By R. A. Boulay 1990

Editorial Comments By Roberto Solàrion 1997

Chapter 1



"The reptiles verily descend. The earth is resplendent as a well-watered garden. At that time Enki and Eridu had not appeared. Daylight did not shine, moonlight had not emerged."


Fragment from the oldest known Sumerian Table


One of the most remarkable and valuable historic documents is the so-called King List, which records the names of the Kings of Sumer and the lengths of their reigns from what was to them, the beginning of history - a time in the distant past when "kingship descended from heaven" and founded five cities in the Mesopotamian plain.

It records an interruption when "the Flood swept over the land," an event which we know as the Deluge or Great Flood. The King List then resumes the narrative as "kingship descended" once more. It describes the kings and their reigns down to part of the Isin Dynasty which began to rule about 1950 BC.

The King List attributes reigns of legendary and incredible lengths to many of the rulers of the earlier antediluvian kings. In this sense, it affirms the enormous lifespans of the Patriarchs of the Old Testament. While these extremely long reigns and lifespans cannot be explained, there is a consistency among the secular and religious sources that indicate they had a logic of their own which has yet to be perceived by current scholarship.

The King List has received mixed reviews among scholars, but since its records of the Fourth and Third Millennia BC have been corroborated separately by archeological evidence, it has been accepted by many as a valuable historical document.

In his work "The Sumerians" Professor Samuel Noah Kramer, the dean of Sumerian studies, endorses its value as a research tool. He has suggested that the King List "if used with discrimination and understanding, provides us with a historical framework of inestimable value."


Our story does not begin with the creation of the world. It starts with the arrival of intelligent life on Earth - the people we know historically as the Proto-Sumerians. It is not known exactly when these ancestors of ours came here or why. It is surmised that they arrived here quite some time before the world-wide catastrophe called the Deluge. It was also long before the advent of modern man or Homo sapiens.

It is generally agreed that these Proto-Sumerians were the origin of our Western Civilization, and that their beginnings were in the area called Mesopotamia, literally "the land between the two rivers." The arrival of these "gods" is reported in the records that their descendants left behind - the Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian cuneiform tablets.

The land known as Mesopotamia and the cradle of civilization, lies mostly between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Originating in the mountains of Armenia in the north, the two rivers move in a gradually converging course down a wide and grassy plain to the Persian Gulf. In early times, the area was made up of marsh and lagoon, much as it is today.

The introduction of an intensive river-canal system to irrigate and drain the plain gave rise to a dense population and to the establishment of a great culture. The lower part of Mesopotamia became a very fertile garden area which the Sumerians referred to as E-DIN, or "the abode of the righteous ones." It was the location of, and gave its name to, the Biblical Garden of Eden.

While the southern part of Mesopotamia came to be called Sumer, the area farther up the plain at the near convergence of the two rivers was later called Akkad. The Akkadian city BAB-ILU became prominent and gave its name to the entire region - Babylonia.

After the Deluge, the Sumerian cities were rebuilt and resettled on the alluvial plain of Mesopotamia. Since the oldest of these date to about 3500 BC, and was built on virgin soil, it is clear that they were not built upon the ruins of the former city. This is due to the fact that the waters of the Persian Gulf have risen some 150 feet since the Deluge, inundating the former cities. This will be discussed later.

What reason or purpose brought these alien beings or Anunnaki, as they called themselves, to this planet we donít know. But from their legends and myths we can deduce that it was probably for commercial purposes. According to the King List they came here over 240,000 years ago.

This document describes the activities of the antediluvian Anunnaki as "kingship descended from heaven" and was first established at Eridu, the Erech of the Bible. Here two kings ruled for 64,800 years.

Eridu was abandoned as the capital and the kingship was moved to Badtibira where three kings reigned for 108,000 years. Then the kingship was moved to Larak and one king ruled for 28,800 years. A fourth city to them become the capital was Sippar where one king, Enmeduranna, reigned for 21,000 years. This Enmeduranna is important to our story, for, as we shall see, he was the Enoch of the Old Testament.

The kingship was then transferred to Shuruppak where one king ruled for 18,600 years. Thus, as the tablet summarized, eight kings ruled over five cities for a total of 241,200 years.

The King List then states laconically, the Flood swept over the land, putting an end to all commercial and other activities.

These huge numbers have been a puzzle to scholars. They are consistent throughout the King List and therefore are not erroneous. While a rational explanation has thus far escaped historians, most researchers feel there must be some logical answer to these fanciful numbers since a parallel can be found in the enormous lifespans of the antediluvian Patriarchs.

It is entirely possible that these are not Earth years as we know them. A divine year or "Year of An" is often mentioned in the cuneiform tablets and, although not fully understood, is probably not equivalent to our normal Earth year. A reflection of this is found in the Old Testament (Psalms 90:4) where one divine day is said to be the equivalent of a thousand years. [Comment: This same statement or something similar is also in the Koran, I think.]

It was also not unusual for the ancients to compute time by other than normal Earth years as, for example, in the "Book of Jubilees" where a Jubilee year is equivalent to 50 regular years, that is, seven week years (a week year was seven years) and one year added for atonement when all activities were supposed to cease.

Furthermore, there is an indication that the years of the King List have an underlying logic as it is found in their system of enumeration. Their numerical system was sexagesimal in character but not strictly so, for they also made use of the factor of 10 as well as 6. Thus the sequence 1, 10, 60, 360, 3600 takes on a special meaning in their mythology. The number 60 held a special significance to the Sumerians, for in their system of numerical rank it was the highest number and assigned to their chief god An.

If the duration of the various terms of kingship are presented graphically, it becomes obvious that this sexagesimal system must underlie the fabulous numbers of the King List. Called a "shar" by the Sumerians, the number 3600 appears to have a special meaning in this list. It can be seen that, with slight adjustment, the years of reign of the Sumerian kings are divisible by this number It indicates that the term for the reign of a Sumerian antediluvian king was presumably a shar and was renewable every 3600 years. [Comment: This is the period of the orbit of Planet Nibiru.]


The Sumerians and Akkadians did not call their alien visitors "gods." It is in the later cultures that the notion of divine beings filtered into our language and thinking. They called them "ilu" or the lofty ones, from which the Semitic "ili" and "el" of the Hebrew evolved. [Comment: Prince Utuís name in the Mayan language, interestingly, was/is Xochipili.]

The Western word "god" has through usage come to mean superior spiritual beings, far removed from Man and incapable of defect or error. On the other hand, Man is considered to be a blemished incomplete being, burdened with "original sin" and destined to worship and pay homage to an unreachable god. The Sumerian gods were far from spiritual. They were real live physical beings capable of committing serious errors and misjudgments. They could be called "supermen" if this term could be applied genetically to a saurian race.

The Sumerian gods regarded Man as a convenience and nothing more. He supplied their wants, kept their cities, and provided cannon fodder for their various military ventures. The gods could be cruel and unsympathetic masters. They considered humans merely as unruly children, no more important than pets, to be governed ruthlessly and without sentiment. These accusations may seem like hyperbole to the reader, but we shall see, by subsequent events, that this was indeed the case. [Comment: This notion is hauntingly similar to the discussion of the Archons of Destiny by John Baines in his book "The Stellar Man."]

Although the term Anunnaki is used generically to apply to all the Proto-Sumerians who came to this planet, it means literally "the sons of An," their great god. In the antediluvian period, a large group of these Anunnaki descended from the mother ship to colonize Earth. According to the "Enuma Elish," the Babylonian myth of creation, 300 of these Anunnaki descended to Earth while another 300 remained aboard the space ship. These were called "Igigi" and presumably were the technicians of the space craft.




An, or Anu in Akkadian, meant "He of the Heavens" and his name was always written pictographically as a star. He was the great progenitor and senior god who stood above all the other gods. His abode and seat of authority was in the heavens, the orbiting space ship or URU-SAG-AN-NA, literally "the chief city of the heavens."

[Comment: Anu in Greek/Roman was Kronos/Saturn, the son of Alalu or Uranus/Caelus. Sitchin writes about how Anu and Antu staged a coup díetat and deposed Alalu and Lilitu. Greek mythology adds a curious footnote to this same story by stating that before usurping the throne from Uranus, Saturn first physically castrated his father. They are indeed ruthless creatures, these saurians! And it should be noted that although Planet Nibiru first arrived in our solar system around 500,000 Earth Years ago, the Sumerian King List doesnít start until about 240,000 years ago. Thus, the intervening years before the ascension of Anu and the start of the King List can be deduced to equal the reign of Alalu.]

He descended to Earth only on special occasions, in time of crisis, or for ceremonial reasons. When on Earth he would stay in his temple, the E-ANNA or "House of An" atop the ziggurat in Uruk, his sacred city. The word ziggurat comes from the Babylonian "zaquru" and means "to be high or raised up." It signifies the top of a mountain or a staged tower and such a tower provided an artificial platform on the flat Mesopotamian plain.

Anu had three children - two sons Enlil and Enki and a daughter Ninkhursag. The division of authority between his two sons caused much dissension, and the senior god spent much of his time settling disputes between them as well as his grandchildren. [Comment: Refer to "The Vengeful Birth of Lord Hellespontiacus" in which it was mentioned that Anu had to settle the dispute between Princess Inanna and Queen Ereshkigal over the "ownership" of the kidnapped infant Dumuzi, who eventually became the public lover of Princess Inanna.


Although he was the younger son of An, Enlil became the most powerful god of the Sumerian pantheon next to An. Literally "The Lord of the Command," Enlil was commander of the expedition of the Anunnaki to Earth. He had many appellations which described his authority:

  • Lord of Heaven and Earth
  • Lord of All the Lands
  • Giver of the Kingships
  • Prince of Heaven
  • Chief of Earth

Enlil was actually the archetype for the god of the Western Lands of Palestine and Syria - the "El" of the Semites and particularly the generic "El" or "Elohim" of the Bible.

Enlil made sure that the decrees of the gods in council were carried out against Mankind. He is often depicted with bow and arrow, symbolic of the powerful weapons at his disposal to enforce his authority.

Enlil disliked Mankind and only tolerated humans as necessary to provide for the welfare of the gods. It was Enlil, according to the Sumerian story of the Deluge, who brought on the destruction of Mankind because the noise of the boisterous humans interfered with his rest.

The temple dedicated to him at Nippur was called the DUR-AN-KI or "bond of heaven and earth," from where he directed the activities of Mankind. This structure is described in part in the cuneiform tablets as some type of communication or control center.

From his temple atop the Ekur at Nippur, it was said that he had "eyes that could scan the land." The equipment used sounds very much like some sort of radar or scanning device for the tablets state that "he raises the beams that search the heart of all the lands."

Enlilís rule was at times turbulent. One day, seeing a goddess naked and bathing by a stream on Earth below, he became enamored of her and descended to seduce her. The pantheon was horrified at the escapade of Enlil since it apparently abrogated one of their basic conventions. Although he was the chief god, he was exiled from the space ship and stripped of his powers. Only after marrying and making her his chief wife did the pantheon relent and let Enlil return to resume his authority.

Enlil named her Ninlil and gave her status equivalent to his own. The result of this episode was a son called Nannar who became Enlilís favorite. Nannar was given rank in the pantheon second only to him and Enki, and honors and lands commensurate with his position.

[Comment: In Greek mythology, Enlil is the equivalent of Zeus, according to Sitchin, who also equated Prince Nannar with the Greek Hermes and Egyptian Thoth. Because the parents of Hermes were Zeus and Maia, it logically follows that Ninlil is the equivalent of Maia.]


Although he was Anís first born, Enki was given lower rank than his younger brother Enlil, who had been born to An by another wife who was also his half-sister. By the laws of Sumerian inheritance, Enlil became heir to the throne. Lingering resentment over his disinheritance and the growing competition over who would control activities on Earth brought Enki into direct conflict with his brother Enlil.

EN-KI or "Lord of the Earth" was also called EA or "he whose house is on the water," a tacit reference to his water place or Abzu from where he carried out operations when he first arrived on Earth. Enki was all things to the expedition: Chief Engineer, Chief Scientist, Chief of Mining, and more importantly, the Creator of Mankind. [Comment: Here we once again find the oceanic reference to Enki, or Poseidon, God of the Seas.]

As a master engineer, he supervised the turning of the marshlands of lower Mesopotamia into a veritable paradise. He planned and supervised the construction of the canal system, the diking of the rivers, and the draining of the marshlands. In a self-laudatory poem he boasts of making the marshlands a haven for birds and fishes, of directing the invention and use of the plow and yoke, of starting animal husbandry, and bringing the construction arts to Earth in order to raise the cities.

Enki had many epithets. He was:

  • the God of Wisdom
  • the God Mining
  • the Lord of the Flowing Waters
  • the Lord of the Sea and Shipbuilding

He is often portrayed with a stream and fish flowing from his shoulders, symbolic of his capacity to provide navigable waters and to insure potable water to the cities of Mesopotamia.

His home was E-RI-DU, that is, "home built far away," a veiled reference to the fact that this was a colony. Eridu was the first city built by the alien astronauts on Earth and was located on the edge of the watered plain or EDIN.

Enki loved to go sailing or cruising on these water courses in his water craft which he called "the Ibex" after the nimble goats which inhabited the surrounding mountains. In this way, the ibex and the goat with a fish tail became symbolic of the God Enki and appear often on Sumerian seals and monuments.

As the God of Mining, Enki is often shown with a human miner holding an ingot of metal on a carrying pole. Metal was molded this way, in the form of a cylinder with a hole through the middle, in order to facilitate its being carried on a pole with a handle.

He is also shown at times with his two sons Gibil and Nergal who were in charge of mining activities. But most important of all, Enki is remembered as the god who created man and who came to his defense against the capricious Enlil. As the creator of Man, he is often shown with the "the tree or shrub of life."

The serpent was also Enkiís symbol, presumably for its ability to shed its skin and therefore achieve a sort of immortality. The depiction of the serpent was one method the ancient artisans used to represent their reptile ancestors. It is also from the representation of the serpent coiled around the tree of life, that the "Caduceus" of the Greeks later evolved.

Just as the capricious Enlil is remembered as the god who brought on the Deluge, Enki is recognized as the one who saved Mankind by his timely warning of the coming disaster to the Sumerian Noah. Enkiís unauthorized creation of modern man or Homo sapiens further estranged him from Enlil. The antagonism between the two erupted again after the Deluge among their children who kept the Middle East in a state of turmoil for thousands of years. [Comment: Even up to the present day, it might be added - those people never stop fighting!]


NIN-KHUR-SAG or "Lady of the Mountain Top" was the fourth senior Sumerian god. She was a half-sister to Enki and Enlil. In earlier days Ninkhursag was of higher rank than Enki and preceded his name when they appeared together. She was later reduced in status and practically disappeared from the pantheon as a major or effective influence.

[Comment: From Sitchinís work we know that Ninkhursag is the equivalent of the Egyptian Isis, which in turn we know from Greek mythology is the Greek Goddess Hera, later renamed Juno by the Romans.]

It may be that she was eclipsed by the rising star of Inanna or Ishtar who injected herself in all Sumerian and western affairs. In the Western Lands such as Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon, Ishtar appeared in several forms. As the mother goddess she displaced Ninkhursag. Her role was that of the sex or love goddess. She was also known for her militant role as the warrior goddess.

Ninkhursag is also known by many other names such as:

  • NIN-TI (the Lady who gives Life)
  • NIN-MAH (The Exalted Lady)
  • MAM-MU (The Creator Goddess), a name from whence came our word Mama

[Comment: In the lands of the Incas, she was known as "Pachamama." Is this great, or what!?] Ninkhursag was given the antediluvian city of Shuruppak where she reigned as the Chief Medical Officer and Chief Nurse for the members of the expedition. Her sacred symbol was the umbilical cord and the cutter knife used to sever it

Enki and Ninkhursag directed biological experiments in the laboratories atop her ziggurat at Shuruppak and in Enkiís floating headquarters which led to the creation of the first primitive man called a "lulu." This was a hybrid mammal-reptile form. This was done at the direct request of Enlil who wanted a creature able to take over the burdensome workload now being performed by the children of An.

Following formulas and processes provided by Enki, Ninkhursag produced a worker, but one with a major failing - it could not reproduce itself. By going a step further, and modifying this primitive being by giving it predominant mammal characteristics, Enki and Ninkhursag overreached their commission.

In crossbreeding the "lulu" with the wild primitive man of the period - Neanderthal Man - they achieved a new worker type, modern man or Homo sapiens, better known as Cro-Magnon Man. [Comment: i.e., Us.] It was this activity that brought down the wrath of Enlil. In further diluting the saurian strain, he saw it as a direct threat to the survival of the reptile race.



There was a very explicit "pecking order" among the astronaut-gods of the Sumerian pantheon. They were assigned numerical ranks based on a system of 60. This number represented a special, almost mystical, significance for the Sumerians.

Each major god was given a numerical "name" which represented his rank in the hierarchy. In this way, numbers were used as a sort of cryptography. The numerical ranks of the Sumerian ruling deities were assigned in descending order of importance:

  • Anu 60
  • Antu 55
  • Enlil 50
  • Ninlil 45
  • Enki 40
  • Ninki 35
  • Nannar 30
  • Ningal 25
  • Utu 20
  • Inanna 15
  • Ishkur 10
  • Ninkhursag 5

Numbers ending in 5 were assigned to the distaff side. According to Sumerian tradition, only males could command, a policy that caused much distress in the affairs of the Middle East, for Inanna refused to accept her status and intrigued and plotted almost continuously to gain political power.

The number 50 not only represented the rank of Enlil, but also his position as chief of all the activities on Earth. After the Deluge, when the younger gods challenged the authority of the older gods for leadership, Enlilís military aide Ninurta assumed the title of ífifty' and thereby lay claim to the mantle of leadership which apparently had been vacated by Enlil.

Besides Ninurta, there was another claimant to the leadership. Marduk, the eldest son of Enki, was unranked in the pantheon; he also assumed the title of "fifty" as he proclaimed himself chief of Babylon.

With the eclipse of the senior gods after the Deluge, there was a scramble for power among the younger gods Nannar, Utu, and Ishkur (with Inanna seemingly always involved). It brought much disorder to the nations of the Middle East. This manifested itself in constant warfare among the cities of Mesopotamia which became pawns in the struggle of the competing gods.



Only the sons, daughters, wives, and grandchildren of Enlil were given numerical rank in the pantheon. The sons of Enki did not participate, perhaps because they were assigned geographic areas and activities away from Mesopotamia after the Deluge, a precaution on the part of Enlil to prevent conflict between the cousins, but presumably also to retain control of Mesopotamia for his family.

The Sumerian gods were always depicted graphically with horned crowns. In later days, the senior gods were represented by a horned crown sitting on an altar.

When the names of the gods were written out on the cuneiform tablets they were always preceded by the pictographic symbol of a star or a "dingir." The term "dingir" was a combination of DIN meaning "the righteous one" and GIR, the word for a bird or flying object. In other words, the symbol "dingir" meant that the name which followed was that of a god who was separated from common humanity by his ability to move about by celestial chariot or craft.

Each god had his sacred animal and symbol; these can be clearly seen on the boundary stones or markers as used by the Babylonian dynasties of the Second Millennium BC.



Born of the rape of Ninlil, NAN-NAR (The Bright One) was the favorite son of Enlil. After the Deluge he was assigned all the lands of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine. His sacred city was Ur or "Capital City" and his sacred symbol was the crescent moon. This symbol so dominated the post-diluvian times that it later was adopted by Islam, just as the cross of Shamash was adopted by the Christians.

His Semitic name SIN (the Sinai region was named after him) is really not a Semitic name but a loan-word from Sumerian SU-EN or ZU-EN meaning "The Wise Lord." Since Sumerian names can be read forward as well as backwards, Zuen may be the EN-ZU or "The Lord Zu" who stole the Tablets of Destiny from Enlil and were retrieved by Ninurta with the aid of Ishkur and weapons supplied by Enki. This is strongly suggested by the notable absence of Nannar/Sin from "The Myth of Zu" discussed below. It also explains Sinís falling out of favor at certain times in the history of Mesopotamia and the challenge of Ninurta to the rank of "fifty."



Utu or "The Shining One" was a grandson of Enlil and with Inanna was a twin born to Nannar. Utuís city in antediluvian times was the space platform at Sippar, from where the freighters laden with metals shuttled to and from the orbiting space ship.

After the Deluge, Sippar remained his sacred city, although he moved his space activities to the west to the land of Lebanon, where Baalbek became the new space platform. In the Western Lands he was known by his Semitic name of Shamash. The city of Baalbek was called Beth-Shamash in the Old Testament, or in other words the "House of Shamash."

The symbol of Shamash was the four-pointed star against a disk with rays. Later, the winged solar disk became associated with Shamash.

He subsequently became known as the God of Justice in the Babylonian pantheon, as shown on a table, circa 900 BC, found at Sippar. Shamash was worshiped as the Sun God who daily traversed the skies and the "one from whom no secrets were hid," probably because his space craft surveyed all that went on below. In this tablet two horned gods in "heaven" hold divine cords which connect with the altar of Shamash below. The cords represent his connection or shuttle flight between heaven and earth. As the divine cordholder, it was said he traversed the skies and "measured the bounds of the Earth."

[Comment: Utu/Shamash was known in Greek mythology as the Sun God Apollo, later renamed Helios by the Romans. In Egypt he was known as the God Harpocrates.]

Shamash was often depicted with wings indicative of his role as Chief Astronaut of the Anunnaki. An Assyrian relief from the palace of Asshurnazipal II at Nimrod shows him in a winged wheel hovering over the symbolic tree of life. It is flanked by two nobles and two winged astronauts each bearing the symbols of immortality - the pine cone and the "situla" or water bucket.

[Comment: Drunvalo Melchizedek talks about the fact that the pine cone forms in the perfect Fibonacci Sequence. I have looked at pine cones after reading that, and it is true. Thus, if the Fibonacci Sequence is indeed incorporated into the mathematical structure of the Great Pyramid of Egypt, as Drunvalo suggests, then this symbol of a pine cone relating to Utu could indicate this as well, because the Great Pyramid and Sphinx were constructed in the first place to be "landing beacons," so to speak, for Space Commander Utuís Sinai Spaceport. Also, it is interesting that in the book Hamletís Mill by Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, in connection with the discussion of the Planet Nibiru in Appendix 39, the "symbolic tree" or "pukku" is detailed at great length. See also The Cosmic Tree.]



IN-ANNA or "The Beloved of Anu" was a twin to Shamash and granddaughter of Anu. Since Anu descended to Earth only occasionally to visit his sacred city of Uruk, Inanna convinced him to let her rule the city in his absence. Later she became the patron deity of Agade just before its destruction.

Better known by her Semitic name of Ishtar, she is depicted as a powerful goddess throughout the post-diluvian period, in the Western Lands as well as in Mesopotamia. Her sacred symbol, the eight-pointed star, is always predominant among the symbols of the ruling gods.

By virtue of her gender, Inanna or Ishtar could not legally rule, yet she managed to inject herself into politics everywhere. One poem describes her descent to the nether world to try to seize power from her older sister Ereshkigal.

[Comment: Because of all the incestuous relationships among these various ranking gods and goddesses, it is often difficult to determine just who was a sister or brother of whom, or who exactly was whose grandchild. It is my opinion, for example, that Inanna was the great-granddaughter, not merely the granddaughter, of Anu. These genealogical problems will be analyzed in much greater detail in a future article devoted specifically to royal lineages.]

Another myth relates how she managed to trick Enki into giving her some of the Tablets of Destiny or MEs which gave her the authority and the means to install herself as ruler of Uruk. In the famous "Gilgamesh Epic" she offers her favors to the hero of the epic who resoundly rejects her advances, thereby enraging her to the extent that she tried to destroy Gilgamesh.

The image presented by the Sumerian and Babylonian literature is a mixed one - that of the love goddess on the one hand, and that of the militant warrior on the other. She not only interfered in the affairs of Mesopotamia but also dominated the pantheon of the Western Lands of Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, and Anatolia where she was known under various names such as Ishtar, Ashtoreth, Astarte, Asherah, and Anat among others.

Inanna was the prototype for both warrior and love goddesses in the Mediterranean area and later became the model for the two Greek goddesses, Pallas Athena and Aphrodite.

[Comment: This is slightly incorrect. In Greco-Roman mythology Inanna was known as Aphrodite/Venus; thus, in Egypt as Hathor. Athena was a different goddess entirely, a Warrior Goddess who gave her name to the city of Athens and the consort of the Greco-Roman Warrior God Haphaestus/Vulcan/Typhon. These two warriors were known in Egypt, respectively, as Sekhmet and Ptah. From a Nibiruan linguistic standpoint, they could be referred to as Baron Ninurta and Baroness Bau.]



The youngest son of Enlil, ISH-KUR or "He of the Mountain Land" was assigned Anatolia as his domain. Ishkur attempted some inroads into the politics of Mesopotamia, but mostly he limited his activities to trying to extend his sphere of influence and control over Palestine or Canaan.

[Comment: Donít forget that Anatolia was the "Land of the Amazons and Lesbos," the legendary "Birth Goddesses" who revolted against the Emperor and Empress, causing the Eva to have to be created by Chief Medical Officer and Geneticist, the Queen Ninkhursag/Isis. For additional details, see the Sitchin material.]

Better known by his Semitic name Adad, he was the god of thunder and lightning. He is often depicted holding the forked lightning bolt. Adad was in all probability the Yahweh (Jehovah) of the Old Testament who tried to use Abraham at first, and later Moses, to extend his sphere of influence over the land of Canaan. This role is discussed below.

[Comment: This is flat wrong. Enlil was the Yahweh/Jehovah of the Bible. And this editor takes great issue with Zecharia Sitchinís attempt in his latest book "Divine Encounters," final chapter, to disassociate the Yahweh of Jewish tradition from the Nibiruan Pantheon. To put it quite bluntly, this was a terrible "cop-out" on Sitchinís part. He simply cannot have it both ways.]



Control over the operations of the cities and the activities of Mankind was exercised through a system of directives and formulas called the MEs in Sumerian. The exact meaning of the word is lost in antiquity, but it seemed to denote a set of rules or regulations assigned to every entity and phenomenon to keep it operating successfully.

[Comment: These MEs are discussed by Sitchin in great detail in "The Wars of Gods and Men," as well as by the authors of Hamletís Mill, Appendix 39.]

Sometimes they appear to be physical objects that one could pick up and carry. Possession of the ME gave the owner absolute control of a certain aspect of life or behavior. Perhaps they were something like our present-day computer chip on which data and operational orders were inscribed, and were used to activate a piece of equipment. In the myth "Enki and the World Order," the MEs appear to control an aircraft under the command of Enki. In this story, Enki is described as the "Lord who drives the great MEs."

The MEs were in the possession of Enki and were released gradually and sparingly to benefit Mankind. Our primary source of information on them is the story "Inanna and Enki" where civilization is divided into over 100 elements, each of which required a ME to keep it functioning.

Some 60 odd ones are readable in this myth and they include, for example, kingship, priestly office, wisdom, peace, counsel, judgment, falsehood, art, musical instruments, weapons, libel, prostitution, law, and the destruction of cities.

[Comment: This sounds like Archons of Destiny stuff again. Perhaps the highest strata of Nibiruan Royal Society are really the "Archons of Destiny."]

This myth concerns the successful attempt of Inanna to extract some of these MEs from Enki. According to the story, Enki had prepared a sumptuous feast to entertain the beautiful, but ambitious, granddaughter of Anu. Seeing that Enki had drunk too much wine and was inebriated, the opportunistic Inanna saw her chance and asked Enki for seven major MEs to which he foolishly agreed.

These MEs embraced the functions necessary for running a city, such as, how to manage a temple, the art of warfare and weapons, music and the arts, scribeship and mathematics, and many wood and metal crafts.

[Comment: Donít forget that Utu was the secret lover of Inanna and was eventually known as "the god of music and song" and the inventor of the flute and the lyre. She probably gave him the secrets of music, which she obtained from her deception of Enki.]

Later when Enki sobered up, he realized what he had done and sent his chamberlain by swift "boat of heaven" to pursue the fleeing Inanna and retrieve the MEs. [Comment: Remember how she cruised all over the Sirius Sector in pursuit of Duke Dumuzi and as a result set off the Pyramid Wars?] Inanna managed to outwit Enkiís messenger, however, and arrived at her adopted city of Uruk much to the acclaim of the citizenry. Inanna boasted that, for all practical purposes, she was now a ruler for she had the official trappings and authority of a monarch.

These MEs would not only confer authority to the owner but absolute power as well, by making the owner of certain MEs impregnable to weapons. This attribute is described in the Sumerian story of "The Myth of Zu." As a god serving as retainer to Enlil, Zu plotted a palace revolution by trying to seize control of the Tablets of Destiny that Enlil had carelessly left unattended. It was previously suggested that the culprit who attempted the coup díetat was probably none other than Nannar/Sin.

As Enlil was taking a bath, Zu conceived the idea of stealing the MEs or Tablets of Destiny, contending that these divine decrees would give him control over the Anunnaki and Mankind and place him in command of the pantheon.

Zu made good his boast and escaped with the Tablets. The pantheon was thrown into complete disarray by this alarming development. Enlil declared that someone must retrieve the MEs to prevent Zu from usurping the authority of the gods.

But it seemed that control of the MEs also made Zu impregnable, giving him the ability to deflect and nullify all weapons sent against him. Exploding arrows, sounding suspiciously like rocket missiles, were launched against him but were deflected by some sort of forcefield around the "mountain" redoubt that Zu had fortified.

Finally, Enki forged a new special weapon in his laboratory. It was given to Ninurta, the military aid of Enlil, who finally defeated Zu and brought him back to the airship for trial. Thus ended the worst threat ever experienced by the Sumerian ruling deities.

[Comment: Sitchin makes this "Zu" equal Marduk. See his book "The Wars of Gods and Men."]

The presence of similar symbols of authority are mentioned in the Scriptures where it is often stated that the possession of certain "divine names" conferred extraordinary power. Were the MEs of the Sumerians the same as the divine names of the Scriptures?

When Enoch, the antediluvian Patriarch, was deified upon his ascent to the "heavenly abode," he was given "seventy names," according to the "Hebrew Apocalypse of Enoch." Also called the "First Book of Enoch," this document is believed to have originated in Babylonian Jewry and is attributed to the Rabbi Ishmael, the renowned Palestinian scholar who died in 132 AD.

These seventy names conferred power and authority on Enoch second only to the chief deity. The "divine names" gave Enoch the power to smite kings, elevate the humble, subdue rulers, confer wisdom, make judgments, and "control the procession of time and the seasons." Presumably, the latter meant the authority to adjust the calendar when necessary, such as when worldwide catastrophe made the old calendars obsolete.