mechanisms, not United States weapons, nor Russian. I presume they are extraterrestrial."

Headrick was a radar bombing expert, 1959.

The horrific experiments conducted by the Army and CIA at Edgewood Arsenal and McGill University worsened with the addition of a new chemical: quinunclidinyl benzilate, or BZ. More powerful than LSD, the effects of BZ lasted three days. At times, the effects lasted as long as six days. Between 1959 and 1975, an estimated 2,800 U. S. soldiers were given BZ at Edgewood Arsenal.

Jose Delgado invented the stimociever, a miniature depth electrode able to receive and transmit electronic signals over FM radio waves. By stimulating a correctly positioned stimociever, an outside operator could wield a surprising degree of control over the subjectís responses.

Keyhoe and NICAP hear rumors that Edward J. Ruppelt, under great pressure, would be revising the conclusion of his 1956 book, The report on Unidentified Flying Objects. Ruppelt had worked against UFO secrecy from 1954 onward. He essentially made an enemy of the Air Force by 1975, burned bridges with former colleagues by 1959, and finally died in 1960.

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1960
MK-DELTA, CIA:

Fine-tuned electromagnetic subliminal programming
Targeting: Long Range
Frequencies: VHF HF UHF Modulated at ELF
Transmission and Reception: Television antennae, radio antennae, power lines, mattress spring coils, modulation on 60 Hz wiring.
Purpose: programming behavior and attitudes in general population
Effects: fatigue, mood swings, behavior dysfunction and social criminality, mood swings
Pseudonym: "Deep Sleep", R.H.I.C.

Hal Puthoff, according to author Jim Schnabel (and confirmed by Dr. Puthoff), served at the NSA in the early 1960ís during his tour with the Navy, not the Army as McRae reported, and later stayed on as a civilian. Joined SRI in 1971 as a specialist in laser physics. Served as an officer in the Navy from 1960-63 at Ft. Meade

Headlines read "Khrushchev Says Soviets Will Cut Forces a Third; Sees íFantastic Weaponí ". (From article of same title, by Max Frankel, New York Times, Jan. 15, 1960, p1 as cited in "Teslaís Electro- magnetics and Its Soviet Weaponization", paper by T. E. Bearden.)

The International Foundation for Advanced study is established. Founded by Myron Stolaroff and Paul Kurtz, and located in Menlo Park, California. Studied the effects of LSD and mescaline from 1961 to 1965.
(Anderson, Walter Truett, The Upstart Spring, Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1983)

The foundation also offered LSD therapy for $500 a session. In late 1961, the foundation released The Psychedelic Experience: A New Concept in Psychotherapy. (Stevens, Jay, Storming Heaven, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987, pg 177-9)

Also involved with the IFAS were Alfred Hubbard, Vice President Willis Harman, Charles Savage, Robert Mogar, James Fadiman, and Ethel Savage; with Hubbard reportedly supplying the drugs (then legal for research).

The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the european population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.

Duke Law School grad., former VP, and Navy Vet., Richard M. Nixon; and millionaire, Harvard Grad, and Navy Vet. John F. Kennedy (JFK) run for the Presidency. A joint televised news conference is held for the first time and is billed as "The Presidential Debates." JFK is elected in a very close election. He will serve approximately 1000 days before being assassinated. The assassination will be investigated by a commission led by former California Governor, (but non-lawyer), US Supreme Court Justice, Earl Warren. Another of the commission members (the Warren Commission) is future President, Gerald Ford.

Colonel Fuijo Hayashi

"UFOs are impossible to deny....It is very strange that we have never been able to find out the source for over two decades."

Colonel Hayashi, Commander of the Air Transport Wing of Japanís Air Self-Defense Force, made this statement sometime in the 1960s.

Roscoe Hillenkoetter

"Behind the scenes, high-ranking Air Force officers are soberly concerned about UFOs. But through official secrecy and ridicule, many citizens are led to believe the unknown flying objects are nonsense."

From a public statement, 1960.

Summer of 1960 "Mystery Satellite" in orbit around Earth tracked and photographed by Grumman.

Optics capabilities became quite advanced. An optics expert that year wrote that it soon should be possible to develop satellite cameras capable of "resolving two objects three inches apart from 125 miles up."

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1961
John F. Kennedy becomes the nationís first Roman Catholic president. Lyndon Johnson is vice president and an active partner, attending Cabinet, National Security Council, and special White House meetings. He chairs other councils and committee and represents JFK on goodwill missions throughout the world, explaining the administrationís foreign-aid policy.

On July 4th, the President replies to a congratulatory note sent to him on July 3 from Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev on the 185th anniversary of the Fourth of July, stating the U.S. is still dedicated to the "revolutionary principles of individual liberty and national freedom."

Excerpts from Eisenhowerís Farewell Speech - [... ] - Watch complete Video

We face a hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method. Unhappily the danger it poses promises to be of indefinite duration. To meet it successfully, there is called for, not so much the emotional and transitory sacrifices of crisis, but rather those which enable us to carry forward steadily, surely, and without complaint the burdens of a prolonged and complex struggle - with liberty the stake. [...]

 

[T]hreats, new in kind or degree, constantly arise. Of these, I mention two only. [...]

 

A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction. Our military organization today bears little relation to that known by any of my predecessors in peacetime, or indeed by the fighting men of World War II or Korea.

Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry. American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations. [...]

This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence - economic, political, even spiritual - is felt in every city, every Statehouse, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society.

In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.

We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.

Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture, has been the technological revolution during recent decades.

In this revolution, research has become central, it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.

Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers.

The prospect of domination of the nationís scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present - and is gravely to be regarded.

Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite. [...]

Disarmament, with mutual honor and confidence, is a continuing imperative. Together we must learn how to compose differences, not with arms, but with intellect and decent purpose. Because this need is so sharp and apparent I confess that I lay down my official responsibilities in this field with a definite sense of disappointment. As one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness of war - as one who knows that another war could utterly destroy this civilization which has been so slowly and painfully built over thousands of years - I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight.

[End Eisenhowerís farewell address]

Kennedy speaks to Congress - President Kennedy, faced with the prospect of America losing its technology edge over the Soviets, addresses a special joint-session of Congress. In his speech, he asks that the U.S. "commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth."

Khrushchev meets with U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Vienna. He is not satisfied in regard to the Berlin situation and agrees with Ulbricht to close the border to Berlin.

After Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is arrested for trying to integrate restaurants in Florida, President Kennedy states that segregation is morally wrong & that it is "time to act."

The Bay of Pigs - The CIA sends 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade Castroís Cuba. But "Operation Mongoose" fails, due to poor planning, security and backing. The planners had imagined that the invasion would spark a popular uprising against Castro - which never happens. A promised American air strike also never occurs. This is the CIAís first public setback, causing President Kennedy to fire CIA Director Allen Dulles.

Dominican Republic - The CIA assassinates Rafael Trujillo, a murderous dictator Washington has supported since 1930. Trujilloís business interests have grown so large (about 60 percent of the economy) that they have begun competing with American business interests.

Ecuador - The CIA-backed military forces the democratically elected President Jose Velasco to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man.

Congo (Zaire) - The CIA assassinates the democratically elected Patrice Lumumba. However, public support for Lumumbaís politics runs so high that the CIA cannot clearly install his opponents in power. Four years of political turmoil follow.

United States. Betty and Barney Hill.

Driving to their home in New Hampshire, Betty and Barney Hill notice a bright light in the sky. Radar reports at the nearby Pease Air Force Base also record something in the air at that time. The Hills examined the light through binoculars, and saw a structured object with flashing lights. Barney walks across a field for a closer look, and sees beings looking back at him. Frightened, he and Betty drive home, arriving two hours later then expected. They cannot account for the missing time (a common phenomenon among abductees) until they undergo regression hypnosis. The couple described being stopped by the UFO and taken aboard the saucer for medical examination. Due to the impressive documentation and the confirming radar trace from Pease Air Force Base, the Hill case is one of the most famous on record.

Roscoe Hillenkoetter

"Acting with the majority of the NICAP Board of Governors, I urge immediate Congressional action to reduce the dangers from secrecy about Unidentified Flying Objects."

-Roscoe Hillenkoetter, NICAP Board Member and former CIA Director, in a open letter to Congress, August 1961.


"The Air Force cannot do any more under the circumstances. It has been a difficult assignment for them, and I believe we should not continue to criticize their investigations. I am resigning as a member of the NICAP Board of Governors."
-Roscoe Hillenkoetter, in a letter to Donald Keyhole, February, 1962.

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1962
In October, the Knights of Malta award Lyndon Johnson the Grand Cross of Merit of the Sovereign Order of Malta for his "significant humanitarian contributions." He is the first American to be so honored by the knights of one of the oldest Roman Catholic orders. Keep in mind that the Catholic Church has been coopted by the CIA and is an "intelligence asset."

Kennedy stands firm against Khrushchev during the Cuban Missile Crisis. By the end of November, the missiles have been shipped back to the Soviet Union.

The Esalen Institute was founded in 1964 by Mike Murphy and Dick Price out of Murphyís family resort. Murphy and Price had been running seminars at the resort beginning in 1962, with speakers gathered through an expanding network of contacts, beginning with Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley, George Bateson, Gerald Heard, and others. [see Anderson, Walter Truett, The Upstart Spring, Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1983 for an expansive history of Esalen]

While an engineering professor at Stanford University, Harman led a 1962 conference on human potentiality at the Esalen Institute called "The Expanding Vision". Harman went on later to head IONS with Astronaut Edgar Mitchell.

Project Starfish

On July 9, 1962, the US began a further series of experiments with the ionosphere. From their description:

"one kiloton device, at a height of 60 km and one megaton and one multi-megaton, at several hundred kilometers height" (K.H.A., 29 June 1962). These tests seriously disturbed the lower Van Allen Belt, substantially altering its shape and intensity.

"In this experiment the inner Van Allen Belt will be practically destroyed for a period of time; particles from the Belt will be transported to the atmosphere. It is anticipated that the earthís magnetic field will be disturbed over long distances for several hours, preventing radio communication. The explosion in the inner radiation belt will create an artificial dome of polar light that will be visible from Los Angeles" (K.H.A. 11 May 1962).

A Fijian Sailor, present at this nuclear explosion, told me that the whole sky was on fire and he thought it would be the end of the world. This was the experiment which called forth the strong protest of the Queenís Astronomer, Sir Martin Ryle in the UK.

"The ionosphere [according to the under-standing at that time] that part of the atmosphere between 65 and 80 km and 280- 320 km height, will be disrupted by mechanical forces caused by the pressure wave following the explosion. At the same time, large quantities of ionizing radiation will be released, further ionizing the gaseous components of the atmosphere at this height. This ionization effect is strengthened by the radiation from the fission products...

The lower Van Allen Belt, consisting of charged particles that move along the geomagnetic field lines... will similarly be disrupted. As a result of the explosion, this field will be locally destroyed, while countless new electrons will be introduced into the lower belt" (K.H.A. 11 May 1962).

"On 19 July... NASA announced that as a consequence of the high altitude nuclear test of July 9, a new radiation belt had been formed, stretching from a height of about 400 km to 1600 km; it can be seen as a temporary extension of the lower Van Allen Belt" (K.H.A. 5 August 1962).

As explained in the Encyclopedia Britannica:

"... Starfish made a much wider belt [than Project Argus] that extends from low altitude out past L=3 [i.e. three earth radiuses or about 13,000 km above the surface of the earth]."

Later in 1962, the USSR undertook similar planetary experiments, creating three new radiation belts between 7,000 and 13,000 km above the earth. According to the Encyclopedia, the electron fluxes in the lower Van Allen Belt have changed markedly since the 1962 high-altitude nuclear explosions by the US and USSR, never returning to their former state. According to American scientists, it could take many hundreds of years for the Van Allen Belts to destabilize at their normal levels. (Research done by: Nigel Harle, Borderland Archives, Cortenbachstraat 32, 6136 CH Sittard, Netherlands.)

Alfred K. Bender declared that he would tell his story and wrote a book entitled Flying Saucers and the Three Men. It described astral projection to a secret base in Antarctica inhabited by male, female and bisexual creatures. Researchers were perplexed and wondered if the whole thing was just contrived to hide something more sinister. Lucchesi said that Bender was a "changed man" after the three men had visited him. He said "it was as if he had been lobotomized." Bender was obviously frightened, and suffered from extreme headaches whenever he even thought about speaking about his experiences and what the three men had told him. He withdrew completely from UFO research, and went to work managing a hotel, and refused to discuss anything about such matters ever again.

Not too many months after Benderís silencing, Edgar R. Jarrold, organizer of the Australian Flying Saucer Bureau, and Harold H. Fulton, head of Civilian Saucer Investigation of New Zealand, had received similar visits and disbanded their organizations.

General Douglas MacArthur:

"You now face a new world - a world of change. The thrust into outer space of the satellite, spheres and missiles marked the beginning of another epoch in the long story of mankind , the chapter of the space age... We speak in strange terms: of harnessing the cosmic energy... of the primary target in war, no longer limited to the armed forces of an enemy, but instead to include his civil populations; of ultimate conflict between a united human race and the sinister forces of some other planetary galaxy."

An address by General Douglas MacArthur to the United States Military Academy at West Point, May 12, 1962.

Major Robert White

"There are things out there! There absolutely is!"

White exclaiming over the radio about a UFO encounter taking place on a 58 mile high X-15 flight on July 17, 1962.

 

"I have no idea what it could be. It was greyish in color and about thirty to forty feet away."

He later reported.

Carl Sagan presented a remarkable paper to the American Rocket Society, arguing that not only was space travel possible, but that other civilizations "must today by plying the spaces between stars." He stated that radio was not always the best way to establish contact with others.

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