by Gerry Zeitlin
Quoted materials from
books, interviews, and
by Anton Parks
Readers of these pages have already encountered the term Kirišti
(look it up in the
Decoder), which is
associated with the concept of Christ.
Although this class of being arises in
the system of Gagsisá (Sirius), from which Sa'am/Enki embodied
genetic material, Parks clearly states that Sa'am/Enki did not meet
the genetic requirements for a Kirišti, and Parks himself, as human
as you and I, far less so!
This needs to be emphasized, as Parks' information relating to "Neb-Heru"
contains clarifications of the term Kirišti and readers are
cautioned not to gather from this that Parks is preparing in any way
to assume the role of such a being.
Parks includes in his appendix relating to Neb-Heru a very explicit
warning about this, written by "The Collective of the Site
Neb-Heru, the Morning Star
I am not in accord with author
Zecharia Sitchin's thesis concerning
Nibiru. I am absolutely certain that he describes Venus before it
entered the orbit that we know today.
In my appendix to Ádam Genisiš, NEB-HERU, The Morning Star, I bring
numerous new elements, in rapport with mythology, that explain that
there existed a planet between Mars and Jupiter which I name Mulge
(the Black Star). This planet was the base of the Life Designers in
the solar system. I have evoked its existence in Le Secret des Etoiles Sombres.
I saw at the time that I received knowledge of this history that
Venus was then its satellite. The war that brought the Anunna
against their opponents exploded Mulge more than 10,000 years ago.
When Mulge exploded, its satellite (the future Venus) was ejected
and roamed in the solar system for several thousand years.
In the heart of the ancient Egyptians, Venus is Neb-Heru (the lord
Horus), the avenger of his father Osiris. The funerary texts explain
this marvelously and clearly associate Horus and afterwards the dead
kings (the images of Horus) to the Morning Star.
I have compiled equally a large number of documents proving that
Venus wasn't in the place where we know it before 3000 [B.C.E.]
Numerous myths relate its wanderings in the solar system. I speak of
it in my appendix.
I am thus on this point in accord with the work
of Immanuel Velikovsky (Worlds in Collision).
Ádam Genisiš includes an appendix of this name, highlighting very
telling ancient texts concerning the planet Venus, which they called
(among other appellations) the Morning Star, and which they describe
as having been a roving star ("astre") before taking its present
position in the solar system.
As he says, this interpretation was
Immanuel Velikovsky in
Worlds In Collision.
Yes, we know how Velikovsky fared at the hand of the brilliant Carl
Sagan. We hope that our pages may help to redress the affair, which
has served to deprive generations of the knowledge which was their
Parks examines a number of singular documents that confirm, in part,
the proposals of Velikovsky, as well as the cosmic events described
in Ádam Genisiš, involving the "astre" Mulge-Tab (companion of Mulge).
The most eloquent of these documents are funerary Egyptian texts,
but others are just as convincing.
Here is a brief outline (paraphrased from Ádam Genisiš) of the
method Parks used to develop his "Neb-Heru/Morning Star" scenario.
Document the total conviction of the Mesopotamians about the place
of origin of their gods. Set against this ideology the recent
astronomical discoveries concerning the solar system.
This serves to
reestablish a truth long distorted by authors such as Zecharia
Sitchin who wished to see in a wandering member of the solar system,
the original home of the Anunna "gods" of the Mesopotamian texts.
Attempt to identify this perturbing celestial object.
It is found to
be mentioned in the Indian Rig-Veda. Draw parallels between this
Vedic text and the Egyptian ideology. Note that there is a common
Establish that Enki and Osiris were one and the same personage.
leads to the possibility of authenticating the amphibian filiations
of Enki-Osiris (Sa'am) as well as his consanguinity with the Abgal
Designers-of-Life from Sirius - those which were considered to be KIR-IS-TI.
Together, these facts connect the Kiristi with the
Christ, symbolized by the Morning Star in the hermetic passages of
the Bible. This in turn leads to interpretations of the meaning of
the various crosses found in different parts of the world.
explore the sacrificial tradition of
the Dogons which recounts the
death of Nommo, the "Christ" of Mali.
In consequence of this
sacrifice, the universe was disrupted, along with the positions of
the stars. All of this gives for the first time the opportunity to
assimilate the sacrificed celestial Nommo to a celestial body, whose
destruction produced the birth of the planet Venus.
Perform a close study of the origins and formation of the planet
Venus as seen by different cultures. Note that Venus is always born
from the destruction of its progenitor.
Explore the connections between various myths that see the planet
Venus as having caused floods over the ages.
Noting that in the
Mesopotamian traditions, Venus and its progenitor bore the names Neberu and Mulge, begin to understand the hermetic ideology of the
Egyptians that saw in the dismembered Osiris the asteroid belt.
Discover that the shattered tree of the horizon and the primordial
hill from which emerged the new sun (Venus) form an identity: a
celestial image of Osiris in the sky. Osiris symbolizes the hill of
the ancient gods (Kadištu) because he is their representative on
Earth. Horus the Avenger, the posthumous son of Osiris, represents
the Morning Star.
Show that the various Pharaohs (images of Horus)
all symbolize Venus. Discover through a study of the Egyptian
funerary texts that the soul of the Pharaohs must make the celestial
voyage that permits the rejoining of the dismembered body of Osiris
in the sky and restoration of the previously disrupted universe.
that, they must follow the ancient path of Neb-Heru (Horus-Venus),
the orbit that goes from the light to the darkness.
discoveries lead to the resounding evidence that the Mesopotamian astre Neberu and the Egptian Neb-Heru form the same astral image.
Provide a graphic showing a possible bit of the object's disruptive
Put simply: there was indeed a wandering object in the solar system,
which was occasionally highly disruptive to the Earth (and other
Its birth out of the destruction of another celestial body
was observed by humans, as was its eventual assumption of a stable
solar orbit. We know it as Venus. It never was the home of the gods,
and there is no such place associated with the solar system.
there are deep connections between this object - Venus - and
Horus/Neb-Heru, with Osiris identified as its progenitor.
"Neberu" vs. the Planets X
Parks first examines Zecharia Sitchin's assertions that the
Sumerians placed the origins of the Anunnaki on a wandering planet
that they named "Neberu" or "Nibiru".
This planet, according to Sitchin, possesses a highly elliptical orbit of period 3600
terrestrial years. Sitchin apparently derives this idea solely from
the clay tablet "VA-243", which he believes shows the mysterious
astre revolving around a sun.
But this is not any sort of astronomical document. It contains three
lines of text, simply indicating:
"Dusbsiga (a personal name), Ili-Illat
(personal name), your servant".
There is no allusion to Neberu and
no trace of this planet as the home of the Anunna(ki) "gods". Nor is
there any tablet that declares such a thing.
I repeat, there is none! [If there were,] the whole world could
verify it, a thing which has definitely not been done up to the
present. I insist and I show this in my recent book.
I am not asking
anyone to believe words that I have received affirming,
is better than any other".
On the contrary, I must insist that M. Sitchin doesn't seem to know the truth about the tablets that he
pretends to analyze. Otherwise, he would long ago have given the
references to those tablets that a rash handful have demanded of him
Nowhere is there any written allusion such as,
"the Anunna of Neberu"
or "the gods of Neberu" or "they descended from Neberu".
On the contrary, all the Mesopotamian texts evoke a unique place of
origin for the Anunna(ki), clearly denominated Duků, of which the
sense is "sacred mound" or "holy mound".
The Gina'abul-Anunna and the Sumerians had the habit of using the
terms "mountain" or "mound" to poetically name heavenly places in
the sky, and more precisely stars and planets. The Sumerians
utilized this same term Duků to designate chapels in Eridu and
Nippur, in honor of the primordial hilltop of the "gods".
No need to search for any connection between the Duků and Neberu;
there is none.
But Neberu plays a key role in Sitchin's thesis. The Anunnaki needed
Earth's gold to place in the atmosphere of their distressed planet
in order to fix the sunlight; this was supposed to help retain the
atmosphere. Thus the need for gold mines and for human slaves to
work in them.
But as explained in
Le Secret des Etoiles Sombres and
the gold served a radically different purpose, in relation to the
secret of immortality! See our page Twilight of the Age of Heroics
for specific information about this.
Meanwhile, neither Sitchin nor anyone else has identified one word
of support for the gold-in-the-atmosphere thesis in the Mesopotamian
mythology. Furthermore, the name Neberu (Nibiru) itself is rarely
found, and when it is, it seems to be associated with the planet
Jupiter or with Mercury.
If Neberu indeed exists, would it not be one of the objects recently
discovered (since 2002) at the periphery of the solar system? Let's
look at their characteristics:
2002 LM60 "Quaoar"
||Nearly circular, mostly
||Largest known Kuiper Belt
2003 EL61 "Santa"
||Length 2300 (elongated) =
||Two small satellites
2003 VB12 "Sedna"
diameter of Pluto's or Neptune's, perihelion
||Member of "inner Oort
2004 DW "Orcus"
perihelion 30.5 AU, 2:3 resonance with
||minor ice planet
2005 FY9 "Easterbunny"
||3/4 size of Pluto
perihelion 38.5 AU
2003 UB313 "Eris"
||Perihelion 38 AU
||In "scattered disc", just
beyond Kuiper belt
Many of these have highly-elongated orbits, yet they are all
transneptunian, meaning that they never come within the orbit of
Neptune - a minimum requirement, one would think, for the
Mesopotamians to have seen them raging through the sky. And not one
of them has an orbital period anywhere near 3600 years.
How could Neberu be any of these?
There is also a problem stemming from the name given to Pluto by the
Sumerians and Akkadians: ŠU-PA.
Sitchin translates this as "the
supervisor of SU". Parks explains why this cannot be correct, and
opts to translate ŠU-PA as "the control of the ramification (branch
point)", meaning the planet that controls the astres and planetoids
situated outside the solar system.
The Sumerians recognized Pluto as
the first planetoid of a very large family!
Parks also notes that the descriptions of the solar system cited by
Sitchin to validate his thesis all imply the presence of the
asteroid belt. We will see that this dates from approximately 10,000
years ago; various other traditions distinctly hold this notion, as
we shall also see.
That said, we note all the same the fact that the Mesopotamian
astronomers did seem well acquainted with an obscure Neberu, whose
periodic passages frightened everyone.
Parks proposes that the Sumerian "gods" knew the solar system well,
including the position of Pluto. But the "gods", and by consequence
the Mesopotamians, had not been able to tabulate the planets beyond
Pluto because they are unnumerable. And this corresponds well to the
way recent astronomical discoveries are pointing.
It is perfectly possible that a planet matching the characteristics
of Sitchin's Nibiru may someday be found. But what would qualify it
to be the "10th planet" (12th by Sitchin's counting)?
And as to such a planet's being the original planet of the Sumerian
"gods", the clay tablets and all of Parks' work state otherwise.
But Parks' work is not concerned with this issue. His Neb-Heru, the
Morning Star appendix to Ádam Genisiš is devoted to demonstrating
that at a certain epoch of our story, an astre - a celestial
object, in this case a planet - that was already a part of the
solar system, was displaced, and strongly perturbed all the planets
of this system over a period of several millennia.
And this planet
is easily identified.
Sitchin's Nibiru and the Longevity of the Anunnaki
Throughout his books, and in public talks, Zecharia Sitchin has
ascribed the remarkable longevity of the Anunnaki to their home
dwelling place, the planet Nibiru, whose orbital period is 3600
This, he says, means that every year of the life of an Anunnaki god equals 3600 years of earth human life.
That no one challenges Sitchin on this nutty idea is a tribute to
the cultish quality of his following. However he was challenged once
- by me, at a public appearance in the Bay Area. I simply asked him
how he might justify the assertion that longevity and aging are
linked to the length of a planet's year.
His (smirking) reply: "Next question?"
I won't easily forget that arrogant smirk. May I say, you have in
this exchange the epitome of the Sitchinesque logic and reasoning
Identifying the Celestial Disrupter
The epoch of disruption would have occurred within the time embraced
by the history of long-lived indigenous cultures still found on the
This motivates Parks - as it did Velikovsky and others
- to delve into diverse mythologies, searching for descriptions of
the disruptions and whatever caused them.
Tales of monumental disruptions are common. As to what caused them,
the source is often described as a fiery celestial visitor, and as
often as not, the visitor is personified as a god.
Mythologists readily accept such cultural myths of gods as
descriptions of natural events. Parks follows this practice, while
also knowing that actual living beings were also seen as gods.
This might tend to confuse the reader. Really it should not, when it
is recalled that memories of both powerful beings and powerful
celestial events were accumulated and retained over thousands of
years... and memories can be quite plastic.
Parks begins the quest with the Indian Rig-Veda and its description
of the awesome Agni [Decoder], god of fire and sacrifice, the
celestial perturber that heaved the earth, yet a warrior in the
personal sense, mighty in combat.
Parks traces connections between the Vedic Agni and the biblical
Lucifer (Venus), the Latin name meaning "light bearer". In the Greek
version of the Bible, Lucifer is named Phosphorus, which also
translates as "light bearer".
Doubtless from the celebrated passage
"How are you fallen from the sky, Star of the Morning
...the Christian church makes the erroneous
association with Satan (look up this name in the
Parks provides several astonishingly parallel references to Agni in
Note: Of necessity we are being brief; Parks' treatment of the
Indian and other myths in his appendix is lengthy.
As with other
aspects of his work, we cannot provide the details on these pages,
but we do attempt to trace the outline or structure of his material,
to at least help the reader gain an appreciation of the logical
Or is there yet more in store for the reader? Consider this: Parks'
narrative has on several occasions explicitly described the
initiations of the central character, Sa'am, who is revealed in Ádam
Genisiš to be identical to Enki-Ea, Osiris, and other important
In his pursuit of information reflecting on the identity of
the celestial perturber, Parks goes deeply, one might say lovingly,
into ancient scriptures of several cultures that have always been
with us, but that we now clearly see are also devoted to initiation.
For example, there is the Egyptian Book of the Dead, containing
instructions to the dead Osiris who with the aid of the initiating
priestesses will undergo transformation into Horus, and rise like
the Phoenix from the burning ashes.
can one undergo initiation by reading about the
information transmitted to the initiate in full ceremony?
One would think not; the initiation must be experienced; death or
imminent death must be a part of the experience. The information
alone is insufficient; it is not knowledge. Yet the information is
Now consider the human race as a whole. In your opinion, with
respect to the information written in these books by Anton Parks,
would you say that the human race has been ignorant? I would, yes.
Is the human race at this time facing the experience of death or
An outrageous suggestion, perhaps. Perhaps with vital information
about its past and about its true place in the cosmos, the human
race gains the potential to move from the status of uninitiated to
pre-initiated and then to the initiated state.
Parks provides passages from the Rig-Veda that clearly associate
Agni with the the Egyptian Horus (Heru).
Some notable points:
Born of two mothers... powerful and reasonable... for the sake of
man and the worlds... reposes throughout nature... extracted by
rubbing from the breast of his parents... first borne to the east
and then to the west.
Rig-Veda, Hymn 12, by Angiras Hiranyastupa
When Agni wished to harness his chariot, his two mothers labored
first by mutual efforts to give him a body... These two mothers who
remain together hold equally in their breast the fruit who,
faithfully conserved, born day and night, always young, always in
movement, immortal across the human ages.
Rig-Veda, Hymn 8, by Dirghatamas
Where the father of Agni is "the master of the sacrifice", Osiris is
himself the great sacrifice.
The two mothers of Agni are comparable
to those of Horus: two pieces of wood making the ritual fire. They
represent night and dawn. Isis and Nephtys transform themselves
symbolically into docking posts to guide the soul of Osiris so that
he will not be lost in the void but will be able to raise himself
and transmute himself into Ra'af (black sun or black celestial body)
before reincarnating as Horus, the celestial son.
This ritual is accomplished in the Great Pyramid.
As noted in Le
Secret, the Egyptian term for pyramid is Mer. Please consult the
Decoder for a full elaboration of this word.
Readers may recall that the Great Pyramid is symbolic of Isis. The
tomb of Thutmosis III (Amduat, 5th Hour, Register 3, 374) leaves no
doubt of this, because it assimilates the flesh of Isis to the
The head of the goddess is clearly seen at the
The pyramid symbolizes Isis. At its eastern extremity (on the right)
appear a serpent and a star, representing the Morning Star.
seated divinities evoke the four aspects required for the
transmutation of the dead king into the celestial Horus in the form
of Seker/Sokaris (lower center, with two wings).
Before the head of
the serpent-star an inscription reads, "Living God. He goes and he
returns. He opens (the door called) the slicer."
The Great Pyramid is the place where the "god" Osiris was conceived
and resuscitated as Horus, the first divine king of Egypt.
of Osiris, equipped for the great voyage, was placed in the
sarcophagus in the chamber known as "the King's", while the two
mothers, Isis and Nephtys, were stationed in the lower chamber
("queen's") to produce the son, the divine falcon.
In the ancient Egyptians' Book of the Dead this falcon ("of gold")
is proclaimed to have the head of a Phoenix (because of its
feathered crest of brilliant colors), which Parks shows is connected
to another passage of the Rig-Veda (Hymn 10) concerning the birth of
the royal infant Cumara, heir of the throne.
The deceased, assimilated to Horus, explains what he sees, what he
This passage has the sense of the Hymn 10 mentioned above.
I came today from the land of Ruty (the double lion); I left there
to go to the dwelling place of Isis the divine.
I have seen the
secret mysteries, having been conducted to the hidden retreats,
because they have made me see the birth of the great god; Horus has
granted me his Bâ (soul) and I have seen what was there... I am the
one who has been charged with bringing his thoughts to Osiris and to
It is I, the falcon who lives in the light, who is
powerful thanks to his diadem, he who is powerful thanks to his
radiance. I will cause him to go and to return, as far as the ends
Parks provides many more examples from Egypt and India, tying
together the Morning Star, falcon and phoenix, and the planet Venus
as essential factors in rituals of resurrection.
This history brings to us precious mythological correspondences.
Parashu-Râma, the Indian Venus, possessed a father considered as the
sacrificial fire in the image of Osiris who is the grand sacrificed
in Egypt. The Purânas indicate that the terrestrial father of Venus
worked for humanity and that he was in relation with the priests and
the master agriculturalists.
Were these not the functions of Enki in
Mesopotamia and of Osiris in Egypt?
The Mahâbhârata indicates that
Jamadani, the terrestrial father of Venus, was assassinated by a
king and his son belonged to a warrior cast. We know that Osiris (Enki)
was assassinated by Seth (Enlil) and his proud partners (the Anunna
The murder of Enki does not appear to exist on the
Mesopotamian tablets, because his assassination did not take place
As will be explained in the third volume [a reference to Le Réveil
du Phénix], the ancient Egyptian priests in the service of the
Osirian cult succeeded in partly hiding the murder of Osiris and in
"reviving" their "god", notably in his principal temple at Abdju
(Abydos) in Upper Egypt.
The objective of the technique was to cause
Osiris, the dead god, to speak through the voice of a carefully
Thus the penitent-initiate, after a long iniiatic
journey and a beneficial ritual bath in the temple water, had the
impression of hearing the voice of Osiris while viewing the holy
relic, at Abydos the head of the Egyptian "god".
doubtlessly evoked the fixed and glassy-eyed or expressionless
aspect of Enki in his Abzu surrounded by water.
Photo 2008 by
For a review of general information on this structure, see
Abydoss: The Osireion. Osiris treats Osiris as the primary deity
of Egypt at the time of the height of its civilization.
THOSE BUILDING BLOCKS: CARVED OR RECONSTITUTED STONE (CONCRETE)?
A controversy has raged for many years over whether the stone blocks
used in such structures as the Osireion (seen above; click for
enlargement) and the pyramids are quarried limestone or concrete,
poured and molded in place.
Parks is convinced that the building
blocks used in these structures, not only in Egypt but in Central
and South America, are indeed mixed and poured.
Archaeologists agree that the Roman civilization had and extensively
used concrete, but question whether this technology could have been
possessed by much earlier civilizations. And isn't it easier to
simply accept that the blocks were quarried from the seabed and
dragged up onto the pyramids by Jewish slaves under the urging of
the Egyptian overseers and their whips?
We find that the very question is inappropriate, based as it is on
erroneous models of human civilization and history.
created the human race, in Parks' memory experiences, had and used
concrete building blocks for pyramid-style buildings on their home
planets, and so naturally continued the practice here.
Parks has shared with us some of his personal photographs that he
made in Egypt in 2007.
Part of the ground surface at the foot of the Great Pyramid.
molding is manifest, impossible to create such paving by other
A stone taken from the Great Pyramid. A fine particle on the surface
This stone is warm in the shade, where a natural
stone would be cold!
[Implies higher specific heat and/or some
difference in the distribution of air pockets, etc.]
Temple of the Valley, facing the Sphinx.
Take careful note of the
angles and how certain stones form angles.
Above all, note how these
stones resemble those of South American structures, such as at
These cyclopean blocks are of the same type as those of the Osireion at Abydos.
Temple of the Valley. The central stone possesses five corners,
where one would have been sufficient.
Such prowess could have been
achieved only by molding.
The same technology as exhibited by the
Amerindians of Mexico and South America.
It can be nothing other
In related research, Parks examines an image found in a University
of Bern general review article on the Osireion.
There is access at
Abydos: Voruntersuchung für die Sanierung des Osireions (6.4.2005).
Images are found on that page, while the article's text is contained
At left we show the image that caught Parks'
click here to view a
detail of the stone at the top.
He points out...
In zooming onto the stone, I found seashells!!!
But there are no shellfish in the Nile (it being sweet
Thus this image indicates that the Osireion was covered by the sea
at some point in time. And that means the Osireion predates the last
great world flood dating more than 10,000 years ago. At least this
is a supplementary proof.
The Abdju (Abydos) site was sufficiently important that each
Egyptian made a pilgrimage there at least once in his life.
Please review the Decoder entry for abzu. The Sumerian word is very
similar to the Egyptian hieroglyphic for the sacred city of Osiris:
Abdju (Abydos). (There is no Z in Egyptian.)
A modern language correspondence may be illuminating: absoudre (Fr.)
from the Latin absolvo / absolvere. In Christianity, to absolve of
one's trespasses through a sacrament of penitence is exactly what
the initiates in Egypt did as they presented themselves in the
Osireion of Abdju (Abydos).
Note: In the third volume Parks will explain why the body of Osiris
was originally interred under the Giza plateau, afterward to be
dispersed and brought back together in several temples of the time
in the Egyptian territory.
The principal sanctuary of Enki-Ea was situated at Eridu. This
aquatic temple that symbolized the primordial waters bore the name
É.ABZU (the dwelling place of the Abzu). According to tradition,
when he was not in the Abzu itself (the subterranean world), Enki
usually lived in this type of temple with his wife, where they were
accompanied by Abgal [see Races], "saintly carp" who later became
The term Abzu came to serve to designate parts of certain
sanctuaries associated with extensions of natural or artificial
bodies of water in the form of basins and of copses of roses and
In Egypt, the aquatic temple of Osiris at Abdju (Abydos) gives but a
small idea of the Mesopotamian "Abzu sanctuaries" of which there
remain only very few vestiges today. But it is without doubt the
first of a series dedicated to Enki-Osiris.
Abydos was a necropolis where the Egyptian sovereigns all had their
sepulchres. Its local divinity was Khentamentiu, "the First of the
Occidentals (Westerners)", which is to say the first god coming from
The occident was regarded by the Egyptians as their
ancestors' place of origin. This was the land of A'amenptah
(Atlantis), the country of Ptah.
Please refer to the Decoder entry for Ptah. As we have seen, this
"First of the Occidentals" was no other than Sa'am-Enki before the
designation was attributed to Usir (Osiris) upon his death.
A'amenptah (Decoder) refers to Atlantis, the homeland from which
came a part of the ancient Egyptians.
After its successive engulfments, the island of the A'amentptah was progressively
transformed into the Amenti or the Amenta, the Occident or West, the
world beyond the terrestrial life of the Egyptian culture, where the
We must not fail to connect the Amenti with the
surname given to Enki-Ea in Emesal: Amanki "Lord of Heaven and
Archaeologists have always agreed on the great antiquity of the
Osireion, that in fact it is the oldest structure found in Egypt.
Parks traces the discussions, the more radical of which place it at
11000 to 12000 years ago.
In Ádam Genisiš Parks designates this
building as the first cenotaph in all of Mesopotamia erected in the
honor of Osiris-Enki.
Its construction of cyclopean stones using the
same technique employed in building the Sphinx, dates it to the time
of the final engulfment of Atlantis and the death of Osiris, almost
12,000 years ago. And this puts it at the epoch of the explosion of Mulge (the "black star") and the ejection of its satellite that
brushed the Earth, provoking the upset that is discussed in the
book, and others of which Parks will write in his third volume.
The Egyptians also named Abdju Ta-ur, "the Great Earth". This term
also evoked in a way the "hill of the origins", the primordial land
of the Egyptian "gods".
To the Mesopotamians, the "hill of the
origins" is the Duků, the celestial realm where the Anunna "gods"
were created. In Egypt, it seems more to be the land of the
ancestors, that is to say at the time of the A'amenpteh (Atlantis)
from which arose the majority of the Egyptians, and the Abzu, the
Their celestial "pendant", their "Hill of the
Origins," was no other than the "astre" of the "gods", the planet
found between Mars and Jupiter, of which we will speak later.
In Ádam Genisiš the two primordial hills (Ta-ur and the Duků) are
geographically and politically opposed. Atlantis and the Abzu
symbolized the lands and the people of Enki-Osiris and the Duků more
the Anunna of Enlil-Seth.
Ta-ur, the great Earth of the ancient Egyptians materialized through
Abydos and its original Osireion butte, gains its full Hermetic
sense when we decompose its name in Sumerian:
TA-ÚR "toward the
roots" or TA-UR5 "toward the heart of the foundation" or even "the
nature of the soul."
Enki = Osiris
Parks finds numerous correspondences between the Sumerian Enki-Ea
and the Egyptian Osiris, and Quetzalcoatl as well, supporting his
"memories" that they are indeed one. (Quetzalcoatl is the subject of
a future book.)
We do not have space to convey here all of the
material from his Neb-Heru appendix, but here are a few of the main
The Sumerian word ENGUR generally designated the underground waters
of the Abzu, the subterranean world. It was often employed as a
synonym of "Abzu". ENGUR also corresponded to the Akkadian term Apsu.
It was a saintly name associated with the goddess Nammu and her son
We can decompose the term as EN-GUR8 and translate that in two
"the lord (or ancestor) of the profoundness (or depths), or
again "to the depths".
Parks finds an Egyptian form in the hieroglyphic En-Khu-Ur ("for the
glory of the prince").
The Cuneiform sign for ENGUR resembles the plan of the Osireion of
Osiris at Abdju.
"Enki" [Lord of the Earth] declines to "É-A" [(Master of the) Temple
of the Water] in Akkadian. Parks shows a Mesopotamian cylinder seal
depicting Enki-Ea, solitary and vegetative, in his watery sanctuary
Shown below is a corresponding Egyptian image, a
symbolic representation of the Osireion of Abdju (Abydos).
The hidden meanings of the Engur of Enki such as "place where one
restores the heart" or "place absorbed in repose" correspond
perfectly with the diverse Egyptian temples, such as the Osireion,
in which were sheltered tombs in honor of Osiris.
Note to the right
of Osiris, the Ankh, symbol of life.
The ENGUR sign as given by Parks is a rectangle containing a cross,
symbol of the KIR-IŠ-TI [Decoder], captured by the Christian church
as the symbol of Jesus Christ.
The sign of course well antedates Christianity and is found on
numerous ancient monuments, especially those of Central America,
where it is identified as the "Cross of Quetzalcoatl" - the being
assimilated to the Morning Star and the Christ of the pre-Columbian
culture. We will see that he appears to be a double of Horus.
The circled cross of Quetzalcoatl symbolizes the new (fifth) sun of
the Aztec culture, created after the destruction of the preceding
world by Quetzalcoatl and his "shadow" Xolotl.
The planet Venus, as the Morning Star, was also considered as the
new sun by the ancient Egyptians, and was none other than Horus, the
The Engur symbol equally resembles a coffin or casket, the semblance
being confirmed by the fact that this sign can be pronounced ZIKUM,
meaning "sky" in Sumerian. But ZIKUM can also be decomposed as
ZI-KUM, meaning "wounded life", "wounded spirit", or even "wounded
and carried away"!
Does not the spirit of a mortally wounded person
ascend to heaven? Is this not what happened to the spirit of Osiris?
Given that the Akkadian pronunciation of ZIKUM is Šamű, Parks offers
more wordplay; see the Decoder entry for Šamű.
In summary, Parks has shown a number of connections between the
Mesopotamian Enki-Ea and the Egyptian "god" Osiris and with notions
relating to the resurrection of the Egyptian "god".
He mentions that...
...numerous Egyptian cities possessed culture centers designated as
"Per Ankh "House of Life", generally attached to major temples of
We may compare them to schools or universities for
learning distinct sciences following disciplines such as history,
astronomy, writing, etc. The city of Abjdu (Abydos) was reputed to
have specialized in medicine.
Interesting that Enki-Ea was, in the
eyes of the Sumerians, the great doctor, the healing serpent of the
Sign of the Fish
Readers are likely aware that Carl Sagan and co-author I.S. Shklovskii (Intelligent Life in the Universe) were taken with
Babylonian historian Berosus' account of the amphibious teacher
Oannes, who brought knowledge to the neolithic peoples of the
Their discussion, along with the work of Zecharia
Sitchin, whose first book was published ten years after Sagan's and
Shklovskii's, on the mystery of the Oannes and the related Nommo
the Dogons of Mali, and Robert Temple's (The Sirius
Mystery) focusing more on the Nommo, constitute the sources of the
many ongoing discussions and speculations on extraterrestrial
contact with early human civilizations.
It actually is not much to go on, and would seem to offer no further
insights as to what took place, which is most unfortunate
considering the monumental impact such a connection must have had on
the path of human development leading to the world in which we find
As it happens, Parks' virtual-reality memories are filled with
information about the Oannes and Nommo amphibians, who are Abgal
originally from Sirius, and this is conveyed in both of his books to
date, Le Secret des Etoiles Sombres and Ádam Genisiš.
In the present
section of his Neb-Heru appendix to Ádam Genisiš, Parks checks his
memories against ancient legends and myths, and shows that the
contact, if that is what it was, left much wider residue for us to
This is important not only in itself, but in its bearing
on the Mulge/Mulge-Tab/Morning Star scenario, due to a major
connection between the amphibious Abgal and the lost planet Mulge.
The Egyptian term Abdju (Abydos) possesses a homophone whose sense
is "fish". This sacred fish served as pilot of the solar bark of Râ.
Its function was to warn the passengers of the bark of enemies sent
We have no difficulty in identifying the Abdju fish with a
symbolic Horus or even better a reincarnated Osiris, while the
Sumerian counterpart of Osiris is Enki who himself possessed the
This fish that precedes the solar bark is evidently the planet Venus
which today leads [at least it does sometimes] the course of the sun
We know that the fish equally represents Sirius, the Egyptians'
other sacred star and the home of the amphibian Life Designers. Of
course this reminds us of the aquatic beings called Nommos
frequently mentioned in Ádam Genisiš.
The Dogons affirm that the
Nommos restored the world several times and that they transmitted to
humanity such gifts as speech and grain.
To the Sumerians the Nommos are the famous Abgal who follow Enki's
directives. The Sumerian term Abgal translates to Apkallű in
Akkadian, a designation for a sage and, as follows, a priest.
Berossus, the Babylonian historian and priest of the Temple of Bel
in Babylon brings us some details concerning an Abgal-Apkallű in a
surviving fragment of his book
The Babyloniaca, unfortunately lost
in the meanderings of history.
His descriptions are reminiscent of
those of the Dogon.
In Babylon there were many people of diverse origins who dwelled in
Chaldee and lived lawlessly, like animals in the fields.
In the first year there appeared a being that came out of the
Erytheraeum Sea that runs parallel to Babylon. It said its name was
Oannes and it was an animal gifted with reason. Its body seemed to
be that of a fish.
It had under its fish's head another head; it
also had feet like those of a man, coming from its fish's tail. Its
voice and language were human in their articulation.
representation has been conserved down to our time.
This being was accustomed to passing the day among men, but it never
took any food. It gave them elements of learning in letters,
science, metallurgy, art, the manner of constructing cities, of
founding temples, creating laws; it taught the principles of
It showed them how to distinguish the grains of the earth
and to harvest fruits. In short, it instructed them in each thing
that would serve to "sweeten" their mores and to humanize their
At that time, no material needed to be added to improve these
instructions. And when the sun rose, this being, Oannes, returned to
the water, to pass the night in the depths, because it was
There followed other animals resembling Oannes.
Berossus, in The Ancient Fragments, Isaac Preston Coy, 1980
The records of the Egyptian Helladius report that a man-fish named
Oe lived in the Persian Gulf. He had come out of a luminous egg and
consecrated himself to the erudition of humanity.
There is a myth among the indigenous Pomo tribes of California that
tells of the arrival of a supreme founder being who "came out of the
ocean and transformed himself into a man."
In China there appeared the Lingyus, aquatic beings with human face,
hands, and feet, but with the body of a fish.
In Egypt, fish was consumed by the people, but was strictly
forbidden at the royal table of the Pharaoh! Doubtlessly, the
pharaohs knew the symbolic truth of the fish. In a way, some of them
remembered the "amphibian" origins of their "god" Osiris who was
"massacred" by his enemy Seth.
Strangely, Jesus Christ was sacrificed on a Friday, the day when the
Christians eat fish.
The Christian church has obviously chosen to
hijack the symbols.
Anubis, the embalmer god,
charged with the mummification of Osiris
and of the rite of KRST (interment).
Osiris was the first "god" to
be buried and brought back from the dead.
Tomb of Khabeknet, 19th
There is a quasi-homophone of Abdju [see previous section,
in the Egyptian language: Abtu.
According to Budge, this term has
the meaning: massacre, carnage, bloodshed. He noted that the term
equally signified "sacrifice(s)", and that as late as the 19th
dynasty, as revealed in The Book of the Amduat (Div 7), the
Egyptians believed that human sacrifices originated from the time
when Osiris was buried.
Continuing with this development, Parks shows that the hieroglyphic
representation of the name Sa'am carries the meanings "to kill" and
The name "Osiris" (Usir = the seat of the eye) was
given to Sa'am after his death by the Egyptians, who knew his true
Sign of the
Cross - KIR-IŠ-TI and the Morning Star
Followers of the major religions, especially the western ones, tend
to believe that certain miraculous events took place at a favored
place and time, involving unique super-human individuals, which led
to the religious system that they know.
They usually do not realize
that all of these religions are filled with rich mythological
elements that had already existed for thousands of years before
their religion's founding days.
Religious scholars do know this; this is what they study, and this
study does not seem to interfere with or undermine their religions
faith. They maintain a dual focus.
Anton Parks also has a dual focus, but his is not the situation of a
conventional religious scholar. On the one hand he has his vivid
memory-like impressions of being a full participant in the events
that eventually became "mythologized" elements of religions. On the
other hand, he has become a student of the mythologies that
This not only serves him (and us) as a check on his
experiential information, but it brings out information about events
taking place at the time that the myths were developing into what
they now are.
Important case in point:
we are concerned in this section of our
work with the planet Venus, because it appears to be today's remnant
Characteristics ascribed to Venus down the millennia
might tell us something about the putative Earth/Mulge-Tab
encounter. And some of these characteristics have been associated
with or ascribed to religious figures, such as Jesus Christ.
As stated at the top of this page, the term KRST and variations are
decomposed on the Decoder page.
Please review the important concepts
given as relating to these words.
We also mentioned at the top of the page that Sa'am-Enki (Osiris)
was considered by certain Gina'abul as being a KIR-IŠ-TI. At the end
of the book Ádam Genisiš there is a description of the rite of
resurrection of which Sa'am-Enki was the object.
There was an occult Egyptian concept that considered Osiris, the
premier dead and resuscitated "god", as being symbolically
transmuted into the Morning Star before reincarnating as Horus.
in the New Testament, Jesus declares himself,
"The Alpha and the
Omega, the First and the Last..., the progeny of the race of David,
the radiant Morning Star."
(Apocalypse 22.13 and 16)
In Apocalypse 22, Jesus presents himself as "he who comes".
the Alpha and Omega, he appears as the first and the last. He is the
king, the source, the Annointed of the Eternal. His role as Messiah
is clearly defined.
We find here several extremely precise
aspects which are "in affinity" with Osiris and Horus. The Greek
term Christos - Messias
in Latin - possesses the sense "anointed, blessed by the lord".
One speaks of a person who has been anointed (from the Latin unctum,
"unguent") when he has been consecrated by a liturgical unction.
The initiatic ritual in the cenotaph of Osiris at Abdju (Abydos)
consists precisely of this, and from this ritual comes the Christian
The initiate, also the future king, presents himself in the pool
after a long initiatic journey. He climbs the steps to gain access
to the central island on which is found the head of Osiris and is
reborn as a young sun.
We have just noted that the term Messiah comes from the Latin
Messias. However we do not fail to underscore that the Egyptian
is translated as "to be born" or "to mother"!
The initiation ritual in the Osireion temple of Abdju is reminiscent
of the earlier Sumerian one that led the "gods" to the Engur of Enki-Ea
in the Abdju, the subterranean world:
You enter the Earth; Geb (god of the Earth), opens himself for you.
You enter the subterranean hall under the (sacred) trees. You have
arrived now, near to the god (Osiris), the god who sleeps in his
His true image reclines on his funeral bed.
Heket (HÉ-KET), "who blends the breath" in Sumero-Akkadian, is a
goddess with the head of an amphibian. She wears the Ankh sign,
which is her attribute par excellence.
Heket is a primordial divinity who gives life; she forms the infant
in the maternal belly. She is "the saintly obstetrician".
This goddess contributes to the regeneration of Osiris in the
Osireion of Abdju and to the conception of Horus as the resurrection
of his father.
In all these attributes she resembles the goddess Nut, mother of
Osiris, who one knows to be the double of Nammu, the mother of Enki,
herself amphibian in nature.
In this holy place, one accords him the title "Vindicated". His body
is purified in Râ-Anedjti; his flesh is purified in the (sacred)
basin of Heket.
For you, are opened the Gates of the Horizon of the Other World. In
peace, in peace, you attain the holy place of Osiris. You pass the
night and you sleep in the secret place of the mysteries.
The abyss of Osiris-Enki is without doubt the abyss of the world,
the dwelling-place of the "god" of water, in miniature. The initiate
is taken deep into the Earth, through the tunnel leading to the
subterranean Osireion, and is immersed in the sacred water before
climbing onto the sacred isle (platform) and encountering the
sarcophagus and the reliquary containing the head of Osiris.
The immersion occasioned a sort of programming that had the effect
of exalting the miracle of the initiate's resurrection.
In the Abzu or in Abdju, the initiate faces the
Messiah, which is to say the savior, the liberator who will absolve
him of his sins. This is very much the role taken by Osiris after
his death; he becomes the great judge, the master of eternity.
In Judaism, Jesus is the envoy of the God who will restore Israel to
its rights and inaugurate the era of justice.
For the Egyptians, justice is a goddess named Maât. She accompanies
Osiris at the time rendering Osirian justice in the hidden world of
Maât (justice) judges the soul of humans in proceeding to
the weighing of the heart of which Horus is the divine form, while
Osiris pronounces the judgment.
Again, the Bible, compiled by the Hebrew priests, does not miss the
opportunity to base itself on the esoteric Egyptian ideology:
"You are advised to regard it (the prophetic word) as a lamp shining
in a dark place, until the day begins to break and the Morning Star
(the Christ) rises in your hearts."
2 Peter 1.19
IAW (adoration, prayer)
The name of the Biblical god Yahvé
is clearly taken from the
Egyptian hieroglyph IAW.
From this term comes the name
of the Hebrew
priests named Yahouds (Judeans).
Parks cites Messod and Roger Sabbah (The Secrets of Exodus, 2000)
for the explanation that the Aramaic translation of the Bible
reveals that the Hebrews were the monotheistic "Yahoud" priests, the
Judean exiles from Egypt, who were previously the priests of Amon
and then of Aton, under the influence of Akhenaton, who transformed
Aton (the solar disk) into a unique god.
Another example of the deep ancient roots of elements of Jewish
culture is given by the Decoder for the common Jewish/Hebrew name
Cohen, widely understood to mean "priest".
And, speaking of priests and priestesses, Parks traces the
attributes of these highly significant functionaries or beings
through several cultures. Significant because their source is of
they didn't just arise out of nowhere, and if you
have considered much of the material on these pages, you will
probably agree they were not simply characters in "fairy tales". It
also is safe to say they were more than simple graduates of
Beyond all that, the attributes themselves have a continuity through
several cultures, and this can provide lines to very ancient times
We'll present this information and also trace concepts relating to
the "Messiah" (anointed) and the Christ in the following table:
Def: priest (masculine), annointed, ritual
purity by divine unction
Archaic sign: Egyptian ankh cross from which
will be taken the symbol representing
femininity and the planet Venus
This connects the Sumerian sign with the
Abzu, depicted in form of aquatic temples in
the human world.
|Purification of soul of
defunct attributed to goddesses Isis,
Nephtys, Maât and Heket, all carrying the
ankh, manifestation of the resurrection of
the soul in the Osirian cult.
|Drawn from information
about the ancient Abgal connected to the
aquatic cult of Enki-Ea.
Principal task: sing,
accompanied by corded instrument, harp.
Chants and lamentations accompanied burial
of the dead.
Chased the demons and protected the dead one
on his voyage.
This practice (KRST) associated with Sirius
through the Sirian connection of the Abgal
|Note: Enki-Ea responsible
for the Santana priestesses who harvested
agricultural products for the Gina'abul in
||Ex: Horus with mission to
avenge his father,
liberate people of Osiris-Enki oppressed by
cleanse his maternal family of dishonor
Plutarch in Isis and Osiris indicated
"God" introduced fruits of the earth to the
Osiris symbolized renewal of nature; every
Egyptian deceased carried his name.
As the first dead and resuscitated God,
considered the premier initiate of Egypt.
Believed to be inventor of wheat, which for
the Egyptians presaged immortality.
Egyptians celebrated the mysteries of the
passion, death, and resurrection of Osiris.
|Latin: annointed, blessed
by the Lord
He for whom one waits for salvation
Latin terms Messio (crop) and
Messis (produce of the Earth)
Note: Edin transformed to "Paradise"
Signs and Symbols: Further Notes...
Symbol of life and of goddess-priestesses
The symbol of life and the divine breath.
The ankh bow or knot accompanies all ritual ceremonies and figures
in numerous talismans and funerary objects.
Epithet of Osiris: "He who lives". Also in terms Ankhu and Ankhiu,
titles given to "blessed dead".
In the plan of a cathedral, the nave embodies the sign of the Ankh
with the elliptical choir placed along its "horizontal" axis and
perpendicular to the center aisle.
In Egyptian imagery, when a human (or divine) personage presents the
Ankh bow/knot to another personage, what is offered is life.
The Egyptian celebration of the resurrection of the dead king
through his son was conducted by goddess-priestesses carrying the
handled cross. The two KIR-IŠ-TI "ardent sons of life", Osiris and
Jesus, understood the resurrection in which actively participated
the saints, respectively Isis and Nephtys; Mary and Mary-Magdalene.
These feminine beings represent the Spirit, or the Holy Spirit of
Celebration of the Mystery of the Passion of Osiris
Begins with a ceremony for the ploughing and sowing. A
representation in gold of the mummy of Osiris is covered with
precious jewels and substances, wrapped in papyrus, immersed in a
On a certain day the image of Osiris is exposed to the
sun just before sunset, placed in a sacred bark surrounded in flames
that will enter the tomb of Osiris. Following that, the body of
Osiris is placed in a casket of mulberry wood and interred at the
same site used the previous year.
The past year's representation is
then placed against or enclosed in the interior of an Išed tree
("Tree of the Horizon", possibly willow or sycamore), symbol of the
divine or of the goddess. On the "30th", the day when the Nile's
flood turns, ceremonies associated with the burial of Osiris begin
in a subterranean chamber.
Please see the Decomposition into Sumerian/Akkadian of the Egyptian
term Išed. This derivation is key to the understanding of a major
point of this entire Mulge-Tab / Neb-Heru development and the myths
of the KIR-IŠ-TI.
The Egyptians saw the Išed as the "obstetrician" (there's probably a
better word for this) of the new sun, the birth issuing from the
opening or the bursting out of the tree of the horizon.
BLACK SUN - NAZI EMBLEM
It is well known that the "black
sun" theme was dear to the Nazis. Books have been written about
Parks acknowledges all this, while pointing out that the Nazis'
notion that this symbol is associated with renewal of life, is
actually of purely Egyptian origin, as it is found in the funerary
texts of ancient Egypt.
But for the Egyptians, the soul was aided in
transcending death by rising into the heaven, while the Nazis
provoked death to produce a renewal of their monstrous ideology.
example of an ancient and noble symbol being turned around by the
"forces of the shadow".
The star or celestial body symbolizing the the soul of the defunct,
in this case of Osiris who was transmuted into Benu (the Phoenix),
the guide of the celestial body of the night (Râ'af = black star),
finally transforming into the Morning Star, companion of the diurnal
Thanks to the KIR-IŠ-TI such as Osiris and
Jesus, death is no
longer considered a destruction but rather as a passage.
Assyro-Babylonian BAR or BA7
(soul, to liberate, to open or cleave)
This passage undertaken by the soul was scribed in clay by the
ancient Sumerians in the form shown at left.
The cross symbol is
related to the later Christian cross indicating the Son of God or
the passion of Christ.
Parks lists the many symbolic meanings of the cross symbol: the
meeting of Heaven and Earth, matter and spirit, feminine/unconscious
and masculine/conscious... and also a star that is the meeting point
of two worlds or crossed/opposed forces; higher and lower.
The Išed trees were planted at the summit of the butte/hill of
Osiris covering the aquatic tomb of the "god" of the abysses, the
Osireion at Abdju. The Išed, creator tree of the horizon gave birth
at once to the nocturnal and diurnal suns, confounded with Benu (the
Evening Star) and Neter Duau (Morning Star).
Needless to remind you
that Venus transmuted in the terrestrial world symbolizes Horus or
the dead king.
Recall that the tree symbolizes the Mother-Goddess.
The idea of the serpent suspended on a sacred tree placed between
light and darkness is found on a Mesopotamian cylinder seal and in
the story of the serpent (Enki-Ea) and the forbidden tree (the
Goddess) in the Garden of Eden.
Parks reviews the many treatments of this theme as it arises among
the Hebrews, Egyptian, Sumerians...
The larger mythological theme, he points out, is that of the
perpetual battle between the Osirian forces (Allies of the Light)
and the Sethians (Sons of Darkness).
The serpent is often replaced by Horus, the posthumous son of
Osiris, sometimes in the form of a falcon perched at the summit of
the sacred tree.
Possession of this tree of the eastern horizon constituted a capital
stake, the legitimate authority of Râ.
At this point in the development, Parks takes up again his
discussion of the Dogon and the Nommo (see Sign of the Fish, above),
citing Marcel Griaule's and Germaine Dieterlen's excellent
presentation of the myth of the Pale Fox' incest with Mother Earth
in their 1965 book, Le Renard Pâle. (Or see the 1986 paperback
This tradition, he says, will make it possible to
assimilate certain elements that we have just revealed, and to
discover how the history of the world according to the Dogon passed
from one state to another via the unfolding of an enormous cosmic
Readers without access to the book would do very well to review the
web page The Dogon and The Sirius B star, and particularly the
discussion of the Dogon's gods,
the Nommo, as being created by "Amma,
the celestial God and creator of the universe", and one of whom
rebelled and was "sacrificed" by Amma, his remains being cut up and
scattered throughout the universe.
Parks goes into some detail here as to how this was done, where each
scattered part went, and so forth.
We will see that the Dogon were
not by any means the only culture with this cosmological story. What
unifies the versions of it are not only the recognizable themes but
the linguistic roots of the terminologies used.
Here with the Dogon,
Parks shows the strong ties to Sumerian-Akkadian.
We have placed a
couple of key examples into the Decoder: decompositions of the names
of Annagonno, the sacrificed Nommo, and the tree Kilena to which he
was attached during the event.
Annagonno is of course Enki-Osiris; Amma is An; the "pale fox" is
Origins of the Planet Venus
In his opening section on this subject, Parks develops the direct
link between the sense of the Morning Star (Egyptian: Neter Duau)
and "the king", considered to be Horus (Heru), himself the image of
Neter Duau (Venus).
Births of the Venus Warriors
The progenitors of Venus all incarnate a being sacrificed in
connection with the world of the dead. This is true in all
traditions including those of Central America and Scandinavia.
They are also often associated with war or a particular conflict, as
with Ištar, Athena, Horus, Parashu-Râma, Lucifer.
The Hellenic form of the Babylonian Ištar (Venus) is Athena who
springs, "fully-armed", from the brow of Zeus (Jupiter).
The planet just before Jupiter (i.e., its "head") was the "black
star" Mulge, which ejected Venus from its original position as the
satellite of the exploded Mulge.
In Isis and Osiris, Plutarch cites Manethon's claim that the name
"Athena" in Greek evokes "a spontaneous movement". Now please have a
look in the Decoder at the translations of the Sumero-Akkadian
transpositions of "Athena".
The singular story of the head giving birth to a warrior goddess is
repeated in Indian mythology with the Goddess Kali in the Devi
Mahatmyam. Parks particularly calls attention to chapters 7.8 and
9.22, which we'll leave for you to view on that page.
KA-LI9, the "glimmering testimony" in Sumerian, danced frenetically
in the sky, excited by the ravages that she produced on her road.
Putting in peril the equilibrium of the Earth and of humanity, Shiva
lay down at her feet to arrest the destructive dance of the goddess
and the stupefying racket that she produced.
This infernal fracas of
which speak the texts of India is singularly present in the Sumerian
term MU7 which is equally written in the form KA-LI and of which the
sense is "to cry" and "to hurl"...
Kali is at once goddess of destruction and of creation.
generally represented as a frightening female, dressed in black,
which is to say obscurity, with shining, bloodshot eyes. In this
form, one can say that she has everything of a dark star! She
possesses four arms: two to destroy and two for offering.
carries a necklace of human skulls and dances on a skeleton. The
body on which she excites herself is generally equated to the body
of the universe in ruins. Others think that this corpse symbolizes
the death that she brings on her passage. More recent
representations connect this extended body to that of Shiva who lies
down under the goddess to stop her destructive agitation.
We will see in Volume 4 that Venus was effectively immobilized
However, given the circumstances of the creation of the goddess, we
retain here the presence of this "cadaver" as the corpse that gave
birth to Kali - the famous "head" of the Mother-Goddess that
engenders Kali in the version of Devi Mahatmyam, that which
corresponds to the head of the god-of-gods Zeus (Jupiter), which was
smashed and from which spurted forth Athena whose pronunciations in
Sumero-Akkadian give "the warrior" or "the cry of the lord-father"
or "that of the cadaver of the lord-father".
Head of Brahma, Mistress of Zeus
The head of the god-of-gods appeared in the Hindu literature as the
fifth and mysterious head of Brahma.
The Indian chronicles relate that Brahma, "the immense being",
possessed four heads placed at the cardinal points.
this "god" is considered to be the creator of everything, we can
equate him to the Jupiter (Zeus) of the Mediterranean traditions,
and the four heads would be the four satellites of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.
The Vedic texts say that one day, Brahma fashioned for himself a
fifth head with which to keep an eye on the goddess Sandhya
("twilight"). He was taken with her, united with her, and from this
union was born humanity.
Shiva-Rudra, the spouse of the goddess,
became immensely angry and let loose a flaming arrow that cut off
the fifth head of Brahma.
The key point for us is that the fifth head of the Indian Jupiter
was said to "keep an eye on" the goddess of "dawn", which is to say
to follow her cult - for which reason Shiva-Rudra smashed it.
We know that in the Egyptian mythology, Isis represents the dawn and
Nephtys the twilight. [The two pieces of wood that form the Arani
(the two mothers) of Agni (Horus) are correctly assimilated to "the
dawn" and "the twilight" in the Vedas...]
The Egyptian traditions make of Nephtys the ancient spouse of Seth (Enlíl)
or sometimes his sister. We have seen in this book [Ádam Genisiš]
that Nephtys corresonds to Innin (Inanna), the "spouse" of the
system of Enlíl, without taking into account that she is also
The Egyptians simply made her the spouse of Seth.
This story seems to us much more coherent when one recalls the
hidden liaisons betwen Osiris and Nephtys (Enki and Innin)...
We saw in this work [Ádam Genisiš] that Innin is not without her
connection with the fall of the Amašutum cult on the Earth. The
explosion of Mulge (the black star) which was the planet between
Mars and Jupiter, resulted from this fall and this intestinal war
among the Gina'abul.
Shiva-Rudra (Enlíl-Seth) is definitely the
personage who made the decision to destroy the planet of the Life
Parks next points out an astonishingly-relevant fact:
the highest caste of India, claim to have been issued from the Head
And this, as Parks has been showing us, is none other
than Mulge, the planet of the Kadištu, which was in front of Brahma
(Jupiter), and which Shiva-Rudra (Enlíl-Seth) was charged with
The Brahmans were for a long time farmers and shepherds, and this is
in complete concordance with the teaching of the Life Designers of
our story, as well as the Nommos of the Dogon, but particularly with
"discipline of the Santana-Šandan Amašutum as chiefs of
plantations and cultivations, herbalists, etc..."
John McKirdy Duncan
Returning to the Greek versions, there is the story of the death of
a sacrificed "entity" who birthed a divinity who had to flee, to
escape the wrath of the "gods".
This is the account of Semele,
mistress of Zeus.
The story relates that Zeus was quite taken with the princess Semele.
He loved her so much that he showered her with gifts. When Hera, the
wife of Zeus-Jupiter, learned of the infidelity of the king of gods,
she disguised herself as Beroe, Semele's nurse.
She called on the
princess to prove her love. Semele then went to Zeus-Jupiter and
asked him to show himself to her in his full splendor.
Zeus did so
and presented himself ringed in a blinding light, with his lightning
and flashes. In a single instant the body of Semele was consumed. It
is said that the tomb of the princess continued to smolder even long
after her death.
Zeus just had time to retrieve from the womb of Semele, Dionysos,
the son whom she had conceived with him.
The king of gods hid him in
his thigh before transforming him into a kid [young goat], so as to
escape the wrath of Hera. In that form, Dionysus fled to distant
lands and followed his mad course.
In the process, he descended to
the underworld to retrieve his mother from the kingdom of darkness,
and carried her to Olympus, where Zeus gave her immortality under
the name of Thyone.
"Jupiter and Semele".
At center appears the little Dionysos.
His aspect recalls the Benu (Phoenix)...
This version is infinitely singular, because it portrays Jupiter
(Zeus) as being at once responsible for and spectator of the
As with the Nommos' variant of the sacrifice, the
king of the gods will utilize light to immolate the victim. From
this victim will come an infant who will follow a mad course, in
this instance to escape divine anger. In each case, the infant will
be preserved for some time before embarking on its crazy course.
The same notion is found in the Dogons' version which represents
that "out of the flow of blood from the sacrifice of the Nommo
sprang Yazu (Venus) in its obscure (invisible) position". This
implies that Venus knows moments of invisibility on its cosmic
The personage of Dionysus is among the most interesting. Greek
mythology has him stricken with dementia. He roamed over the world,
his story full of mysterious voyages. In the course of his
movements, he taught agriculture to humanity. Diverse paintings
generally depict Dionysus as a cherub coming out of his mother,
either weeping for his dying progenitor, or embarking on his mad
course, spreading his wings to leave her blasted remains.
For example, the tableau
Sémélé et Jupiter by painter François Marot
in the Trianon.
Inanna-Ištar, the Morning and the Evening Star
Parks' work, where concerned with the mythologies of ancient
humanity, differs from all other studies of mythology of which we
are aware, in that personages begin in Parks' consciousness as full
flesh-and-blood beings, but only over vast periods of time give rise
to the myths that our historians know.
These beings enjoy a
near-immortality, either as birthright or through some sort of
technology, although they can be killed. Given enough time, this is
fairly likely to take place, but only perhaps after lifetimes
measured in hundreds of millennia.
The genesis of the corresponding mythological personages could have
been through the natural social processes as understood today, but
could also have been contrived by the actual characters or their
peers. Sometimes, given the eventual size of Earth's civilizations,
the myths coexisted with the living personalities; sometimes they
simply followed on later.
We must be careful to discern the mode in which Parks works at one
time or another.
For example, he opens the current section on
Inanna-Istar with the words...
Inanna is according to the evidence a very ancient divinity, because
her name appears from the period of Uruk in the 4th millennium B.C.E.
Parks employs here a conventional meaning of "ancient".
has his own direct experiences that have come to him, many from
seemingly far more ancient periods, which form the basis of many
references in his books.
She is a dominant goddess who reigned over the gods, having neither
husband nor progeny.
In the Bible (Jeremiah 7.18 and 44.19), it is
she, as "Queen of Heaven", to whom women offer kneaded cakes in her
image, in the temples. Manasses had erected in Jerusalem the post
that symbolized her, and at the same time, he installed in the
Temple his idol, the one which without doubt Ezekiel calls "the idol
of jealousy" because he enflamed the anger of the
jealous god Yahvé
in the Bible.
Inanna supported the cult of the Mother-goddess and fought against
the ancient patriarchal dogma. This brought her singular reprisals
from the "gods" in the Mesopotamian texts, and also from the adepts
of Yahvé in the Bible.
Uruk, the town designated to her, is the city
of "prostitutes and daughters of joy" where women were instructed in
the initiation of men into sacred sexuality...
The presence of terms designating prostitutes and priestesses in the
lexical lists of the middle Babylonian epoch poses the problem of
the status of these women. But one notes that this groups together
all these women who actually are in different situations. The
equivalences established, for example, between the Šamhatu [a class
of temple prostitute] and the religious Qadištu [see Decoder] do not
correspond to what is known of each of these.
This must arise from
the fact that at a point in time, the religious functions of each
had lapsed into disuse and were no longer included, only retaining
the idea that the priestesses formed together a separate class of
women, exempt at times from the framework of marriage.
The majority of them worked in the temples where they practiced
sacred sexuality. These priestesses were the image of the great
goddess. In this work, we have associated Nebet-Hut (Nephtys) with
This association is even more striking when we
understand that Nebet-Hut signifies "goddess of the temple" and that
Nephtys is always represented with the symbol of the cup on her
Inanna-Ištar is the divinity who occupies the greatest number of
Mesopotamian myths, be they of secondary level or in the principal
The important place held by Inanna-Ištar in the feminine
pantheon led to a designation of goddesses in general under the
common name Ištarâtu. At Sumer as at Akkad, she incarnated the
planet Dilbat (Venus) or Ištar-Kakkabu.
Where one wishes to speak of
the planet from the strictly astronomical point of view, one calles
it Dilbat, but the religious philosophy loves to confound the planet
Venus and the goddess Ištar.
An (the king of the gods) invites the gods to give to Innin the name
"Ištar of the stars", being "the most brilliant among them". It is
Venus who shows the route of the stars.
Dilbat, as the Evening Star, will be the Ištar of Uruk. As the
Morning Star, she will be the Ištar of Akkad.
The goddess herself
sings the double aspect of her nature:
"It is I, the queen of the
sky, the Goddess of the Twilight. It is I, the queen of the sky, the
Goddess of the Dawn."
It would be difficult to provide a better
description of the omnipresent character of Inanna in the universe
than to identify her with the planet that shines and is,
from one end to the other of the countries".
In this form, she draws
the admiration and the veneration of men who exalt her beauty.
Goddess of the Evening, she consecrates herself to the favoring of
love, of voluptuousness but also of premonitory dreams.
Morning, she will preside over the works of war and carnage.
Parks continues this section with more examples from the mythology
of Inanna-Ištar, establishing not only the character herself, but
the logic of the choice of this particular character to personify
the heavenly appearance of the planet Venus.
We learn of her support
of agrarian activities, her teachings on the subject of human
nutritional needs... and this in so many cultures, including those
of the East and of Central America.
And of course, there is the
angry, warrior aspect.
Parks concludes with a most important observation: nothing
corresponding to Venus appears in the Babylonian mythology nor in
any mythology from periods prior to 3000-2500 B.C.E! Moreover, when
it does appear, Venus is described as coming from the depths of the
universe to rend the sky and trouble humanity. And this gave rise to
the need for many hymns of praise, intended to appease this
Chaos and Resurrection
Traces of Mulge and His Son
The Mesopotamian tablets indicate that Neberu (or Nibiru) is an
errant "star" that periodically upsets the affairs of gods and
humans. His origin is "the place of the celestial battle".
localization is extremely important, because it brings to mind beyond
a shadow of a doubt the tree Išed of the Egyptian traditions, the
shattered axis of the eastern horizon.
Keep in mind that this
opening is carried out under the command of Amon (Jupiter), the King
of the Gods.
Mulge, Mulge-Tab, and Venus
As we have seen, Parks has demonstrated a widespread identification
among ancient peoples of the planet Venus with a rampaging sky-god
whose birth and life cycle were associated with a great cosmic
event, the "explosion" of the planet Mulge ("Black Star") and the
launching of its satellite Mulge-Tab ("Companion of Mulge") onto a
new solar orbital path.
This "explosion" (the word is in quotes because it might possibly
have been a slow-motion event) was perpetrated on the Mulge system
by the Ušumgal, according to Parks' memory as mediated by the GÍRKŮ.
In this section we will examine the sequence from an
astronomical/astrophysical point of view, with the intent of
assessing the possibility that destruction in the Mulge system could
eventually have ramifications on Earth. We'll include some thoughts
about what might have been within the capabilities of the Ušumgal.
However, any specific information that Parks could contribute to
this aspect is still being developed for use in his forthcoming
book, The Awakening of the Phoenix, Volume 3 of the series.
Please review the section on Ti-ama-te, describing our solar system
prior to the explosion of Mulge.
This will give you a sense of the
awesome greatness of Mulge within the larger galactic community, and
in fact of our entire system before the invasion, hence the
dimension of tragedy that ensued, but also will help you to
visualize the relative sizes of the planets and their sequence of
orbits in this system.
As to planetary sizes and orbital dimensions, we assume that those
observed today for all planets other than Venus, such as can be
found listed at Orbits and Properties of the Planets, are valid for
the initial period - the pre-explosion epoch.
Information that we can deduce for Mulge and Mulge-Tab/Venus has to
be considered purely notional. But we can do better than simple
Parks recalls Mulge as being slightly larger than Saturn, and so it
shall be in our picture of Ti-ama-te. We estimate the radius of
Mulge to be about 65,000 km. We are probably safe in assuming
Mulge's orbit to be approximately aligned with the ecliptic since
all the other planetary orbits (except that of Pluto, which is no
longer considered to be a planet anyway) are so aligned, and so is
the main asteroid belt, which we think is derived from the explosion
The main asteroid belt occupies a ring of radius 2-4 astronomical
units (AU) around the Sun, and so we assign a radius of about 3 AU
or, say, 450 million km to the orbit of Mulge.
What might have been the characteristics of Mulge-Tab's orbit around
The first bit of data from the present-day Venus' orbit that we
might apply would be its orientation to the ecliptic plane, just as
we did with the asteroids for Mulge. So we will say that Mulge-Tab's
orbit was parallel to the ecliptic.
Its radius? Taking a look at Jupiter, the next planet out, we find
that its two largest moons, Ganymede and Callisto, are of nearly the
same size and orbits of distance 1,100,000 and 1,900,000 km from
Although the radius of Venus (Mulge-Tab) at 6052
km is much larger - 2.3 or 2.4 times larger - than those of the
two largest Jupiter moons, we will take the hint and give Mulge-Tab
an orbital radius of around 1,500,000 km.
In this section we will develop the concept of Venus as an ejection
from the Mulge system in a sequence of graphics with discussions,
including relevant orbital mechanics where indicated.
View onto the ecliptic plane showing the orbits of Uraš
(Earth) and Mulge.
At this scale, the planets themselves are not
nor would the Sun be visible, except for the fact that it
We show the Sun as a white dot, not to scale.
Kinks in orbits are a graphic artifact.
The orbits depicted in Fig. MMTV-1 are of course mathematical
It might have been more precise to show them as very
thin circles or ellipses. But we are using 3-D modelling software
that requires us to depict them as tori, of sufficient thickness to
make them visible. Still, they are rather "thin" tori (i.e., their
cross-sections are small relative to the image size).
There is a benefit to this graphical method. Suppose we searched
along the Mulge orbit for the planet Mulge itself - we know it is
in the image, because we put it there.
If we then zoomed in
sufficiently to show Mulge, the "orbit torus" would appear very
thick indeed, and since we had not changed its scale from what it
was in the previous image, the relative sizes of Mulge and the orbit
torus would allow us to grasp the scale of Mulge in the solar system
That is what we have done in the following illustration.
Close-up view of Mulge's orbit, showing Mulge
Mulge-Tab's proposed orbit around Mulge.
Its orbit was not visible
in the previous image.
Mulge-Tab itself is still not visible at this
"Explosion" of Mulge
Mulge "exploding" and somewhat expanded from its normal
Mulge-Tab, shown to scale, is just visible at the top.
Dispensing with the orbits now, the Fig. MMTV-3 at right shows Mulge
and for the first time we can see Mulge-Tab, at the
And now we are in a position to discuss some very important matters.
We are of course interested in learning whatever we can about how Mulge was destroyed, but even more directly important to us is the
effect of that event on Mulge-Tab, because we think it is Mulge-Tab
that at some later point, and perhaps more than once, came near Uraš
(the Earth), and became identified with today's planet Venus.
Look at the image. At this stage, Mulge has been reduced to
fragments that have begun to disperse and will continue to do so.
The fragments will eventually stabilize in individual solar orbits,
perhaps many of them as today's asteroids.
Now, it is possible that
the forces that destroyed Mulge were large and explosive enough to
quickly send a wave of fragments and some sort of energy out to the
distance of Mulge-Tab, instantly throwing it off its course. That
would have required a much greater release of energy than just
enough to totally destroy Mulge.
We don't know if that much energy was available. But since we don't
know, we must allow for that possibility. Later on this page, we
will designate the type of event in which the effect on Mulge-Tab
was virtually instantaneous as a "Type 1 collision" between Mulge
remains and Mulge-Tab.
It might be reasonable to consider that Mulge expanded "slowly",
leading in the extreme to what we will call a "Type 2 collision".
Assuming it did so in a radially-symmetric manner (an assumption not
fully justified, but a good first approximation to what may have
happened), then Mulge-Tab's orbit would not have changed until
significant amounts of Mulge's remains (i.e., a significant fraction
of its mass) moved beyond the orbit of Mulge-Tab, and Mulge-Tab's
orbit finally began to expand in response.
We are going to have to
estimate the probability of any sizable piece of Mulge striking
Mulge-Tab in this process. Assuming for the moment that Mulge broke
up into a relatively small number of large fragments, and that there
was no such collision with them, then Mulge-Tab's orbit simply
expanded in response to the continuing diffusing mass of Mulge.
As Mulge-Tab moved farther and farther from the center of this
diffusing Mulge mass, its orbital path trended toward an open curve,
and it gradually became more subject to the gravitational influence
of the Sun.
Another way of putting this is to say that when the total
gravitational field, at Mulge-Tab's position, of the portion of
Mulge contained within its orbit, has become less than the
gravitational field of the Sun at that position, then Mulge-Tab is
in a solar orbit.
What are the parameters of that orbit? Our task is to explore the
ways in which Mulge-Tab might enter such a solar orbit, and the
range of possible orbital parameters, to learn whether it was
possible or even likely that Mulge-Tab would eventually cross Uraš'
orbit, and encounter Uraš itself.
Note that any close encounter and exchange of energy and momentum
with another planetary object is going to change Mulge-Tab's orbit
beyond anything we could guess. Therefore we will not be able to say
anything at all about a sequence of close encounters, except to note
that such sequences are possible.
To begin our exploration, let us collect some elemental data that we
either "know" (e.g., if we assume that Venus was once Mulge-Tab), or
can obtain through combining what we "know" with what Parks
"remembers", and with what we can compute using basic astronomical
information and equations (as may be found here and here).
spare the reader the details at this time but offer them in a
separate paper that will be prepared for online viewing and/or be
included in Parks' next published book.
Orbital Speed S
5.21 earth yrs
7.6 earth days
An important note about the overall geometry: we assume that all of
this is confined to (approximately) the plane of the ecliptic.
is justified for Mulge itself by virtue of the fact that the orbits
of all the other planets (except for that of Pluto, no longer
considered a planet anyway) in the solar system are confined to that
As to Mulge-Tab, had it been a satellite of Jupiter, it would have
been classified as a Galilean type, such as Callisto or Ganymede,
each of which has an orbital inclination of only about 1/4 degree
from the plane of the ecliptic. Thus it is not unreasonable to guess
that Mulge-Tab's orbit was in the plane of the ecliptic as well.
All of our work, then, will be in two dimensions.
Of the data given in the table above, the "mean orbital speed S"
- the tangential velocities of Mulge and Mulge-Tab within their
respective orbits - is of immediate importance, because these will
determine whether Mulge-Tab enters an elliptical orbit with
perihelion equal to or less than the radius of Earth's orbit. If
that is the case, then an eventual encounter becomes possible.
Note also that in the above tables, "earth days" and "earth years"
indicates their modern values. The units are offered simply for help
in visualization. The very length of the earth year is to be a
subject of discussion in this section, as it is in the literature of
Velikovsky and others.
One final important note:
in the tables we assume that, having
identified Venus with Mulge-Tab, we can take the mass of Mulge-Tab
as the mass of today's Venus.
But it develops, as will be seen, that
in one possible scenario, Mulge-Tab picked up a significant amount
of mass from Mulge fragmentary material, and hence originally (prior
to the Mulge explosion) had much different characteristics from
When we realized such a thing had been possible, we had to question
our entire analysis up to that point.
However we also realized that
the scenario in question may not have actually occurred. Therefore
our response has been to stay with our analysis on a contingent
basis, but as a separate step to look for signs that the worrisome
scenario did occur.
This step is beyond the scope of the present web
page, but will probably be covered in the material being offered for
inclusion in Volume 3.
Simplified diagram of Mulge-Tab at moment of release
from Mulge orbit,
entering generic elliptical solar orbit.
Fig. MMTV-4 illustrates a simple entry of Mulge-Tab into an
elliptical solar orbit immediately upon the disappearance of Mulge,
around which Mulge-Tab had been orbiting. This is a sort of
zero-order approximation to the event.
We depict as a pair of magenta-colored vectors the velocity of Mulge-Tab
at that moment in its components parallel (vM-T,r) and perpendicular
(vM-T,t) to a radius or line drawn from the Sun.
These motions are
themselves the sums of motions of the Mulge system (Mulge and any
satellites, etc.) in its solar orbit, and Mulge-Tab in its orbit
around Mulge. Note that the Mulge system, being in what we state to
be a circular orbit, has zero radial velocity.
Notice also that in this example, Mulge-Tab's solar orbit has the
form of a highly eccentric ellipse, and this causes Mulge-Tab to
cross the orbit of Uraš (Earth) - because its perihelion, its
closest approach to the sun - falls inside Uraš' orbit. With such
an orbit there is the possibility or probability of an eventual
encounter of Mulge-Tab with Uraš. It is not the only class of orbit
that would have been possible.
Another possibility would have been
for Mulge-Tab's orbit to be much less eccentric, say, like that of
Mulge, which would never cross the path of Uraš.
Or it might have heen hyperbolic - an open shape that would have taken it away from
the solar system on a one-way outbound journey. We are going to have
to determine the possibilities of Mulge-Tab's entering these various
types of orbits.
Close-up of Mulge/Mulge-Tab system at idealized moment
All orbits are traversed in the counter-clockwise
To begin, we take a closer look at the composite motion of Mulge-Tab
at its moment of release.
Fig. MMTV-5 shows a ghostly Mulge that has
by some means just disappeared. It had been traveling along in its
orbit at a speed of 17.2 km/sec. Mulge-Tab had been confined to the
bright green orbit around Mulge at a speed of 14.3 km/sec, but has
just now been released to a new path, the white curve.
Although the directions of the motions are constantly changing, at
this instant they can be conveniently oriented with respect to the
radial from the Sun. Thus Mulge and its entire system were moving
with an average velocity of 17.2 km/sec in a direction transverse to
the radial from the Sun.
We designate this as follows:
vM,r = 0
vM,t = 17.2 km/sec
Mulge-Tab participated in this motion, but also had its own orbital
motion within the Mulge system.
It was moving tangentially at 14.3
km/sec, and this was at angle f with respect to the solar radial:
vM-T,r = 14.3 sin f km/sec
vM-T,t = 17.2 - 14.3 cos f km/sec
What are the parameters of the new Mulge-Tab orbit?
We will need to
know, if we are to be able to decide whether Mulge-Tab could have
eventually had a close encounter with Uraš. As is shown in Fig.
MMTV-4, if a "small" object enters a closed orbit around a large one
(i.e., the mass of the "small" one is much smaller than the mass of
the "large" one), the orbit takes the form of an ellipse of some
size characterized by its semi-major axis "a" and eccentricity "e".
According to basic principles of celestial mechanics, these can
easily be computed from information that we have already developed
on this page, along with the mass of the Sun, and a quantity known
as "The Universal Gravitational Constant".
click here to see how all of these quantities are related.
Notice that the velocity components of Mulge-Tab at time of release
are related to its angular position f, as mentioned above. We have
to presume that this angle's value was not selected by the Ušumgal.
In fact, since f is itself a parameter of our simplistic
"instantaneous Mulge-disappearance" model, which is not necessarily
itself correct, we should not at this point be second-guessing how
it might or might not have been chosen by anyone.
But we will
examine the model shortly.
From inspection of Mulge-Tab's full orbit shown in Fig. MMTV-4, its
perihelion is just,
Rper = a(1-e)
The values of a and e vary with the angle f. We examine this,
looking to see if for any values of f, the perihelion of Mulge-Tab
falls within the radius of Earth's orbit (1.5 x 1011 meters).
Here are the results of that computation:
Semi-Major Axis a
So, yes, in this first simplified situation, for some values of f,
an eventual encounter can occur.
Those values range out to about f =
+/- 65 deg, as shown in Fig. MMTV-6, beyond which the orbit would be
hyperbolic. For magnitudes of f < 45 deg, the perihelion exceeds the
radius of Earth's orbit and so no collision would be possible.
This means that original positions of Mulge-Tab occupying some 11%
of the full circle of phi would likely lead to an eventual
interaction - even a highly destructive interaction - with Uraš.
Would this have been a consideration for Enlil, who probably was
hoping to escape this solar system eventually anyway?
Perihelion of Mulge-Tab's orbit (meters) vs. f, deg.
show a range of f encompassing values for which eccentricity
between 0 and 1 - that is, out to about +/- 65 deg.
(and a bit more
for clarity in reading the presentation).
The green rectangle shows
the area from perihelion = 0 out to the radius of Earth's orbit.
Note that a negative perihelion is self-contradictory;
not be associated with an elliptical orbit.
Our next task is to consider more realistic "explosion" scenarios.
For example, we know that Mulge did not simply vanish when
destroyed. Rather, it was reduced to fragments that either slowly or
quickly moved away from what had been its center.
Would any of these
fragments have collided with Mulge-Tab? This is an important
question, because in a collision, there would have been an exchange
of angular momentum and kinetic energy between the colliding
Suppose Mulge had been broken into just two fragments. That would be
the minimum, as "one fragment" would mean no explosion or
destruction had taken place.
If Mulge had been broken into two fragments, how likely would it
have been for one of them to have collided with Mulge-Tab?
Without any analysis other than a look at the images we have
provided of these two objects in their original positions, it is
clear that a collision at the distance of Mulge-Tab would have been
highly unlikely. In that case, our discussion of the event,
developed on this page, would be good enough to use.
Suppose, on the other hand, there had been a rather extreme
fragmentation of Mulge. Can we guess what the sizes of these
fragments might possibly have been?
Well, yes, if we take the distribution of sizes of asteroids as a
strong hint, since they presumably all were once a part of Mulge. A
caution here: the combined masses of all known asteroids is less
than that of our Moon. So are the ones we see in the asteroid belt a
good example of the fragmentation of Mulge?
We don't really know, but it is probably beyond the scope of this
discussion to try to ascertain a complete answer to that question.
Therefore, let us look at the asteroids, and there we find that the
typical diameter of an asteroid is around 1 km. So we will take that
to be the size of our Mulge fragments.
Assuming that the fragments move out from the Mulge center uniformly
in all directions, we can begin to see the possibilities for
collisions with Mulge-Tab.
It is not a simple problem, because it depends on the relative
speeds of the outgoing fragments and Mulge-Tab in its orbit.
Suppose that the outgoing speed of the fragments is very high. Then
any fragments that were passing through the part of space occupied
by Mulge-Tab at that moment would collide, giving up all of its
kinetic energy to Mulge by imparting a velocity change in the
outward radial direction. We should be able to calculate the
fraction of Mulge mass that does this (i.e., collides). Let's call
this a collision of Type 1.
On the other hand, the fragments could be moving so slowly that they
impart zero kinetic energy in terms of adding a radial velocity
component, but some of them do, at some point, "stand in the path of
Mulge-Tab", and collide in such a way as to join with Mulge-Tab and
share its angular momentum.
That will be a collision of Type 2.
Type 1 Collision
We can easily calculate the total mass of Mulge fragments that
collide with Mulge-Tab.
We know that they all, at some time, will
pass through a spherical shell centered on Mulge's center, with the
radius of Mulge-Tab's orbit. The fraction of that shell occupied by
the projected area of Mulge-Tab will be the fraction of Mulge's mass
that will collide with Mulge-Tab.
Using data already provided on this page, we calculate the
Total area of spherical shell at Mulge-Tab's orbit = 2.8x1013 km2
Projected area of Mulge-Tab = 1.15x108 km2
Fraction of Mulge that collides with Mulge-Tab = 4.1x10-6
Mass of Mulge = 4.6x1027 kg
Mass of Mulge that collides with Mulge-Tab ~ 2x1022 kg
That last number is key. Everything we have shown about the path of
Mulge-Tab after the loss of Mulge now has to be adjusted to reflect
what happens when that amount of Mulge matter collides with Mulge-Tab.
Note that this is 0.4% of the mass of Mulge-Tab as given on this
page. Could that relatively-small amount of mass have enough kinetic
energy to significantly change the motion of Mulge-Tab once
Of course, that depends on its velocity, as in the
Kinetic Energy = 1/2 mv2
...for an object of mass m, traveling at velocity v.
We do not know what its velocity might have been, but let's
determine what it would have needed to be, to carry 10% of the
kinetic energy of Mulge-Tab.
Sparing you the algebra, it works out to be 5 x the velocity of
Mulge-Tab at the moment of encounter. That is, since Mulge-Tab's
velocity was 17.2 km/sec, the Mulge fragments would need to have
been traveling outward at 86 km/sec to increase Mulge-Tab's kinetic
energy by 10%.
Is that a realistic velocity for these fragments? Have we discussed
the mechanism that was used for destroying Mulge? We have not, yet.
However, achieving an outward velocity of 86 km/sec would appear to
require much more energy than just enough to shatter Mulge. And so
it seems safe to work with a velocity of 86 km/sec as a conservative
figure for estimating the effect of the Type 1 collision on the path
This collision results in a small adjustment to Mulge-Tab's
velocity, radially outward from the original Mulge center. Except
for that adjustment, the no-collision analysis made at the beginning
of this study will prevail.
What is the effect of the radial velocity adjustment? Recall that in
the basic no-collision case, values of f close to 0/360 degrees
result in the lowest subsequent perihelion for Mulge-Tab, because
the effect of the "missing Mulge" left Mulge-Tab with a residual
motion component retrograde to its solar orbit.
The Type 1 collision creates an actual push on Mulge-Tab, and its
retrograde component is greatest for f = 90 degrees. That is, it is
greatest if it occurs when Mulge-Tab is at the point in its Mulge
orbit characterized by f = 90 degrees (see Fig. MMTV-5).
So in general, the Type 1 collision seems to shift the value of f
resulting in the minimum perihelion toward 90 degrees. How great
this effect would be, depends on the velocity of the Mulge
fragments, which we do not know, but we can guess that this will
actually turn out to be rather small.
At any rate, it is not very important because the probabilities of
various perihelion values are actually not affected, only the
associated values of f, which are probably of no interest.
Type 2 Collision
A first plume of Mulge's fragment cloud crosses the
orbit (shown in green) of Mulge-Tab (orange).
Eventually the entire
cloud will cross the spherical shell
containing Mulge-Tab's orbit
but of course only a small fraction
of the Mulge fragments will
cross the orbit itself.
Those will all be swept up by Mulge-Tab
since in the Type 2 encounter
they move extremely slowly.
add to Mulge-Tab's mass
but will leave its kinetic energy unchanged.
This results in a predictable reduction in Mulge-Tab's speed.
The event we name "Type 1 collision" represents one extreme of a
continuum of possibilities relating to how rapidly the exploded
Mulge expands and crosses over the Mulge-Tab orbital shell (i.e.,
imaginary sphere centered on the unexploded Mulge, with radius equal
to that of Mulge-Tab's orbit).
In this extreme, the radial velocity
of the Mulge fragments is so great that Mulge-Tab by comparison is
stationary in its orbit.
In the complementary event, the "Type 2 collision", the fragments
move so slowly that when they encounter Mulge-Tab it is as though
they are stationary. Of course, had they been perfectly stationary,
they would never have even gotten there! So we are speaking in
Eventually all Mulge fragments cross over and beyond the Mulge-Tab
Assuming their angular distribution is uniform, we
can easily calculate that fraction of them that enter not only the
orbital shell, but the orbital ring itself (shown in green in Fig.
MMTV-7). Understand that the ring has a finite cross-section; it is
after all swept out by the body of Mulge-Tab. It is in fact a torus.
All fragments entering that torus will be swept up by the much more
rapidly-moving Mulge-Tab before they can reach the far side.
In a first-order approximation, these fragments are stationary when
encountered by Mulge-Tab. They have, then, no kinetic energy, and so
add none to the planetoid.
But they do add their mass. How much mass would that be? The total
amount of mass contributed by Mulge to Mulge-Tab in this way, is
just the fraction that encounters the Mulge-Tab torus.
The fraction is easily calculated.
Replace the torus with a circle of flat ribbon whose width is the
diameter of Mulge-Tab. Designate the radius of this circle as RM,M-T
(= 1.5 x 106 km). Designate the radius of Mulge-Tab as RM-T (= 6050
The fraction in which we are interested is simply the ratio of the
areas of the ribbon and the sphere. Again, leaving out some simple
algebra for the energetic reader to perform, that ratio of areas is
just the ratio of two radii, and is given by,
RM-T / RM,M-T ~ 4 x 10-3
...and since we have the mass of Mulge as 4.6 x 1027 kg, we can
immediately state that Mulge-Tab picks up about 2 x 1025
kg of Mulge
Since the kinetic energy of Mulge-Tab has not been altered by its
encounter with the fragments, but it has a new greater mass, its
velocity must have decreased as a result of the fragment encounters.
By how much? Again, leaving the simple algebra to the reader,
new velocity / old velocity = Ö (old mass / new mass) = Ö (1/5) = .45
Have you noticed something quite remarkable about what we have just
Yes, the speed of Mulge-Tab is eventually more than halved, but much
more importantly, the mass of Mulge fragments accreting to Mulge-Tab
is four times the original mass of Mulge-Tab itself!
This means that the analysis of the Type 2 encounter will be much
more complex than that of the Type 1, because during the long period
of time that Mulge-Tab takes to acquire its new mass, it is
deviating, probably greatly, from its original orbit. That is due
not only to its declining speed, but to the slowly-diminishing
amount of Mulge mass remaining inside the orbital sphere.
beyond the sphere, it is no longer part of the gravitational center
of the Mulge/Mulge-Tab system.
Furthermore, if Mulge-Tab is changing size due to the accreting
matter, then of course the area representing its orbital torus (and
thus the fraction of fragments being intercepted) is also changing,
and dramatically at that!
What all of this means is that we do not yet have a way to analyze a
Type 2 encounter.
Of course, we do not know if the pure Type 2 encounter even
happened. One reason to think it did not, is that the accreted mass
on Mulge-Tab would probably not have been uniformly distributed
around its surface, and so today's Venus would be seen to be
seriously out-of-round. It is not.
But suppose the encounter was something between pure Type 1 and pure
Type 2. Would we be able to predict the result of that, on a
continuum of encounter types?
The answer is, probably yes, but that is not a project for this web
page at this time.
This issue will be discussed more fully in a forthcoming research
publication by Anton Parks.
A somewhat anomalous synchronous "locking" exists between the
rotations on their axes of Earth and Venus.
The following is from Wikipedia:
A curious aspect of Venus' orbit and rotation periods is that the
583.92-day interval between successive close approaches to the Earth
is almost exactly equal to 5 Venusian solar days (precisely,
5.001444 of these), making approximately the same face visible from
Earth at each close approach.
Whether this relationship arose by
chance or is the result of some kind of tidal locking with the Earth
is unknown. 
 Gold T., Soter S. (1969), Atmospheric tides and the resonant
rotation of Venus, Icarus, v. 11, p 356-366
Tidal locking comes about through variations in gravitational
attraction between specific portions of nearby astronomical bodies.
The effect would appear problematic to say the least at the current
distance of Venus from Earth.
We'll keep this "curious aspect" in mind for further study and
discussion if it should turn out to be relevant in terms of one or
more close encounters having taken place between Venus and Earth in
relatively recent times (i.e., about 10,000 years ago).